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'^.^'"■^: '^^i^V . iL. 

Library of Technology 








Mediums: Copyright, 1919, by International Textbook Company. Copyright in 

Great Britain. 
Catalogs, Booklets, and Folders, Part 1: Copyright, 1909, 1919, by International 

Textbook Company. Copyright in Great Britain. 
Catalogs, Booklets, and Folders, Part 2: Copyright, 1909, 191S, by International 

Textbook Company. Copyright in Great Britain. 
Direct Advertising: Copyright, 191S, by International Textbook Company. 

Copyright in Great Britain. 
Management of General Campaigns, Parts 1 and 2: Copyright, 1909, 1916, by 

International Textbook Company. Copyright in Great Britain. 
Management of General Campaigns, Part 3: Copyright, 1916, by International 

Textbook Company. Copyright in Great Britain. 

All rights reserved 

. Press of 
International Textbook Company 
Scranton, Pa. 



The volumes of the International Library of Technology are 
made up of Instruction Papers, or Sections, comprising the 
various courses of instruction for students of the International 
Correspondence Schools. The original manuscripts are pre- 
pared by persons thoroughly qualified both technically and by 
experience to write with authority, and in many cases they are 
regularly employed elsewhere in practical work as experts. 
The manuscripts are then carefully edited to make them suit- 
able for correspondence instruction. The Instruction Papers 
are written clearly and in the simplest language possible, so as 
to make them readily understood by all students. Necessary 
technical expressions are clearly explained when introduced. 

The great majority of our students wish to prepare them- 
selves for advancement in their vocations or to qualify for 
more congenial occupations. Usually they are employed and 
able to devote only a few hours a day to study. Therefore 
every effort must be made to give them practical and accurate 
information in clear and concise form and to make this infor- 
mation include all of the essentials but none of the non- 
essentials. To make the text clear, illustrations are used 
freely. These illustrations are especially made by our own 
Illustrating Department in order to adapt them fully to the 
requirements of the text. 

In the table of contents that immediately follows are given 
the titles of the Sections included in this volume, and under 
each title are listed the main topics discussed. At the end of 
the volume will be found a complete index, so that any subject 
treated can be quickly found. 

International Textbook Company 






Mediums . Section Page 

Functions, Selection, and Use of Mediums. . 16 1 

Classification and Description of Mediums. .16 11 

Selection of Mediums 16 23 

General Tests of Mediums 16 27 

Procedure in Making Selection 16 

Example of Selection of Medium 16 

Use of Mediums -.16 47 

Copy Suitability 16 47 

Art and Typographical Treatment 16 61 

Space 16 62 

Frequency of Insertion 16 63 

Position 16 63 

Supplemental Uses of Mediums 16 73 

Contract Relations with Mediums 16 81 

Catalogs, Booklets, and Folders 

Circular Matter in General 18 1 

Classification of Circular Matter 18 2 

Planning Printed Advertising 18 3 

Mechanical Details 18 6 

Size of Leaf 18 7 

Number of Pages 18 10 

Binding 18 10 

Illustrations 18 1^ 

Paper, Typography, and Color Harmony. . . 18 19 

Covers .' 18 28 

Inside Pages of Catalogs, Booklets, and 

18 42 


Catalogs, Booklets, and Folders — 

Continued Scctio)i Page 

Illustrations for Inside Pages 18 74 

Special Pages 18 77 

Miscellaneous Points 18 87 

Planning, Writing, and Arranging of Mat- 
ter 19 1 

Laying Out the Job 19 10 

Folders 19 14 

Seeking Cooperation of Printer 19 19 

Writing the Copy 19 21 

Arranging Copy for the Printer 19 41 

Correcting Proof and Making Up Proof 

Dummy 19 43 

Direct Advertising 

Purpose and Methods of Direct Advertising 20 1 

Means of Direct Advertising 20 4 

Form Letters and Follow-Up Systems 20 4 

Blotters 20 11 

Circulars 20 14 

Catalogs 20 14 

Booklets 20 18 

Folders 20 20 

Mailing Cards 20 23 

Broadsides 20 23 

Sales Letterheads 20 25 

Envelope Enclosures 20 25 

Novelties 20 28 

Portfolios 20 29 

Poster Stamps 20 29 

House Organs 20 29 

Sampling 20 30 

Direct Advertising as Applied to Specific 

Problems 20 30 

Paving Way for Salesmen 20 31 

Follow-Up Work 20 32 

Postage for lM)llo\v-Up Matter 20 32 


Direct Advertising — Continued Section PiUjc 

Dealer Work 20 34 

How the Wholesaler Can Use Direct Adver- 
tising 20 35 

How the Retailer Can Use Direct Advertis- 
ing 20 36 

How Ranks Can Use Direct Advertising. . . 20 37 

Mechanical Details of Direct Advertising. . . 20 39 

Postal Information 20 46 

Typical Campaigns 20 51 

Management of General Campaigns 

Introduction 21 1 

Planning Selling Campaigns 21 2 

The General Advertising Campaign 21 11 

Distribution 21 13 

The Name and the Package 21 22 

Trade-Marks 21 26 

Beginning the Advertising Campaign 22 1 

The Advertising Appropriation 22 3 

Trade Chartnels and Conditions 22 6 

Prices 22 9 

Methods of Advertising 22 11 

Linking the Advertising with the Sellers. . . 22 15 

Selecting Advertising Mediums 22 22 

'Miscellaneous Advertising Matters 22 26 

Typical Campaigns 22 35 

Producer to Consumer Campaign 22 36 

Campaign to Introduce a New Clock 22 44 

Scott Paper Company Campaign 22 51 

Harnessing Dynamite to the Plow 22 58 

Colgate Campaign to Establish American 

Quality 22 76 

International Silver Company Campaign to 

Cultivate the Public 22 85 

Imperial Coffee Campaign 22 94 





1. The term medium as used in connection with adver- 
tising means any carrier which conveys an advertising message 
to any one involved in the distribution, purchase, or use of the 
commodity advertised. 

No matter how strong the message may be, the right results 
cannot be obtained unless that message reaches the right people 
and reaches them in the most effective way. 

Frequently the selection of mediums is the most important, 
and the hardest, thing an advertiser has to decide. Even the 
strongest message is wasted if the wrong mediums are used to 
carry it, while, on the other hand, even a mediocre message 
has some value if placed in the proper medium. The effective- 
ness of every advertising message depends to a greater or less 
degree upon its appropriateness to the medium that carries it. 
In every case, the medium either adds something to, or detracts 
something from, the strength of the advertising. 

There is no one best advertising medium — no one best kind 
of medium. Value, as applied to mediums, is always relative. 
A very valuable medium for one advertiser may be worthless 
for another. 


1 L T li,2C— 2 


The best medium for any given advertiser is always the one 
that enables him to tell his story to the greatest number of those 
people who should know it. in the most emphatic and impres- 
sive manner, and without costing too much. 


2. 'i'here are three things which every medium must have 
in some degree. They arc known as, first, attcnt'on value; 
second, reader interest ; and third, reader confidence. Usually, 
the medium's value is chiefly dependent upon the measure in 
wliich it possesses these three requisites. 

3. Attention Value. — No medium can have merit unless 
the advertisements it carries are sure at least to be seen by most 
of those who comprise its audience. The mediinn must pro- 
vide the right eyes to read the advertisements it carries. And 
the more carefully and attentively the readers examine the 
medium, the greater its value to the advertiser, all other things 
being equal. The attention value of a medium is measured by 
the probability of its advertisements being seen ; and the char- 
acter and subject of the particular advertisement influence this 
probability to a varying degree in each medium. 

Attention value is measured in three ways : (1) by the degree 
of probability that the advertisements will be seen at all ; (2) by 
the proportion of the medium's readers that will actually look 
at the advertisements; (3) by the degree of attention and 
thought they are likely to give to the advertisements when they 
read them. 

To illustrate : The attention value of a street-car card is rela- 
tively high, ( 1 ) because the card is almost sure to be glanced at, 
at least; (2) because, of the medium's entire audience, about 
one-half — those passengers sitting opposite — usually see the 
card; and (3) because those sitting opposite the card have 
l)lenty of time to study it carefully and, what is ol e((ual 
importance, to tliink about it. 

On the other hand, the attention value of a newspaper class'- 
lled advertisement is relatively low, (1) because the chance 

§i() mi-:l)1ums 3 

that the advertisement will he seen at all is very small ; 
(2) because a comparatively small percentage of the whole 
number of readers of the newspaper ever see the advertise- 
ment; and (3) because the individual classified advertisements 
get little more than a fleeting glance, except from the com- 
paratively few who search them out. 

And still another illustration: A number of magazines 
have in recent years changed their size and form from tlie old 
standard, or book, size, in which usually all the advertisements 
were segregated in the front and back advertising sections, to 
the newer flat size, with pages nearly twice as large, and so 
made up that at least one column of every two pages, right 
through from cover to cover, is devoted to reading matter. 
This change did away entirely with the solid advertising sec- 
tions, and automatically provided for opposite to, or next to, 
reading matter position for each advertisement carried. One 
of the chief reasons for this change was the realization by the 
publishers that the attention value of the old segregated adver- 
tising sections was not what it should be, and that the larger 
fiat form very much increased the attention value of these 
magazines as advertising mediums. 

4. Reader Interest. — The general term reader interest 
is used to indicate the hold that a medium has on the audience 
it reaches — in other words, the eagerness and enthusiasm of 
that audience for the medium. It is the measure of their 
spontaneous desire for it and of their genuine interest in it as a 
whole — not their absorption in some particular story in it, or in 
some other special feature it presents. 

One of the surest ways of testing reader interest would be 
to get absolutely truthful answers from a representative part of 
the audience of the medium to some such queries as, "How 

much would you miss (the medium) if you no longer 

saw it?" or, "How easily and willingly could you get along 
without it?" or, "Is it indispensable? — if so, why?" 

Finally, reader interest depends chiefly upon the kind and 
quality of the editorial matter that the publication offers its 
readers. When all is said and done, the editor is really the 

4 MEDIUMS §10 

truest standard of measurement of the medium's value. lie 
it is who creates and holds reader interest. He it is who 
endows the advertising^ pai^^es with whatever power they pos- 
sess. If he thorouglilr understands his business, then he 
knows both what his reading public wants and also how to 
get it for them. 

If he does not know his business, or if he fails to keep in 
close touch with the thoughts, likes, and dislikes of his readers, 
then reader interest inevitably falls ofT, and the medium's value 
to advertisers declines proportionately. 

The greater the reader interest a medium enjoys, the greater 
its value to most advertisers, other things being ecpial. 

It usually happens that mediums possessing high attention 
value are weak in reader interest, and while those having less 
attention value often offer more than average reader interest. 
For instance, the attention value of many trade papers is low, 
while their reader interest is unusually high. On the other 
hand, electrical advertising signs possess enormous attention 
value, and little, if any, reader interest. 

5. Reader Confidence. — The third — and, unfortunately, 
usually the most rarely found — essential of an advertising 
medium is reader eonfidence. This is different from reader 
interest, in that it goes one step further, and introduces the 
element of trust. Many mediums possess reader interest in 
large measure, without enjoying the confidence of their audi- 
ence to any appreciable extent. Certain newspapers, for 
instance, present their news in a highly sensational manner, in 
order to increase reader interest. This ])ractice in the long run 
invariably decreases the conlidence of their readers, who soon 
adopt an attitude of more or less instinctive and habitual skep- 
ticism with regard to the reliability and good 'faith of much 
that they see in that medium. 

On the other hand, other newspapers and magazines have 
done a great deal to foster their readers' confidence, by care- 
ful, conservative, consistent, editorial policies; by judicious 
censoring of their advertising sections in order to protect their 
readers from all false, misleading, or exaggerated statements, 

K k; MlilJlUAlS 5 


and their reputable advertisers from all unwholesome com- 
pany ; and by guaranteeing to their readers the good faith and 
utter reliability of all of their advertisers. This, of course, 
includes declining to accept the advertisements of any whom 
they are unable so to guarantee. 

In the case of most advertising mediums, reader confidence 
is the important essential. That this is true is not so generally 
understood as it should be. It is the most important because 
confidence in the medium itself almost invariably automatically 
creates similar confidence in the advertisements in the medium. 
If the audience believes thoroughly in the medium, it is from 
the very outset a bit prejudiced in favor of the advertisers in 
it, rather than against them. 

A firm belief on the readers' part that everything seen in 
a given medium is trustworthy is the most favorable attitude 
of mind an advertiser can possibly desire. It means that 
his advertising message will be taken at its par value. It 
means entire absence of that suspicious frame of mind which 
says or -thinks, "Oh, it's only an advertisement !" It means 
an open-mindedness and a. willingness to be shown, which 
o-o a long way toward making the advertising achieve its 
fullest purpose. 

The medium, so to speak, introduces the advertiser to the 
audience, and, by so doing, stands sponsor for him. The adver- 
tiser and his message are accepted by the audience on the 
strength of the medium's indorsement and receive a welcome 
in exact proportion to the regard of that audience for that 
medium. If the medium is believed in and trusted, the adver- 
tiser and his message receive as cordial a welcome as does the 
medium itself. If, however, the audience has little or no con- 
fidence in the medium, then the advertiser introduced by it is 
under a corresponding disadvantage, and must operate from 
the start under the handicap of more or less suspicion. 

There are some mediums that rank high in reader confidence, 
although they possess very little, and sometimes not any, 
reader interest. This is usually true of directories, for 
example. In their case, however, the confidence does not 
necessarily extend to the advertising carried, because direc- 

6 MEDIUMS §16 

tories are known usually to accept almost any kind of adver- 

G. Very few advertising mediums combine, in any large 
measure, all three essentials of attention value, reader interest, 
and reader confidence. The degree in which each of these 
three factors is possessed by a given medium determines largely 
its relative value for different types of advertisers. Fortu- 
nately, not many types of advertising messages require the same 
combination of these three elements. In fact, a rather wide 
range of combinations is demanded. A retail merchant seeks 
chiefly attention value. A high-grade mail-order advertiser 
usually requires more reader confidence than anything else — 
the indorsement of the medium to him means a great deal. A 
cheap mail-order advertiser, on the other hand, is looking for 
attention value, as is also the promoter of any novelty. An 
advertiser whose task it is to introduce a new and improved 
method, or a superior article to replace one in common use, or 
whose success depends upon his ability to induce people to do, 
or to use, something in preference to whatever they have been 
accustomed to doing or to using, needs all the reader interest 
and reader confidence of which he can avail himself. His 
message requires careful, serious reading, no matter how long 
it takes, and also — and of even greater importance — it requires 
the greatest possible support and indorsement on the part of 
the medium. 

Though mediums that possess only two, and sometimes 
even only one, of the elements of attention value, reader inter- 
est, and reader confidence, may have considerable value for 
certain advertising, it is true that the more fully a medium com- 
bines these essentials the higher the advertising rates that it 
can justifiably command. The fact that they offer advertisers 
so much of each of the three essentials is the chief reason why 
certain magazines for women earn consistently, year after 
year, advertising revenues which, in comparison with average 
magazine earnings, are enormous. 

"J'ime was when all advertising was nothing more than 
intrusion. Nowadays, the less intrusive it is, the more success- 

§ ir> MEDIUMS 7 

fill it is in most cases. And the more attention value, reader 
interest, and reader confidence a medium has, particularly the 
latter two, the less intrusiveness the advertisements it carries 


7. A medium should do three things ; and the hetter it does 
them, the more valuable it is. It should, first, concentrate upon 
the desired market ; second, involve a minimum of waste ; 
and third, it should produce results in reasonable proportion 
to its costs. 

8. Concentration. — Since not all advertisers aim to 
reach the same market, the performance of the medium in rela- 
tion to concentration is not measurable by any rule that can be 
universally applied, but may rather be judged only in relation 
to individual Cases and requirements. In other words, the 
more nearly its audience coincides with the particular market 
that any given advertiser desires to reach, the better medium it 
is for that advertiser. 

An advertiser's market may be limited : ( 1 ) To a certain 
geographical or territorial division; (2) to a stratum or layer, 
or class, of society; or (3) to one sex only. These limiting 
factors might be considered to be the three dimensions of the 

9. The territorial dimensions of the advertiser's market 
are controlled more by the nature of his business and the 
amount of competition he must face than by the breadth and 
universality of appeal of the commodity advertised. The 
average retail merchant, for instance, such as the jeweler, the 
shoe dealer, or the department-store owner or manager, adver- 
tises profitably to such people only as are located within rea- 
sonable shopping distance of his place of business. If his busi- 
ness is chiefly in continually rebought merchandise, and the 
competition in his line is severe, his market is usually confined 
largely to those people who live nearer to his store than to those 
of his competitors. The typical neighborhood drug store or 
corner grocery is an illustration. 


On the other hand, if the advertiser be a manufacturer of 
a staple article of universal consumption, such, for example, 
as soap, coffee, or hosiery, then the only geographical limits 
to his market are those imposed by competitors, who may 
already control certain territories — usually those included 
within a certain radius of their factories or places of busi- 
ness — and by the increasing costs and dif^culty of doing 
business farther and farther away from home. A mail-order 
advertiser has practically no geographical limitations, except 
those of transportation costs and of time required for trans- 
acting business. 

10. When limitation (2) — class of society — determines 
the extent of the market, its normal boundaries will be created 
by some such considerations as the first cost, maintenance cost, 
appearance, pride of ownership, and utility or service of 
the article itself, and the breadth, intensity, and stage of 
development of the demand for it. A grand piano obviously 
will appeal to a much thinner stratum of society than a 
two-hundred-dollar phonograph, while this phonograph, in 
turn, will appeal to only the topmost stratum as compared 
with a fifteen-dollar machine. And it is not so many years 
ago that there was practically no demand at all for the more 
expensive phonograph ; since then, the further development 
of the demand for phonographs has very greatly extended 
the boundaries of the market for them. Similarly, superfine 
bonbons, in imported art boxes, at a dollar and a half, two, 
or five dollars the pound, will appeal only to a very thin 
veneer of so-called "exclusive" society, while good wholesome 
candy at forty or fifty cents the pound will be bought gladly 
by most of the upper and middle-class people ; and chewing 
gum, at a penny a stick, is popular with everybody, high and 
low, rich and poor. 

11. Whether limitation (3) — sex — will influence the extent 
of an advertiser's market depends on the commodity or service 
advertised. It is essential, however, in this connection to dis- 
criminate between the primary and the secondary markets. 


It is not well enough understood that the market which must 
be reached by the advertising comprises, primarily, the pur- 
chasers of the goods advertised. The actual users of the goods, 
in cases where they are not themselves the purchasers, are of 
only secondary importance as a factor in the market. Conse- 
quently the primary market for food products, for instance, 
consists almo'st entirely of women, because they buy practically 
all of the food, although they actually consume less of it than 
do the men. Here the men constitute the secondary market, 
but in this case the secondary market is important. 

When it comes to automobiles the conditions are exactly 
reversed, the men forming the primary market, and the women 
the secondary. Sometimes both markets are of equal impor- 
tance. In such cases, however, they usually respond most 
readily to well-dilTerentiated types of appeal. 

It is very rare that an advertising medium is able to offer to 
an advertiser an audience that coincides closely with his whole 
market as determined by the limiting factors, territorial 
requirements, class of society, and sex. Territorial considera- 
tions often eliminate from consideration all except strictly local 
mediums, and usually none of these can offer an audience that, 
as to strata and sex, even approximates the requirements of a 
prospective advertiser's market. It is desirable that the audi- 
ence should coincide with the market; therefore, in practice, 
the nearer the audience comes to so coinciding, the more valu- 
able to the advertiser is the medium through which the 
audience is reached. 

12. Avoidance of Waste. — Because no medium ever 
presents to an advertiser an audience that is one hundred per 
cent, perfect for that advertiser's message, a certain degree of 
waste nmst always be taken for granted. 

All other things being equal, that medium best performs its 
proper functions which offers the least percentage of waste to 
each of the greatest number of prospective advertisers. And 
that medium is best for a given advertiser which obliges him to 
buv, along with the valuable i)art of its audience, the smallest 
possible part which to him represents waste. 

10 MEDIUMS § 16 

Strictly speaking, it cannot be surely said that any circulation 
or distribution of an intelligently prepared advertising message 
is absolutely of no effect, even though it be outside the bound- 
aries of the advertiser's natural market. 

Like bread cast upon the waters, practically all advertising 
ultimately comes back, oftentimes in some obscure, indirect 
way, and not infrequently without the advertiser in the least 
realizing it. Except in cases where the advertising is harmful, 
the return takes the form of obstacles removed and resistance 

The point is that while no good advertising is really lost, 
some advertising is of far greater and more quickly returned 
value than is other advertising. The wise advertiser places his 
advertising in those mediums which offer to him the greatest 
percentage of certainty and immediately valuable circulation 
with the least percentage of circulation whose value for him is 
undetermined and questionable, or, at best, slow-acting — in 
other words, the minimum of what is, relatively speaking, 

13. Production of Satisfactory Results. — It is 

obvious that a medium must do its work at a reasonable cost 
to the advertiser ; otherwise, he cannot afford to use it. 

There is no fixed standard by which to determine what in all 
cases would be a satisfactory ratio of returns or results to the 
cost of advertising in a given medium. The cost that one 
advertiser can afford to pay for a certain amount of returns 
may be entirely prohibitive for another advertiser whose cost 
of doing business is higher or whose margin of profit is less. 

For example, each of two advertisers might invest $500 in 
advertising and, as a result, each might sell goods to the amount 
of $2,000. If one man's cost of goods and expense of handling 
them were $1,000 besides the cost of advertising, his profit 
would be $500. If the other man's expense and costs amounted 
to $1,500, he would have no profit after paying for his adver- 

Each advertiser, therefore, nuist decide for himself what 
amount of returns or results he nuist get from his advertising 

§ 16 MEDIUMS 11 

cxpenditl^re in order to make it profitable; that is, the ratio 
between advertising expenditure and results. Then he must 
decide, as best he may, what mediums can give him such results 
or better. 

Experience may show that certain mediums give results 
much better than the necessary minimum. In such cases, if the 
advertising appropriation is limited, it would be good business 
policy to drop some of those that showed results only slightly 
above the necessary minimum and to concentrate expenditures 
on the better paying ones. On the other hand, if the number 
of mediums were limited, it might be advisable to use all that 
showed results above the minimum in order to produce a 
desired total amount of business. 

Of course, the accurate checking up of the results obtained 
by any medium is at best a difficult undertaking. Often it is 
wholly impossible, as, for example, in the case of general-pub- 
licity advertising. Under such conditions the results can only 
be measured indirectly. This is best done by taking account of 
the degree to which the medium possesses the three essentials, 
of attention value, reader interest, and reader confidence, and 
the degree in which it performs the other two functions, of 
concentrating on the desired market and of minimizing waste. 
Erom these data it should then be possible to estimate whether 
the advertising value of a medium is equal to the cost of 
using it. 

14. The Variou.s Kinds of Mediums. — There are 
almost as many different kinds of advertising mediums as 
there are different kinds of people in the world. Comparatively 
few of this great number^of mediums have much commercial 
importance. Circulation statements giving the circulation by 
states may be had for w^eekly and regular standard monthly 
publications, also for women's, agricultural, trade, professional, 
and technical publications. These statements are similar in 
form to the one shown in Eig. 1, which is that of s very large 
national weekly. 




lable 1 shows the distribution, according to strata of popula- 
tion, of four leading national weeklies. 

The better class of publications belong to what is called the 
Audit Bureau of Circulation, and furnish audited statements 

Circulation Statement of a Leading 
National Weekly 

Average Circulation for six-months' period 1901013 

Mail Subscribers (Individual) 
Net Sales through Newsdealers 


Term Subscriptions m Bulk 

Single Issue Sales in Bulk 


Correspondents . 











Advertising Agency 

Exchanges and Complimentary. 




File Copies . 




Net paid clrculati 

Dn by states 



New Hampshire . . 


Massachusetts . . . 
Rhode Island . . . 
Connecticut. . . . 









Indiana. . . . 
Illinois .... 
Michigan . .. . 
Wisconsin . . 
Minnesota . . 
Iowa .... 
Missouri . . . 
I^lorth Dakota . 
South Dakota . 
Nebi-aska . . . 
Kansas. . . . 










New York .... 
New Jersey .... 

Pennsylvania . . . 

















Dist. of Columbia. . 

Montana . . . 
Wyoming. . . 
Colorado . . . 
New Mexico 
Arizona . . . 
Utah .... 
Nevada . . . 
Idaho .... 
Oregon . . . 
Unclassified , . 




























North Carolina. . . 
South Carolina. . . 
Georgia . , . . - 







. 13 


SO. E. STATES . . 






West Virginia . . . 
Tennessee .... 
























Mississippi .... 


Canada . . 
Alaska & U. S Poss 
Foreign ^ . . . 
Miscellaneous . . 





Texas • 

Oklahoma .... 








So. W. STATES. . 



. 139 












of thcii- circulatidiis lo iJu-ir subscribiTS. Mam advertisers are 
nienihfrs of this lUucau and sfiid din'ct to tlie llurcau for tin- 




Mediunis may be grouped into ten important classifications, 
most of which have a number of subdivisions. Arranged in 
descending order of importance, the principal kinds of adver- 
tising mediums are as follows: (The publications in each 
group are arranged alphabetically.) 



Rct'icw and Comment 
Literary Digest 
New Republic 

Saturday Evcnin 




Christian Herald 
Scientific American 


All are monthlies except as noted. Tlicse include the large sizes 
sometimes called flats. 









Atlantic Monthly 



National Geographic 


Rez'icw and Comment 
Current Opinion 
North American Review 
Review of Reviews 
World's Work 

All Story (Weekly) 

Argosy (Weekly) 


Popular (Semimonthly)' 

Red Book 

Popularized Science 

Electrical Experimenter 
Illustrated World 
Popular Mechanics 
Popular Science Monthly 

All Outdoors 
Field and Stream 
Forest and Stream 
National Sportsman 
Outdoor Life 
Outer's Book 

Motion Pictures 

Motion Picture Clas.ic 
Motion Picture Magazine 


Womkn's Publications 
All are monthlies, except as noted. 

General Farmer's Wife 

Delineator Holland's Magazine 

Designer Home Life 

Good Housekeeping People's Home Journal 

Ladies' Home Journal People's Popular Monthly 

McCall's Southern Woman's Magi.zine 

Pictorial Review Today's Housewife 

Woman's Home Companion Woman's World 
Woman's Magazine Specialized 

Rural Modern Priscilla 

American Woman Mother's Magazine 

Comfort Needlecraft 

Agricultural Publications 

There is a long list of agricultural publications. Some are national 
in scope, such as The Country Gentleman, the Farm Journal, and Suc- 
cessful Farming. A number are sectional, such as The Progressive 
Farmer, circulating largely in the Southern States; The Farmer, of 
St. Paul, Minn., circulating to a large degree in the Northwest; and 
Farm & Ranch, circulating in Texas and the Southwest. The others, 
too many to list, have their appeals mainly in a certain state or states. 

Some of these publications are specialized into divisions such as 
dairy farming, livestock raising, fruit growing, poultry raising, and 
power farming. The larger number of the agricultural publications are 
weeklies, some are semimonthlies, and a few are monthlies. 

Mail-Order Publications 
These are papers carrying a preponderance of mail-order advertising. 
All are monthlies except as noted. 

Capper's Weekly (Weekly) Hearth and Home and Good 

Chicago Ledger and Saturdaj- Stories 

Blade (Weekly) Home Friend 

Grit (Weekly) Household 

ientlewoman Household Guest 

Juvenile Publications 
All are monthlies except as noted. 
American Boy St. Nicholas 

Boys' Life Youth's Companion (Weekly) 

Boys' Magazine 

Trade Publications 
Practically every trade or industry has its own publication or publica- 
tijns. Some of these are strong enough to be powerful national 




influences; otiiers are liDpelcssly weak. Each of the following trades 
supports several good trade papers : 



Agricultural Implements 

Architecture and Uuilding 


Automobiles, Gas Engines, etc. 

Awnings, Siiades, Tents, etc. 


Barbers and Hairdressers 

Barrels, Boxes, and Packages 

Blacksmiths and Horseshoers 

Books, Book Trade, and Writers 


Brick, Tile, etc. 

Jjuilding Management 

Butchers and Meat Packers 

Carriages and Harnc-ss 

Cement and Concrete 

Cleaning and Dyeing 

Clothing and Furnishing Goods 

Coal, Coke, etc. 

Confectionery and Ice Cream 

Contracting, Excavating, etc. 


Drug, Oil, Paint, etc. 

Dry Goods 


Export Trade 



Financial and Banking 

Fisheries and Fish Culture 

Five- and Ten-Cent Goods 

Florist and Floriculture 

Forestry and Irrigation 

Fruit and Produce Trade 

Furniture, Upholstery, and Car- 

Fur Trade, Trapping, etc. 

Grocery, General Merchandise, 

Handle Trade 


Hay and Feed 

Hotel, Restaurant, etc. 

House F'urnishing Goods 

Ice and Refrigeration 

India Rubber Trade 


Jewelry, Watchmaking, Optical, 



Liquor and Anti-Prohibition 

Lumber and Woodworking 

Mail-Order Trade 

Meclnanical and Engineering 

Metal Trades 

Milk and Milk Products 


Milling, Flour, Grain, etc. 


Musical and Music Trade 


Notions and Fancy Goods 

Painting and Decorating 


Patents and Trade Marks 

Petroleum and Natural Gas 

Plumbing, Heating, Ventilating, 

Pottery and Glass 

Printing and Typographic 


Real Estate 

Seed and Nursery Trade 

Sheet-Metal Working 

Shipping, Marine, and • Water- 

Shoe and Leather 

Soap and Perfumery 

Soda hountain 

Stationery and Office Equipment 

Stone, Monuments, etc. 

Sugar and Sugar Beet 

Talking Machine Trade 




Textile Fabrics 

Threshing Trade 


Toys and Novelties 

Trunks, Leather Goods, etc. 


Water and Gas Supply 

Window Dressing 

Wool Growers and Dealers 


Professional and Technical Publications 

The professional and technical publications in many cases represent 
a high order of editorial and publishing excellence. They are read 
more carefully than most of the trade publications, and frequently 
wield great influence. The more important professions and technical 
interests served by such publications include the following : 

Architecture and Building 

Automobile, Gas Engines, etc. 

Books, Book Trade, and Writers 

Business and Office Methods 

Contracting, Excavating, etc. 


Dramatic and Theatrical 




Landscape Gardening 


Mechanical and Engineering 


Metal Trades 

Nursing, Hospitals, etc. 



Class and Class-Interest Publications 
All are monthlies except as noted. 
Association Men 

Country Life 
Garden Magazine 
Harper's Bazar 
House Beautiful 
House and Gard=en 
Nation's Business 
Normal Instructor 

Physical Culture 


Red Cross Magazine 

Rider and Driver (Fortnightly) 

Spur (Semimonthly) 



Town and Country (Three times 

a month) 
Vanity Fair 
\'ogue (Semimonthly) 

The foregoing are some of the leading class publications. In addi- 
tion to them is a very long list of periodicals devoted to some one class 
interest or another. It is obvious that the appeal of such publications 
must necessarily be rather confined and their influence correspondingly 
narrowed and restricted. Some of the more important special interests 
and classes which have their own publications follow : 


Agnostic, Free Thought, etc. 
.■\merican Indian 
206C— 3 

Antiquarian, Numismatic, Phila- 
telic, etc. 




Architecture and Building 


Athletics and Physical Culture 

Automobile, Gas Engines, etc. 

Bee Keeping 

Blind. The 

Books — Trade and Writers 

Boy Scouts 

Business and Office Methods 

Cement and Concrete 

Chess and Checkers 

Children, Care of 

Civil Service 


Commercial and Industrial 

Commercial Travelers 

Cooperative Trading 

Country Life 

Deaf, The 

Dogs and Domestic Pets 

Dramatic acid Theatrical 



Firemen and Police 

Food and Culinary 

Good Roads 


Home Management 

Horse, The 

Hj'giene and Sanitation 


Liquor and Anti-Prohibition 

Military and Xaval 


Motor Boating 

Moving Pictures 

Municipal Government 


New Thought 

Patents and Trade Marks 

Patriotic, Anti-Clerical, etc. 

Patriotic Societies 

Philanthropic and Humane 




Printing and Typographic 

Prohibition and Temperance 



Railroad Guides, etc. 

Real Estate 



Single Tax 


Sports and Pastimes 

Stenography and Typewriting 


Woman's Interests 

\\'oman Suffrage 

Woman Suffrage (A-nti) 

Women's Clubs 


Religious Publications 
There are many religious publications and they may be classified 
under the heads : 

General Sectarian and Juvenile 

Fraternal Publications 

There are some half dozen fraternal organizations which bnast of 
publications of influence and merit. They are as follows: 

Ancient Order of Ignited W'ork- Independent Order of Odd Fel- 

men lows 

Klks Knights of Pythias 

Improved Order of Red Men Masonic 

§16 M INDIUMS 19 


Daily newspapers are classified as Alorning, Evening, and Sunday. 
The aggregate circulation of daily and Sunday papers in the United 
States and Canada, as given in the American Newspaper Directory and 
Annual for 1919, is as follows : 

Aggregate circulation of Evening Papers 21,600,000 

Aggregate circulation of IVIorning Papers 12,763,000 

Aggregate circulation of all dailies 34,363,000 

Aggregate circulation of Sunday Papers 17,233,000 

Fig. 2 shows a circulation statement of a metropolitan daily. 

Circulation Statement of 
Metropolitan Daily 

Daily average circulation for six-montlis' period after all returns are deducted; 
Average for Morning or Evening does not include Sunday circulation, 





C.ty (Total) , , , 

Carr.ers (Regular) 

Dealers & Ind Garners 






Mail Subs 

Total City 


.''-88 79 
62 7 



Agts, Dlrs^ and Ind. Carr 

Mail Subs. (Ind R. F. D.) 

Total Suburban 



Total Local (City & Sub'n) 

Country , 




Mail Subs. (Ind. R. F. D.) . . . . 

Total Country . . ' 











) .■-. 1 




Bulk Sales (Average) 



Total Net Paid (Including Bulk) 

Subscribers in arrears over one 



Advertisers -,...-... 

Employees • 

R R. & P. 0. Employees 


Advertising Agencies 

Office Use and Files 

Total Unpaid Copies 





Fig. 2 


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\Vekki.:ks. Skmiwkkkliks. Tiiiwr.F.Ki.iKi;. Etc. 
In Table II are given data regarding tlie nnmber and distril)Ution of 
newspapers published at various intervals 

Foreign-Language Publications 
Of the many important foreign-language publications in the United 
States, most of the more influential are printed in some one of the 
following languages : 












Normally, there are all told about 750 foreign-language papers in 
the United Stales, printed in 30 different foreign languages. 



Norwegian and Danish 









Painted Displays 

Painted bulletins; 

(a) Boards; (b) Field signs 

Painted walls 
. Illuminated displays 

Electric Signs 
Tacked Signs and Banners 

(Mafde of steel, tin, wood, fiber, 
oilcloth, canvas, muslin, or wa- 
terproof cardboard, for fences, 
sheds, trees, posts, etc.) 



P'oldcrs and leaflets 
Package inserts 

Miscellaneous: As blotters, mail- 
ing cards, cut-outs, etc. 

Letters and letter systems 
Circularizing dealer's lists of 

House organs 

Window Displays 

Trims, strips, streamers, cut-outs, pasters, decalcomanias, transfers, 
dummy cartons, facsimiles of goods, etc. 
Counter Cards 

Easels, stands, hangers, etc. 




Tin, enameled iron or steel, fiber, wood, oilcloth, canvas, and mus- 
lin store signs and flange signs, banners, pennants, etc., both 
lithographed and printed. 
Miscellaneous Dealer Helps 

Steel display racks, silent salesmen, silent demonstrators, saic- 
cabinets, price tickets, delivery package labels, clerks' order books, 
employes' caps and aprons, etc. 

Special displays 


Church, high school, fair, circus, etc. 
Exposition, convention, etc. (including convention souvenirs) 

Telephone directories 
City and Ixisiness directories 
Annuals of all sorts, including trade directories and registers 

I'nder this heading belong almost innumerable articles. Among the 
more important are the following : 

Ash trays 
Bureau sets 

Books of all kinds 
Cuff links 
Carpet sweepers 
Cigar cutters 
Clothes brushes 
Caps and aprons 
Desk sets 

Flash lights 

Freight cars (for packing compa- 
nies, oil companies, etc.) 


Glass and metal emblems 

Guide books 

Hand bags 

Hat brushes 

Hotel luggage stickers 

Ivory goods of all kinds 

Ice picks and shavers 

Jewelry of all kinds 


Kitchen implements and 

Leather goods of all kinds 
Lump-sugar wrappers 
Match-box holders 

Pencil sharpeners 
Pillow tops 


§1(5 MI'.DIUMS I2:i 

I'ins Small ruhluT j^oods i>\ all kim'.s 

Phoiiograplis Sulcly razors and str(ii)|)crs 

Pictures Salesiiifirs autt>s 

Post cards Sides, tops, and hacks of delivery 

Pocketbooks wagons and trucks 

Pennants Toys 

Paper cutters Tliernionieters 

Pad calendars Telephone lists and indexes 

Rings Theater curtains 

Silverware Watches 

Statuettes Watch fobs 

Small tool sets Wrapping pa])er and .4ring 

l.l. Expenditures for Adverlisintj. — The relative 
importance of the ditYerent classes of nieditinis as indicated hv 
the aiiiotints expended for advertisinj;- in or b\- means of them, 
is shown in the accompanying tabulation of Estimated Approx- 
imate Total Advertising Expenditures for 1917. 



16. The judicious selection of advertising mediums is per- 
haps the most dififictilt single undertaking, and at the same time 
the most important one, that advertising involves. It looks 
easv. But a great number of advertisers have fotmd out, too 
late, that it presents cotnitlcss snares and pitfalls. Prob,ubl\- as 
manv advertising failures have restilted from unwise selection 
of mediums as from any other one source. And the stuns of 
money absolutely wasted throtigh this cause alone ttnquestion- 
ably run high up into the millions of dollars. 

Because it appears to be such a simple matter, and because it 
is so easy to go wrong, are the very two reasons why wise and 
experienced advertisers rely almost entirely upon the trained 
and seasoned judgment of their advertising agents in all mat- 
ters having to do with the selection and use of advertising 

There is no magic rule of thumb for the selection of adver- 
tising mediums. There are, however, two or three funda- 

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L'<; Mh.DIUMS ij 10 

niL'iUal principles oi a broad, L^a-iu-ral nature, which should he 
thoroui^hly under stood. 

17. The first inipoitant princij)lo in selectinj^ a niediuni is: 
Eliminate all pi'isoiial preference ami bias. l\'rhaps this 
seems too obvious to merit comment, lint rii^ht here is where 
many inexperienced advertisers have run on the rocks. It is 
unsafe for an advertiser to argue that just because a certain 
medium makes a strong appeal to him. it will, therefore, make 
an e(jually strong appeal to others. 

Tastes in publications dififer as widely as do tastes in neck- 
ties, or in millinery. Temperaments are as varied as are 
pocketbooks. Likes and dislikes know neither law nor uni- 
formity. To argue that one medium is better than another for 
advertising purposes because it happens to strike one's indi- 
vidual fancy more favorably, is as fallacious as it is dangerous. 

18. The second general rule for selection is: Base judg- 
ment on proved facts only. Nowadays there is practically no 
disposition on the part of the owners of most of the more 
important advertising mediums to withhold from advertisers or 
prospective advertisers complete and accurate information with 
regard to those mediums and their relative value for advertisers. 

In fact, conditions have undergone such a change for the 
better that today dependable mediums try to outdo each other 
in the- preparation and presentation of data of one kind or 
another. Inevitably, a great deal of the data so furnished is 
more or less prejudiced and colored. More often than not this 
is due to the natural and irrepressible enthusiasm, on the part 
of the medium's spokesman or representative, for his own 
publication as distinguished from all other mediums. 

This is merely another form of the salesman's uncurbed 
zeal for sales. Instinctively, and often quite unconsciously, 
the most favorable possible aspect is given to the situation. 
Points of strength are stressed and overemphasized; points of 
weakness are ignored, if possible, otherwise glossed over or 
"explained." Also, it is unfortunately still true that now and 
then a meditim is presented to advertisers under false claims 

§1(1 MEDIUMS 27 

and with untrue statements. Particularly is tins the case as 
regards circulation methods and act:()mi)lishments. 

In either case, whether the statements made are merely 
exaggerated and warped out of their correct i)ro|)ortions, or 
whether they are actually and maliciousK' falsified, the adver- 
tiser will avoid costly errors if he confines his anal) sis to 
proved fads, and hases his selection on them onl\'. 

19. The third rule for the general selection of mediums is: 
Consider every case strictly in relation to its 07C'» 
reqiiironeiits. This is perhaps the most vital point of all. The 
value of any medium is relative, depending upon the extent to 
which it satisfies the special and particular demands of the case 
in point. A medium might be regarded as the dominant adver- 
tising medium of America and carry an amount of advertising 
far exceeding any of its competitors, yet, comparatively speak- 
ing, only a few, a very few, of the more than ten thousand gen- 
eral advertisers of the country might find it a good medium 
even, much less the best medium, for their respective 

• Value, as applied to advertising mediums, is measurable only 
in terms of specific instances, never in generalities. The 
mediums which an advertiser is to use must be selected on the 
sole basis of that particular advertiser's requirements and 


20. Questions to Be Considered. — When an advertiser 
has finally reached the stage of deciding in what advertising 
mediums to invest his appropriation, there are several tests 
that he can apply to such mediums as seem suitable, in the 
endeavor to eliminate any that do not possess intrinsic merit 
for his advertising. These several tests are as follows : 

1. What is the basic, underlying purpose, mission, or rea- 
son for existence of the medium — the real IV HY of it? 
There is a very direct relationship between the mission of a 
medium and its advertising value. Usually the more sub- 
stantial and permanent and worth while a medium's underlying 

28 .Ml'.DIUMS 5<1(; 

purpose is, the stronj^^er medium it is for advertising. There 
are, of course, many mediums whose sole reason for existence 
is frankly to carry advertising^, and whose advertising value is 
not thereby diminished. Billboards and letters and other direct- 
mail pieces are good examples. There are, however, some pub- 
lications whose true reason for existence is actually — but very 
rarely admittedly — the carrying of advertising. This real 
reason is usually carefully hidden under professions and claims 
of a lot of fine-sounding but superficial aims and missions. For 
the most part, the best mediums for advertising purposes are 
those which already stand highest in their respective fields — 
those whose reason for being is most clearly defined and most 
fundamental ; and those which are obliged to depend least, 
both for tlieir popularity and for their mere physical existence, 
upon the advertising patronage that they enjoy. Particularly 
is this true of periodicals, including both magazines and news- 
papers. In this field, it is well to be suspicious of any medium 
whose chief function or excuse for existence appears to be the 
carrying of advertising. 

2. iriio staiids back of it? Why? Often the real status of 
a medium is revealed by learning who are its real owners, and 
what interests they are chiefly desirous of making the medium 
subserve. Helpful and sometimes unexpected sidelights on the 
worth of a medium are frequently obtainable in this manner. 

3. Editorially, zvliat is the incdiiiin, and ivhat docs it stand 
for? This test of course is applicable only to periodicals. 
What the medium is, quite largely determines who its readers 
will be and just how much it will mean to them. The general 
character of the contents of a magazine or newspaper gives a 
pretty reliable gauge both of its audience, or constituency, and 
of its influence upon that audience. A virile, vigorous general 
editorial policy attracts strong, progressively-minded readers. 
Editorial alcrtncs., usually finds its paralk'l in unusual receptiv- 
ity and absence of prejudice on the part of the readers. A sane, 
authoritative editorial treatment inspires the confidence of the 
readers and increases their loyalty toward the medium. .\nd in 
each instance the opposite kind of policy melius" the opposite 
kind of medium and influence. 

5 Ifi MEDIUMS 20 

4 Bv ivlwt methods is the mcdiuw's circulation secured? 
. Hozv much has it, and where is it/ (The term circulation xs 
here use<l in its broadest interpretation, which makes ,ts si^niifi- 
cance ahiiost identical with that of audience.) The method of 
securing circulation lar.oelv determines its character. Broadly 
speaking, tb.e more natural, spontaneous, and voluntary the 
circulation of a meduun is, the greater the value of that medmm 
for advertising purposes. It is always well to make sure 
iust what percentage of the total circulation of a medmm may 
fairlv be considered natural and voluntary. Any and all sorts 
of unnatural or highly forced methods for securing circulation 
are becoming more and more discredited by advertisers. One 
normal free-will, self-st.wted subscriber or reader is worth 
more to the advertiser than several of the other kind, that have 
been enticed to subscribe b>- some premium, special cut-pnce 
inducement, silver-tongued subscription agent, or other form ot 
momentarilv irresistible pressure. 

It nuist be understood, of course, that sales ef^clency m the 
circulation department of a publication is as necessary and as 
legitimate as is sales, efficiency in any other commercial under- 
taking In one sense, "(/// a^rculation is more or less forced 
The point is that circulation secured by highly intensified and 
strenuously applied selling methods is likely to be less m 
harmony with the underlying . ^-as.,.and eoncepts of the publica- 
tion and therefore less^tollie appeal of tljs adver- 
tisements it carries. In other words, the less the principle of 
natural selection is tampered with, the greater will be the com- 
munity of interest between editor and reader, and, accordingly, 
the greater will be the reader, interest and the reader confidence 
which that medium has to offer to advertisers. 

In comparison with the kind or quality of circulation that a 
a medium has, the quantity of it is of secondary impor- 
tance. The essential thing is to be certain that the quantity 
(luoted or claimed represents none but bona-fide, full paid-;n- 
advance subscribers, and net news-stand and street sales, in the 
case of periodicals, and on careful, disinterested estimates- 
based so far as possible on actual counts made under average 
conditions— in the case of other kinds of mediums. 

30 MEDIUMS § 16 

The "where is it" of circulation is the least important of its 
three dimensions. It must be known, however, in order to 
measure the value of a medium for any individual advertiser, 
as only on such knowledge .can the percentage of waste circu- 
lation be fairly and accurately computed. 

5. IVhat is the general character of the medium's advertis- 
ing patronage? The advertising carried by a medium is, as a 
rule, a helpful guide to its value, but it should not be depended 
on too much, because mediums are still, in numerous instances, 
selected unwisely and unscientifically. Often, however, the 
kind of advertising carried, and the average amount of it, form 
a supplementary yardstick with which the probable worth of 
the medium in any given case may be approximately measured. 

The advertising carried also presents evidence as to the care 
with which the owners or proprietors protect their readers 
from fraud and quackery. And since the degree of censor- 
ship is more or less closely associated with the important fac- 
tor of reader confidence, an additional sidelight is thus secured 
on the attitude of the readers toward the medium. 

6. ll'liat has been the experience of other advertisers in the 
use of the niedittni for purposes siinihir to the ease in pointf 
It is not enough to know about the various successful campaigns 
the medium may have to its credit. If precedents are to be 
cited, their value will depend upon the degree in which the 
j)eculiar conditions and demands of the instance referred to 
correspond with those of the case in question. As no two 
advertising problems present exactly the same circumstances, 
this test is not conclusive, though it may give some suggestions 
that will be of value in connection with other information. 


21. Methods Employed. — The simplest and safest 
method of procedure in choosing the mediums of ])ul)lic!ty in 
any particular case is as follows : 

1. Analyze liie re(|uirenients of the case as to mediums; 
that is, determine what (|ualilies they nnist possess in order to 
be most valuable. 

gin Air-DIUMS 31 

2. Rate the various possible mediums in order of primary 
importance, secondary importance, and supplementary, in 
accordance with the degree in which each of them satislies the 
requirements of the case. 

3. Determine for each medium of primary and secondary 
importance the most efficient unit of use — space, position, 
colors, or whatever it may be — and the necessary thorough- 
ness of use, that is, continuity, repetition, or duration, of 

4. Eliminate from the list by cutting out the less valuable 
mediums to meet the limits of the advertising appropriation. 

22. Analysis of Requirements. — The qualities ordi- 
narily demanded, in some degree, and in some one form or 
another, in advertising mediums are practically all included in 
the following list. They are arranged in descending order of 
average importance, and the nature and application of each 
are indicated by questions such as would arise in determining 
the extent to which a given case would be influenced by the 
quality mentioned. 

1. Elasticity: The term elasticity, when applied to an 
advertising medium, refers to its capabihty of focusing a 
message upon a given held — larger or smaller, as required. It 
depends on the concentration or scope of the medium, and is 
the quality that enables the medium to satisfy the varying 
demands of many different advertisers along lines indicated by 
such questions as : How much and what territory must be 
covered? What kind of folks, or what stratum of population, 
should be reached? Which sex? What ages? 

For instance, newspapers, as a medium, possess far greater 
elasticity than magazines. For newspapers permit of covering 
any given territory, large or small, and that territory only. 
Magazines do not. And newspapers enable an advertiser to 
reach any desired level of society, or either sex independently 
of the other, with just as much, if not more, accuracy than is 
possible with magazines, with this exception, that women's 
magazines unquestionably offer far greater sex specialization 
than does an\- other general type of medium in existence. 

32 MEDIUMS § 10 

2. Adaptability or Flexibility: This quality enables a 
medium to till widely varying requirements of such a nature as 
are suggested by the questions : When? How often? With 
how large space? At what cost? Here again newspapers are 
obviously richer than magazines. Newspapers may be used as 
frequently or as seldom as needed, with almost any sized space 
desired, and at almost any cost. One newspaper may be used 
or ten thousand, one city covered or the entire country. 

3. Th'jroiKjInicss of Coz'cri)i(/: The thoroughness willi 
which a medium covers its held must be considered, in connec- 
tion with such questions as : Is a selective or a universal 
appeal desired? An intensive cultivation of the field, or a 
broadcast, generalized, dissemination? If selective, what is 
the basis of selection? 

4. Effectiveness of Impression: How deep in should the 
impression be made to sink? How far home must the mes- 
sage be driven ? 

5. Continuity of Impression: How often should the story 
be hammered in? How nuicli does it gain, or lose, by repeti- 
tion ? 

6. Lifetime of Appeal: How sturdy and long-lived is it ? 
How long must it last before being repeated? 

.7. MccJianical Possibilities: Must photographs be used? 
Life-size reproductions? Color? Special artistic or typo- 
graphical effects? 

8. Immediacy or Speed: How quickly nuist the message 
be transmitted? How frequently varied or revised? 



23. Conditions of the Case. — To illustrate the actual 
process of analyzing requirements as to mediums, consider the 
iiypothetical case of a manufacturer of high-grade oleomarga- 
rine, which is sold to the retail grocery trade through territorial 
distributors or jobbers, and which enjoys a good distribution 

§16 Ml'.DIUMS 33 

tliroughout the manufacturer's home state and a rather thin 
distribution throughout the adjoining half dozen or more 
states. It has never been advertised to eitlier trade or con- 
sumers. The sales of the product are seriously retarded by 
the almost universal prejudice against oleomargarine. Investi- 
gation has established the fact that the great middle class offers 
the best field for developing increased business ; neither the 
very poor nor the very rich are, comparatively speaking, worth 
consideration. The product itself is of irreproachable excel- 
lence, and is giving splendid satisfaction to those people who 
have been persuaded to try it. There is at hand a great abun- 
dance of strong sales-argument and prejudice-destroying 
material. The name and trade-mark are good, the carton has 
been so improved that it is now quite satisfactory, the sales and 
distributive machinery is in first-class working order. An 
advertising appropriation of $60,000 has been made, which 
must cover the first year's work in its entirety. 

In other words, the manufacturer, working hand in glove 
with his competent and experienced advertising agents, has 
made all the preliminary arrangements necessary for wholly 
preparing himself and his business for advertising. The 
immediate step is the selection of the mediums to be used to 
carry the message. 

24. Analysis of Requirements. — Study of the condi- 
tions indicates that the qualities required of the mediums in 
this particular case are, in order of importance: (1) Eft'ec- 
tiveness of impression; (2) continuity of impression; (3) elas- 
ticity — concentration both as to territory and as to strata of 
population; also, to a limited extent, as to sex; (4) flexibility; 
(5) thoroughness of covering; (6) mechanical possibilities; 
(7) lifetime of appeal; (8) speed. 

25. Effectiveness of impression is the first requisite, 
because the breaking down of deep-rooted prejudice is at the 
very best a slow and difficult undertaking. The strongest kind 
of sales argument will be required. To secure the best results, 
each separate advertisement should present a relatively large 

a6C— » 

34 MEDIUMS §10 

amount of instructive and interesting text matter, aided and 
supplemented by attractive illustrations. Usually there should 
be at least two of these for each piece of copy — one reproduc- 
ing the carton, in order that the reader may easily recognize it 
when she sees it, and the other visualizing, and thereby further 
emphasizing, some point made in the text. The direct indorse- 
ment of the medium carrying the advertising would be of 
course a valuable help, particularly if the prestige and the 
standard worth of the article advertised are thereby implied 
and inferred. 

26. Continuity of impression is the second quality 
demanded. Prejudice requires gradual wearing away. It 
never yields suddenly or readily. To replace suspicion with 
confidence is the work of months, not days. Just as the con- 
stant dropping of water affects stone, so constant repetition 
and reiteration of the important facts about this brand of 
oleomargarine will in time convert even the most cautious and 
indifferent antipathy and suspicion into favor and regular 

27. Elasticity is obviously the third requisite. The 
audience to which the advertising is addressed must corre- 
spond with the present or immediately prospective sales field 
of the product itself. In other words, the medium must 
possess a circulation that is not only largely concentrated, but 
also is concentrated along the very same lines as is the field for 
the sales of the product. This is true both of territorial con- 
centration and of concentration as regards strata of population, 
and, to a certain extent, as regards sex. 

It is apparent that all circulation outside of the states in 
which this oleomargarine is for sale represents almost entire 
waste, at least until such time as the field of sale of the product 
shall have been extended to include these other states. Simi- 
larly, all circulation going to the very poor or the very rich 
classes of society will j)rove of relatively little value as com- 
pared with middle-class circulation. And, also, since oleo- 
margarine is almost always purchased by women, man-reaching 

§ 10 MEDIUMS 35 

circulation will be less desirable than woman-reaching. It hap- 
pens, however, that this is less true in the case of such a com- 
modity as oleomargarine than it would be for most other 
food products Men are of no little importance whenever it is a 
matter of overcoming distrust and prejudice. This is due to 
their greater open-mindedness and sense of fairness, and the 
fact that they are usually more susceptible to the appeals of 
fact and logic, and, accordingly, apt to be less governed by 
prejudice than are women. 

28. Flexibility is the fourth requirement of this case. 
It is essential that a more vigorous advertising effort be made 
at the outset than will be necessary later on. Furthermore, 
throughout the hot summer months and during the Christmas 
holiday season, when innumerable other and more seasonable 
appeals are being pressed, it will be well to omit for a time all 
advertising effort. Also it is probable that certain cities will 
need a great deal more advertising and perhaps the use of 
larger space units thaij will others. Special effort will doubt- 
less be desired, for instance, in those cities in which are located 
the territorial distributors of this product, and from which 
their salesmen radiate. Important commercial centers should 
receive more attention than intermediate and subordinate 
points. So it is highly important that the medium be flexible, 
decidedly flexible, in order that the use made of it may be 
exactly adapted to the needs of the case. 

29. Thoroughness of covering stands next in order 
among the requirements. There is no reason or excuse for 
passing over any part of the available market. The medium 
must present the message to all the various elements involved 
in the distribution, purchase, and consumption of oleomar- 
garine. The field must be thoroughly covered. 

30. The mechanical possibilities of the medium com- 
prise the sixth requirement. It is quite desirable to present the 
carton, in which the oleomargarine is packed, in its exact colors. 
Artistic and eye-appealing layouts and typography are much to 

30 MEDIUMS § 16 

be preferred. And because the message is addressed chiefly 
to women, it is important that the general effect of the adver- 
tisements be as attractive and pleasing as possible. Photo- 
graphic or half-tone reproduction, however, is not required in 
this case. 

31. Lifetime of appeal, and immediacy or speed 
of action, the two remaining demands, are in this particular 
instance of comparatively minor importance. Of course the 
longer each advertisement retains its freshness, the more valu- 
able it will be. And quickness of action is always desirable. 
But neither of these matters is of very great moment in the 
present case. 


32. Relative Importance. — The relative importance 
of the various requirements of the case as to mediums 
having been determined by analysis, the next step is to rate 
the various possible mediums in order of primary impor- 
tance, secondary importance, and supplementary importance, 
according to the degree in which each of them satisfies these 

Evidently, the first requirement, effect ic'ciiess of inifrcssioii, 
is best satisfied, in descending order, by magazines, newspapers, 
and direct mail advertising; the second, continuity, in similar 
order, by newspapers, outdoor advertising, street-car cards, and 
window and store displays ; the third, elasticity, by newspapers, 
direct mail advertising, and window and store displays ; the 
fourth, flexibility, by newspapers, direct mail advertising, and 
displays; the fifth, thoroughness, by newspapers, outdoor 
advertising, street-car cards, direct mail work, and novelties, 
specialties, etc. ; the sixth, mechanical possibilities, by maga- 
zines, outdoor advertising, street-car cards, direct mail adver- 
tising, and window and store displays ; the seventh, length of 
life, by magazines, outdoor advertising, and street-car cards ; 
and the eighth, speed, by newspapers. 

Considering the relative importance of these several require- 
ments, and the relative degree in which each is fulfilled by the 

§1G All-:01UiMS 37 

several types of mediums, the final ratin,s^ p^iven each class, in 
this particular case, will be as follows : 

Primary : Newspapers ; 

Secondary : Direct mail advertising, and window and store 

Supplementary : Outdoor advertising, street-car cards, 
■jvelties, specialties, etc. 

There are very strong reasons for using magazines, chiefly 
because of the elTectiveness of impression they have to offer — 
especially their very valuable assets of reader confidence, and 
of ihc prestige-insurance and quality-indorsement which they 
give to their advertisers. Magazines have another strong 
claim on the score of mechanical possibilities, l^ut the inelas- 
ticity of this type of medium, resulting in wholly prohibitive 
waste, and consecjuent expense, renders it out of the question 
to use magazines at the present stage of the territorial expan- 
sion of this particular business. 


33. Utilization of Primary Mediums. — Newspapers 
having been selected as the primary mediums for this oleo- 
margarine advertising, the next question is, just how, and 
how heavily, shall newspapers be used — in other words» 
which individual papers, and with what units of space and 
frequency ? 

Here again, as in many other cases, the question must be 
answered solely on the basis of the requirements of the 

Some cities, like some types of mediums, are of considerably 
greater importance, for one reason or another, than others, and 
may be termed, for present purposes, primary cities, while 
others, by contrast, may be considered secondary cities. The 
character of the cities themselves, their importance as news- 
paper centers, as grocery distributing factors and as commer- 
cial and trade concentration points, generally, together with the 
size of their trading districts and the wealth and accessibilitv 


of the siirroimding rural districts dependent upon them and of 
which they form the logical centers, are the chief factors that 
determine in which class, from an advertising standpoint, a 
given city belongs. 

Furthermore, there are a number of cities, located in states 
in which this brand of oleomargarine is sold, in which existing 
local conditions, either of distribution or of possible demand, 
are such as to make the advertising of oleomargarine in them 
at the present time unwise. 

Three different types of cities are therefore presented. In 
the cities of primary importance, a very thorough covering is 
desirable. The two or three or four strongest newspapers, 
depending on local newspaper and oleomargarine conditions, 
should therefore be used. In secondary cities, the one strong- 
est paper will probably prove sufificient. And in all other cities 
of course no paper at all will be employed. 

34. Because effectiveness of impression is the most impor- 
tant requirement, the space used must be relatively large, at 
least at the start. This is particularly true in view of the fact 
that the advertisements will not have the supporting benefit of 
any considerable degree of reader confidence in the mediums 
carrying them. They must therefore depend for their power 
to convince almost entirely upon their own force fulness and 
jmpressiveness. . Large space units will help considerably in 
this, by enabling the advertisement to dominate eflFcctu.'dly the 
entire page upon which it appears. 

But a continuation of large-space advertisements will very 
soon exhaust the available money, so after a few large adver- 
tisements at the start, it will be wise to use smaller space to 
carry on the campaign. The necessary continuity of impres- 
sion — which is the second most important requirement of the 
case — is thus supplied, and without exorbitant and unwar- 
ranted expense. 

In the final analysis, and after all the existing conditions 
have been duly considered, some such schedule of space and 
frequency units as the following will probably be found most 
effective : 






Per Week 


Schedule 1, 




Schedule 2, 











60 in. (15 in. X4 cols.) 

40 in. (10 in.X4 cols.) 

4 full columns 

21 in. (7 in.X3 cols.) 
21 in. (10^in.X2cols.) 

21 in. (7 in.X3 cols.) 
48 in. (12 in.X4 cols.) 





Eighth to " 

Eleventh, •. . . 


' 21 in. (7 in.X3 cols.) 
(or lOi in.X2 cols.) 

48 in. (16in.X3cols.) 



to Sixteenth, 

Seventeenth . 

21 in. (7 in.X3 cols.) 
(or 10^ in.X2 cols.) 

'48 in. (12 in.X4 cols.) 




to Twenty- 
second, In- 

21 in. (7 in.X3 cols.) 
(or m in.X2 cols.) 


. 1 


Figured on a coluinn depth of 21 inches, which is about 
average for city newspapers of the type in this campaign, the 
total space called for b)- this schedule is exactly 1,000 inches, 
or 14,000 lines, in the case of the primary cities, and 664 inches, 
or 9,296 lines, in the case of the secondary cities. Owing to the 
varying depths of column measurements in diiTerent papers, 
the actual total lineage will not be exactly the same in all 


At card rates prevailing at the time this is being written, the 
total cost of running this schedule for a total of 22 weeks, in 
the best newspapers for the purpose in the various primary and 


secondary cities which have been selected in the territory 
throughout which the oleomargarine company operates, 
amounts to almost exactly $50,000. 

This covers the cost of inserting Schedule No. 1 — the heavier 
one, for primary cities — in 29 newspapers located in 24 differ- 
ent primary cities, and Schedule No. 2 — the lighter one — in 
87 newspapers located in 6 primary cities and 71 secondary 
cities, a total of 116 papers and 95 cities, of which 24 arc 
primary cities, and 71 secondary. In each of 21 cities two 
newspapers are necessary for thorough covering, 11 of these 
cities being primary cities and 10 secondary. And in 6 of the 11 
primary cities sufficient thoroughness is secured by giving the 
second newspaper the lighter schedule only — that is, the sched- 
ule regularly intended for secondary cities. 

.35. Utilization of Secondary Mediums. — The ques- 
tion of the most efficient wa\s f)f using the mediums of second- 
ary importance — direct-mail advertising, and window and store 
displays — next should be considered. 

1. Direct-Mail Adzrrtising: The most necessary form of 
direct-mail work in the present case is a booklet, telling the 
true story of this brand of oleomargarine — how it is made, of 
what ingredients, what virtues and special advantages it pos- 
sesses, why and how it should be used. 

Reference will be made to these booklets in all the advertise- 
ments and a copy will be offered to any one who will write for 
it. Reasonable quantities of them will be given to the dealers^ 
for distribution over their coimters. and for envelope stuffers 
to be included with their monthly statements to customers. 
Also, they will be mailed direct, under certain conditions, to 
selected customers of the more important <lealers selling this 

Because of this broadcast distribution, a large edition of 
these booklets will be required. Also, because of the nature of 
the subject, and the purpose of the booklet, color printing 
should be utilized to the fullest possible extent. Probably the 
final printing order will be for an edition of one million book- 
lets, size 3.1X6} inches, consisting of 24 pages and cover, 

§1G MEUIUiMS 41 

printed in six-color offset througjhout, using offset stock, basis 
25X38—50, for the interior, and offset stock, basis 25X38 

— 100. for the cover, to be trimmed flush and two-wire stitched, 
at a total complete approximate cost of $20,875. 

Another necessary piece of direct-mail work is a simple little 
folder or leaflet, written to, and for the benefit of, the retail 
clerks in the stores where this oleomargarine is sold. This 
leaflet is intended to explain to them the various selling argu- 
ments that have proved most effective in connection with this 
brand of oleomargarine, the best methods of overcoming cus- 
tomers' prejudice, the most tactful ways to introduce the prod- 
uct to customers who are not familiar with its merits, and so on. 
Also this leaflet will outline to the clerks the details of the 
advertising campaign, and the reasons why they individually 
should cooperate in it. 

These leaflets will be the same size as the larger booklet, 
3:iX6^ inches, and will consist of eight pages with self cover, 
pages one, two, seven, and eight being printed in two colors, 
balance one color. On India-finish antique stock, basis 31X41 

— 90, trimmed flush and two-wire stitched, these will cost, in a 
one hundred thousand lot, approximately $625 complete. 

In the particular case of this oleomargarine campaign, 
because of the closeness and frequency of contact between the 
salesmen and the distributing trade, both jobbers and retailers, 
these two booklets are the only form of direct-mail work 

In other cases, various other forms of mail work might be 
required, both to familiarize the trade with the details of 
the advertising campaign, and to supplement and reinforce the 
advertising to prospective consumers that appears in the 
primary mediums. 

It is rather unusual for no direct-mail pieces to be called for 
as part of an advertising campaign. Generally from one to 
three special folders or broadsides, featuring the importance of 
the advertising to the dealer, and of the dealer to the advertis- 
ing, are mailed to the retail and jobbing trade (present and 
prospective), supplemented by from one to a dozen foUow-up 
letters, cards, and other forms of special mailing pieces. 


2. Window and Store Display Material: The more valu- 
able forms of window and store display material in the case 
under consideration are as follows : 

A store card, in full colors, about 11X21 inches in size. 
This rather larger-than-usual size permits any dealer, who so 
desires, to run the card in his local street cars ; of course, before 
so doing he has been sure to have his own name and address 
prominently imprinted. In quantities of ten thousand these 
cards will cost approximately $900. 

A large, handsome cut-out, lithographed in seven colors, on 
twelve-ply cardboard, 14X22 inches in size, and equipped with 
easel back to enable it to stand alone. This is designed to form 
the central piece of dealers' window displays. In lots of five 
thousand, the total cost will be in the neighborhood of $2,000. 

Three zvindoxv pasters, lithographed in six colors, and com- 
prising one center panel, or window strip, about 12X48 inches 
in size, for the upper middle of the window, and two correlated 
side panels, or columns, of about the same dimensions, the 
designs of which face each other, to be used in the two 
sides of the window. The cost of hve thousand of each of 
these three pasters, or fifteen thousand in all, will be about 

A dccalcomania transfer sign, for dealers' windows or glass 
doors, to identify the stores that carry the brand of oleomar- 
garine in question. In three-thousand lots, these decalcoma- 
nias, about 7X9 inches in size, in five colors, will cost about 

An exterior steel flange sign, lithographed in seven colors, 
size 14X20 inches (this includes the 2-inch flange), for the 
outside of oleomargarine dealers' stores. In three-thousand 
lots, these will cost approximately $1,950. 

Three designs for lantern slides, and two hundred slides of 
each design, at an aggregate cost of about $120. To this should 
be added about 5 cents extra for each set of three, or a total of 
about $10 extra, for imprinting the name of the local dealer. 

Another one hundred dollars or so will be re(iuired for an 
adequate supply of dummy cartons, for window display use by 
dealers handling the line. 

§ir> MEDIUMS 43 

Under this same general heading of window and store dis- 
play and dealer helps may he mentioned a couple of closely 
associated matters. One such is the furnishing of a complete 
electrotype service — including electros of the carton and the 
hrand name, in several different sizes — for dealers' use in their 
local advertising in newspapers and on circulars, hills, memo- 
randum pads, etc. The total cost of this will not exceed $100. 
And perhaps the most vital point of all is the preparation of 
the portfolios for the oleomargarine salesmen to carry and 
show to the dealers upon whom they call. These portfolios 
depict and visualize every phase of the company's advertising 
efforts, including reproductions of the actual copy that is to be 
run in the primary mediums; a list of the mediums that will 
carry this advertising, with a detailed statement of their circu- 
lation ; reproduction of the various dealer helps, such as the 
electros, slides, and the various types of display material ; and 
so forth. About 150 of these portfolios will be needed, in 
order to provide one for each oleomargarine salesman. They 
will cost approximately two dollars apiece, or a total of 

Added up. all these various items included under the broad 
head of store and window displays and general sales helps 
aggregate an estimated cost of about $7,180. 


:{6. Bringing the Expenditures Within the Appro- 
priation.— The fourth and final step in the selection and 
determination of mediums is to begin at the bottom of the list 
of proposed or desired mediums and eliminate upwards, until 
the total expenditure is brought within the limitations of the 
original appropriation. 

In the case under consideration the general rating of the 
different types of mediums has been determined upon as fol- 

Primary : Newspapers ; 

Secondary: Direct-mail advertising, and window and store 
displays ; 


Supplementary : Outdoor advertising, street-car cards, 
novelties, specialties, 

The most efficient methods of utilizing these several mediums 
have been determined upon as follows : 

Nczcspapcrs: A twenty-two weeks' campaign in 116 papers, 
aggregating 1.000 inches each in 29 of them, and 664 inches 
each in the remaining 87, at a total cost of just about $50,000. 

Direct-Mail Advertising: A twenty-four page booklet cost- 
ing, for an edition of one million copies, approximately $20,875 ; 
and an eight-page leaflet, costing for an edition of one hundred 
tliousand approximately $625; a total for direct-mail work of 
about $21,500. 

IVindcn^' and Store Displays: Store card, cut-out, two win- 
dow pasters and one window strip, transfer sign, steel flange 
sign, three lantern-slide designs and 600 slides, electrotype ser- 
vice, dummy cartons, and 150 salesmen's portfolios, at a total 
cost in the neighborhood of $7,200. 

These items added together make the total estimated expen- 
diture about $78,700. 

37. It is apparent at once that, as listed, the primary and 
secondary mediums will require all of the available money, if 
they are to be used efficiently and to best advantage. In other 
words, there will be no money left over, this first year, for the 
supplementary mediums ; namely, outdoor advertising, street- 
car advertising, novelties, specialties, etc. Of course, there 
should always be a certain reserve fund for advertising emer- 
gencies of one sort or another ; probably before the year is over 
each of these supplementary mediums will be used to a certain 
extent — just why. when, where, and how to be determined by 
circumstances and conditions as they arise. 

But in this case it is not going to be enough merely to elimi- 
nate those mediums which stand at the very bottom of the list. 
In order to get the total cost within the limits of the appropria- 
tion, it is going to be necessary further to cut down the expense 
by still other eliminations from the list. 

Because of the particular importance, this first year, of the 
various secondary mediums, it wouM b? quite unwise to 

5<1() Ml'.DIUMS - 45 

attempt to save money in tlie use made of them. The large 
item for the booklets, for instance, cannot well be reduced. A 
striking, impressive, carefull\' prepared booklet is of hrst 
importance, and the quantity needed is great. Furthermore, to 
try to save money by cutting down the quantity would increase 
the cost per booklet, as only by large press runs can real 
economy be secured in matters of this kind. Of course the 
direct-mail advertising expense another year will be only a 
small part of what it is this first year. 

To try to save money in the matter of store and window dis- 
play material would be equally injudicious. Here again, the 
old adage of "Penny wise and pound foolish" applies force- 
fully. No advertising campaign of this sort could attain any- 
thing like the success it should and could have, unless the dis- 
play work done in the store and the influence exerted upon 
the dealer are both adequate and effective. 

1 he present instance is somewhat exceptional in that so large 
a part of the total first year's expenditure is directed into 
secondary mediums rather than primary. It should be remem- 
bered, however, that most of this basic foundation work had 
never been put in before, that no advertising structure can grow 
soundly and solidly without it, and that in succeeding years a 
much larger proportion of the total appropriation will be 
expended in those mediums which actually reach out into the 
highways and byways of commerce and tell the story of the 
desirability of the product directly to the consumer in her 

It must never be forgotten, however, that advertising, like 
an iceberg, reveals to the observer only a small part of its 
immense structure. In each case the hidden part is the vital 
part. Just as that one-tenth of the iceberg which the human 
eye can see owes its existence solely and wholly to the nine- 
tenths which is invisible, because under the water, so the visible 
and apparent factors in advertising — the printed advertise- 
ments in the periodicals — depend absolutely for their success 
upon the unseen and generally unknown and unsuspected 
foundation work which has been put in, in the form of dealer 
efforts and merchandising plans and projects. 

40 MEDIUMS . §16 

So there remains, in this particulir case, no other alternative 
than to cut down the sum of money to be spent in the primary 
mediums. It will hardly be safe to do this by either shortening 
the length of the campaign, or by reducing the units of space 
and frequency. Too much is at stake to justify any half-way 
procedure. There is accordingly nothing left except to post- 
pone, until another year, the opening up of those territories and 
cities which are of lesser immediate importance. In other 
words, the list of cities must be cut down a little. Just how 
this can be done most judiciously, and with the minimum sacri- 
fice of effectiveness, depends wholly upon the local oleomar- 
garine-market conditions obtaining in the different cities and 
territories. Accurate and detailed knowledge of such condi- 
tions forms the only sound basis upon which this cutting can 
safely be undertaken. 

In the case under consideration, careful checking up of local 
marketing obstacles and aids finally resulted in the elimination 
of nine primary cities, in which it had been planned to use 
10 papers carrying the heavier schedule and 4 papers carrying 
the lighter one, and of 30 secondary cities in which the earlier 
plans had called for 35 papers carrying the lighter schedule. 

As finally approved, therefore, the newspaper list was con- 
stituted as follows : Nineteen newspapers, receiving the 
heavier schedule, located in 15 primary cities, and 52 news- 
papers, receiving the lighter schedule, located in 4 primary 
cities and 41 secondary cities. This makes a total of 71 papers, 
and 56 cities, of which 15 are primary and 41 secondary. In 
each of 15 cities 2 papers are needed, 8 of these being primary 
cities and 7 secondary. Half of these 8 primary cities require 
the heavier schedule in both papers, wliile the other 4 are well 
covered by giving only one paper the heavier schedule and the 
second paper the lighter one. 

The total cost of the 22 weeks' campaign in these 71 news- 
papers, at their card rates in force at the time of writing this, 
is approximately $30,300. It will be seen, by comparison with 
the original plans, that this figure reduces the year's expendi- 
ture by about $19,700. bringing down the total — including all 
secondary as well as primary mediums — to about $59,000. 

i< 1() MEDIUMS 47 

This is sufficiently under the total appropriation of $60,000 
to leave just barely enough margin for safety, and for such 
emergency expenditures as unforeseen conditions may render 
desirable, later on in the year. 


38. The subject of the use of advertising mediums is as 
broad as all advertising itself. This is not the place to attempt 
any comprehensive discussion of this all-inclusive topic. A 
good deal has necessarily already been said with regard to it, 
in connection with the consideration that has been given to the 
functions and characteristics of the various types and kinds of 
mediums, particularly in the discussions of the comparative 
advantages of different classes of mediums, the various peculi- 
arities of their use, and the underlying principles governing 
their competitive selection. Such further treatment of the sub- 
ject as shall be here undertaken accordingly will be very brief 
and very general in its nature and application. Effort will be 
made only to outline the chief fundamentals and to explain the 
basic rules. 


39. So far as practicable, the advertising message that a 
selected medium is to carry should be adapted and made as 
appropriate as possible to that particular kind of medium. 

This applies both as regards the substance and the form of 
presentation of the message. That is, of all the many kinds of 
appeal and of all the various sales arguments in favor of the 
commodity advertised, those particular ones should be singled 
out for use in a given medium which will make the strongest 
impression upon the readers of that one medium. And simi- 
larly, those arguments should be arrayed and presented in that 
physical form which will produce the most telling effect upon 
the audience to which these arguments are addressed. 

In other words, both the style and the atmosphere of the 
copy should fit — be in thorough keeping with both the nature 




of the commodity advertised and with the character of the 
medium used. Whenever possible, the advertisement should 
"observe the occasion" — speak the language of the reader, play 
upon his special weaknesses, anticipate and annihilate his par- 
ticular objections, galvanize into favorable action his pet 
excuses for inaction. 

Luzianne and Corn Pone 

WHEN you see your mammy, Honey, 
bringin' in the coffee and the pone, you 
can tell before you taste it that the coffee's 
Luzianne— sure-nuf— by the whifsa-streaming, 
steaming in the air. 

It's the coffee — Luzianne — you remember 
and you hanker after it until you get another 

Luzianne Coffee (your grocer has it) comes 
put up in tins. Try it tomorrow morning for 
breakfast. If it isn't all you expea, you can 
get your money back. 

Luzianne for aroma, fragrance and snap. 
Try it. 


■ When It 
Pours, It 

l"iu. 3 

Sometimes it is desirable to carry this principle of copy spe- 
cialization right down to its logical conclusion — in other words, 
individual treatment for individual cases. This is rarely desir- 
able, excei)t when only a very few mediums are to be used, or 
when the space and cost unit is large enough to warrant the 




additional expense ol 
p repa ring specially 
adapted copy for each 
medium on the list. 

Fig. 3 shows the 
adaptation of the copy 
to use in a Southern 
newspaper, Fig. 4, the 
copy made suitable for 
a navy magazine, and 
in Fig. 5 the copy is' 
suitable to a motion- 
picture publication. So 
there may be adver- 
tisements that fit each 
class of publications 
just a little better than 
they do those of any 
other, whether they be 
trade, technical, agri- 
cultural, or class publi- 

40. A good illus- 
tration of specialized 
copy is afforded by 
certain trade-paper and 
business-paper adver- 
tising of the National 
Cash Register Com- 
pany. This advertising 
is so well specialized 
that the several publi- 
cations devoted to each 
different trade or in- 
dustry or division of 
commerce — and liter- 
lUv hundreds of them 

"Give Vay" 

If Ryzon and the RvzoN Baking 
Book are assisting in the galley, there 
is good reason to heave-to on the 
oars when shore-leave is over. 


and its mate the Ryzon Baking Book 
make baking better and safer. RvzON 
is healthful and efficient. The Baking 
Book is accurate — all recipes are given 
in weights and level measurements. 

Good grocers supply these books. 

To any U.S. 
Army or Navy 
mess officer, 
who requests it 
on his official 
stationery, we 
will send free 
a copy of the 
Ryzon Baking 
Book priced at 



Fig. 4 

I L T 102C— 5 

FHckerless Light with this Lamp 



It ha> been teri.iin fmni the bcginninf; tlut 
there would emc day be a NATKJNAL MAZDA 
limp with which mution pictures could be projected 
at a practical cost. 

Here it is. 

This lamp gives an nl'>'}liilel\ flickerless liijhl! 

It sharpens and steadies the pictures. Once 
focused, it requires no iidjiitlmenl. It leaves the 
operator "nothing to watch but the film." and he 
is therefore able to devote all his attention to giving 
you better pictures. 

It reduces the fire hazard. It does not, like 
other illuminants" used in projecting pictures, con- 
taminate and overheat the air in" the operator's booth 
and threaten his health. 

Because of these many advantages, N.'\TIONAI., 
MAZD.-\ will rapidly supplant the older light sources 
in motion picture projection — juil as il has sufplniXeJ 
lluiii priiilinilly e-.irylihfrf ehe. 

For full information about this new lamp or for help on anv 
cheater Jighting problem, write your supply house or -Nela $l>e- 
cialties Division, N.niional Lamp Works of General RIecinr Co . 
136 Ncia I'iitk. Cleveland, Ohio.' 



Fig. S 

S 10 

M En 11 IMS 


are used by this advertiser sonic years — each and all carry 
specially prepared copy, which presents to those engaged in 
that particular trade or industry the special reasons whv 

"This N. C. R. statement tells exactly how I stand" 

Mr. Banker — • 

The merthanl whose store is equipped 
with the N. C. R. system deserves your 
special credit consideration. 

With this system the merchant has 
complete control o( his business. 

A National Cash Register enforces a 
correct unchangeable record of every store 

It enforces accuracy and |ireveiils 

The N. C. R. credit filr trlls al all 
times how much is tied up m outstandiiii; 

This complete N. C. R. store system 
protects the merchant's profit and makes 
him a good credit risk. 

It enables him to give you a lull and 
reliable statement of his business. 

Bankers and wholesalers find it prof- 
itable to protect their loans by recom- 
mending the N. C. R. system. 

The National Cash Register Company 
Dayton, Ohio 

Fig. 6 

National cash registers are indispensable in that particular 
kind of business or industry. The article advertised remains 
unchanged — the basic proposition itself is always essentially 




the same. But the individual appeal developed is in each and 
every case specialized and focalized upon the particular readers 
to whom it is addressed. 

A hotel checking system that "checks" 

The N. C. R. checking system is posi- 
tive, quick and accurate. 

( 1 ) It prints amounts on checks in large, 
legible figures. 

(2) Amounts are printed in a straight 
column making it easy for guests and 
cashier to read. 

(3) It is very fast. 

(4) It protects the house against collusion. 

(5) It protects your good will with guests 
by preventing overcharges. 

For these reasons, you should instal the 
Fill and mail counon 

(6) It provides an instant balance when 
watches are changed. 

(7) It enables owner, manager or auditor 
to check records from registering add- 
ing wheels — no pencil or other records 
that can be changed. 

(8) ll classifies the business — cigar counter, 
bar, kitchen and so on. 

(9) ll can quickly be adjusted to meet 
special rush in any department. 

A'. C. R. checking system, 


National Cash Register Company, Dayton, Ohio 

Please send me at once (ull particulars about the N. C. R. chrcliing system tfiat "checks." 

Name— — 


Fig. 7 

FijT. 6 shows cash-register copy as prepared for a bankers' 
nrigazine, I'^ig. 7 for hotel men's trade papers, and l-'ig. 8 for 
automobile trade papers. 




41. In one of the advertising campaigns of the Globe- 
W'ernicke Company, speciaHzed copy was prepared for each one 


Avoid Disputes With Customers 

You cannot afford disputes. They 
are costly in cash and customers. 

It will pay to prevent them father 
than have to adjust them. 

The N. C. R. system in your 
garage will prevent disputes and pro- 
tect you and your customers. 

But disputes are only one of the 
troubles in the garage business. 

The N. C. R. system will prevent 
troubles by enforcing correct records. 

It protects your profits. 

It enables you to tell nght where you 
stand in volume of sales and profits. 

C'»-(o-</olc NM, 

Install the N. C. R. system in your garage. 
For details send this coupon today. 

To Dept. 

National Cash Register Co., Dayton, Ohio 

__, — rTB- »- ^ Please send me full particulais of your cash 
~ ■ tS>«^3j register appropnale for llie garage business, and tlie 
new N. C. R. Credit File. ■ 



Fig. 8 

of 21 distinct divisions into which the fifty-odd mediums used 
in that campaign were classified. Those divisions were as fol- 
lows : 






Home Furnisliing 


















Not only did each class of medium carry copy the particu- 
larized appeal of which was believed to be the strongest which 
could possibly be addressed directly to the readers of that class 
of medium, but also each separate advertisement in each 
medium differed from every other advertisement in that or any 
other medium. In other words, every single advertisement, in 
every single publication, was different. Such specialization as 
this is, of course, quite rare. 


42. The danger of copy specialization is that uniformity of 
impression is thereby often sacrificed. The more advertising 
copy is specialized, therefore, the more essential it becomes 
that some means be adopted for unifying and tying together all 
the various elements in the advertising work. 

What Emerson said of Nature is equally applicable to adver- 
tising. "Nature," said he, "is an endless combination and repe- 
tition of a very few laws. She hums the old well-known air 
through innumerable variations." So with advertising. Varied 
and specialized though copy may be, it is essential that the "old 
air" be hummed throughout. 

Ui. Methods of Securins 'Correlation. — Usually the 
best method for linking up thu diff'erent lines of attack is to 
utilize one or more common, and more or less invariable, 
identifying agencies, such as : 

1. A trade character — either animated or in stationary pose. 
]'Vjr example : . The Victor dog, with ears cocked listening to 
"his master's voice"; Rastus, the Cream of Wheat darkey; 
Velvet Joe ; Walter Baker & Co.'s La Belle Chocolatiere ; the 
lillle fairy of Eairy .Son]); r.oldic and l)iist, the (h)I(1 Oust 

§lfi MEDIUMS 55 

Twins ; the bull, of Dull Durhani tobacco ; the 1847 girl ; the 
re-tire-ing lad of Fisk tires; the Dutch-boy painter of National 
Lead ; the Corticelli silk kittens ; the Campbell Soup kids ; the 
Old Dutch Cleanser dirt-chasing girl; the National Jiiscuit 
In-er-seal slicker boy; Mr. & Mrs. Carter's Inx; Swift's little 
cook ; the O-Cedar Polish parlor maid ; the Clicquot Ginger Ale 
Esquimaux boy; Omar, of c;g::rette fame; the Quaker, of 
Quaker Oats: the little French chef of Franco-American 
Soups ; Armour's "Ham what am" darkey. 

2. A standardised suggestive, descriptive, or explanatory 
phrase or slogan. For example: "99t*oV7o pure"; "Hasn't 
scratched yet"; "Your nose knows"; "Ask dad, he knows"; 
"Not the name of a thing, but the mark of a service"; "Have 
you a little fairy in your home?"; "Pure as the pines"; "Note 
the notes" ; "There's a photographer in your town" ; "It floats" ; 
"United States Tires are good tires"; "The national joy 
smoke"; "Clear as a bell"; "A clean tooth never decays"; 
"Good Morning! have you used Pear's Soap?"; "There's a 
reason" ; "Ask the man who owns one" ; "Eventually, why not 
now?"; "The Prudential has the strength of Gibraltar"; 
"Chase's dirt" ; "No metal can touch you" ; "Let the Gold Dust 
twins do your work"; "One policy, one system, universal 
service" ; "There is beauty in every jar" ; "A skin you love to 
touch"; "A shilling in London; a quarter here"; "A sensible 
cigarette"; "Who's your tailor?"; "From contented cows"^; 
"Taste the taste"; "The stationery of a gentleman" ;^^ "Don't 
envy a good complexion ; use Pompeian and have one" ; "The 
recollection of quality remains long after the price is for- 
gotten" ; "Get a receipt" ; "Good-bye, old hook and eye." 
^ 3 A prominent fccturing of the trade mark. For example : 
The United States Rubber Co.'s great seal; the Gerhard Men- 
nen's talcum-powder face ; the Armour & Co. oval label ; the 
National Biscuit Co.'s "In-er-seal" trade mark; the Hemz "57 
Varieties" ; the Henry Sonneborn & Co. face ; the cross of 
Purity Cross products; W. K. Kellogg's signature; the Santa 
Fe circular trade mark; the two Smith Brothers' heads; the 
"Y-a-l-e" trade mark of Yale & Towne ; the "G. E." trade 
mark of the General Electric Co. ; the trade-mark portrait of 

56 MEDIUMS §10 

\V. L. Douglas, the shoe manufacturer; the "Johns-AIanville 
service covers the continent" trade-mark design of the H. W. 
Johns-Manville Co. ; the grinning Indian's head of Skookum 
Apples; the Beech Nut Packing Co.'s label; the kneeling figure 
design of Paris garters ; the B. V. D. red label. 

4. A sta}uianli::cd art or layout treatment. For example: 
The Cox Gelatine checkerboard background ; the National 
Carbon Co.'s billboard featuring advertisements of Columbia 
batteries ; the striking blue background and blue ribbon of 
United States Tire advertisements; The American Sugar Refi- 
ning Co.'s standardized layout, type face, and distinctive cut- 
cornered double rule border ; the International Correspondence 
Schools' standardized coupon ; the Pall Mall cigarettes' vari- 
colored whirligigs, pinwheels, peacocks' tails, and dragons ; the 
regularly employed distinctiveness of style and arrangement of 
the advertising of the National Cash Register Co., the Goodyear 
Tire & Rubber Co., the Eastman Kodak Co., the Joseph Camp- 
bell Soup Co., Ivory Soap, Old Dutch Cleanser, the Florsheim 
Shoe Co., Arrow Collars, Cream of Wheat, the ^^^ L. Douglas 
Shoe Co. ; Munsingwear ; the circle design of Lucky Strike 

Sometimes this standardization of art or layout takes the 
form of an invariable border design ; for example, the Atlas 
Portland Cement Co. ; Pyrene fire extinguisher ; the Regal 
Shoe Co.; the Westinghouse Electric and Manufacturing Co.; 
the Library Bureau. 

Sometimes it takes the form of a standardized typographical 
treatment ; for example. Tiffany & Co. ; the Hupmobile auto- 
mobile ; the Gorham Co. 

Sometimes it takes the form of a permanent space unit ; for 
example, the American Telephone & Telegraph Co. ; Dodge 
Bros, automobiles ; the Newskin Co. ; the W'estern Union Tele- 
graph Co. ; Le Page's glue. 

5. A distinctive copy style, cither of idea, diction, or phrase- 
ology. For example : The man-to-man slang of Prince 
Albert tobacco advertising; the Pyrene fire extinguisher 
frenzied terror-of-fire copy ; the gentle philosophizing of \^el- 
vet Joe regarding time-cured X^elvet tobacco : I'atima cigarettes" 

§16 MEDIUMS 57 

terse, snappy phrases, describing some occasion, and culmi- 
nating with " — and Fatinias!"; the "Your nose knows" varia- 
tions developed for Tuxedo tobacco ; the "boy who pegged 
shoes" biographical scries of W. L. Douglas Shoes; the genial, 
irrepressible good nature and good cheer of the Western Clock 
Co.'s Big Ben advertisements. 

6. A sfa>idardi::cd style of illustration, most often of the 
article, the package, or the carton. For example: The Ryzon 
Baking Powder can and book; the 3-in-l oil bottle; the Nujol 
bottle and clock ; the M. Leone Bracker illustrations for Velvet 
Joe tobacco ; the chart of recommendations for different makes 
of automobiles featured in the Vaccum Oil Co.'s "Gargoyle" 
Mobiloils advertisements ; the party-of-tourists-sailing-on-a- 
huge-travelers'-check illustration of the x^merican Bankers' 
Association ; the. Forkum fairyland illustrations of Djer-Kiss 
toilet requisites ; the Cushman Parker portraits for \\'elch 
Grape Juice ; the Underwood Deviled Ham silhouette illustra- 
tions ; the "bent bones vs. straight bones" illustration of 
Rice & Hutchins' Educator Shoes. 

44. A Practical Example of Correlation. — Often- 
times a number of different unifying elements are utilized at 
one and the same time. One of the best examples of this may 
be found in a recent campaign of the American Tobacco Com- 
pany in behalf of Tuxedo tobacco. This campaign was to a 
considerable extent specialized. Week by week the copy had 
such timeliness as the following examples indicate : 

In early spring, "How do you know there was a shower last 
night?" In early April, "How do you know the garden's being 
spaded?" In late spring, "How do you know that spring is in 
the air?" In early May, "How do you know they're mowing 
the lawn?" Later in May, "How do you know the blossom's 
on the clover?" In late May, "How do you know it's a carna- 
tion?" In June, "Flow do you know the locust trees are in 
bloom?" In late June, "How do you know your neighbor's 
sweet peas are out?" In July, "How do you know the lilacs 
are in bloom?" In August, "How do you know you're among 
the water lilies?" In late August, "How do you know ma's 

58 Mi:i)lUMS §1G 

putting up preserves?" In September. "How do you know that 
dinner's ready?" (when you are in camp). In October, "How 
do you know it's apple season ?" In late October, "How do you 
know mother's baking apple pies?" In November. "How do 
you know it's Thanksgiving?" 

In spite, however, of this specialization of copy, all of the 
many advertisements in this campaign were very carefully 
linked together and correlated. This was accomplished by 
utilizing, to some extent, practically all of the six methods of 
correlation that have already been described. 

A trade character was employed, in that the same man 
appears as the hero of each and every illustration. The stand- 
ardized suggestive and descriptive phrase used was, of course, 
"Your nose knows," which constituted the invariable answer to 
the varying "How do you know" c|uestions which comprised 
the headings of the different advertisements. 

And while no actual registered trade mark was used, its 
etpiivalent, in the form of at least three ditferfnt distinguishing 
marks, appeared in each design ; namely, the special lettering of 
the name "Tuxedo," the script signature of the American 
Tobacco Company, and the two small circular illustrations 
accompanying the "Why this test" instructions. Both the art 
work and the layouts were thoroughly standardized, one artist 
only being employed for the former, and no liberties whatso- 
ever being taken with the latter. The copy style was exceed- 
ingly distinctive, both as to idea and as to execution, and the 
method of handling it was consistent throughout. Finally, the 
illustration of the two kinds of packages in which Tuxedo is 
packed was standardized throughout the entire series of adver- 

45. Whatever be the method adopted, the essential thing 
is to make each separate piece of copy reinforce and supplement 
each other piece, rather than compete against it. One piece 
should fit in with another as one cog wheel tits the oilu-r. The 
advertisements appearing in different mediums should be 
welded into one harmonious consolidated whole, then there 
should be unity between the copy ])laced in different elassifica- 




tions and types of mediums, and also between the advertising in 
tlie primary mediums and in tlic secondary and the supple- 
mentary mediums; for instance, the use of the same illustra- 







Tire Service 

Road Signs 

y^y lot till 0JII004 Tirt Diilfibu' 

Hood Tire Signs are a new serv- 
ice to motor car owners through- 
out the highways of America. 

Right in front of you, at dangerous points, 
they caution you night and day. 

Hood Tire Signs also suggest lo you a tire 
that has created new standards of dura- 
bility, of wear and dependability. 

They remind you of the sign of the Hood 
dealer where Hood service awaits you in 
the nearest city or town. 

These signs are a national etfort to give 
every Hood Tire user a road service equal 
to the service which they obtain from 
Hood Tires upon their cars. 

Watch the Hood Tire Signs. 

Look for the sign of the Hood dealer. 
He will tell you wherein Hood Tires and 
Service will reduce your mileage cost. 

Hood Tire Co., Inc. 

VVatertown, Massachusetts 

Fir.. 9 

and for hill- 

tion for newspaper and magazine advertising 
hoards and for store or window cards. 

Napoleon is quoted as saying, with reference to a proposal 
to send two dilTcrent French armies into Italv, "If yoti disturb 




in Italy the unity of military thought, I say it with grief, you 

will lose the hnest opportunity that ever occurred ." 

To this master of military strategy, any disturbance of the unity 
and coherency of action and control was unthinkably disastrous. 

Three times as much light as uld-fishioncd 
carbon hnnps Or the &ame tight tor one- 
third the current That's the economy in 

ftxe to d tanon ~ luoJjr u^'u^ >ou nctid I'lcn 


Fig. 10 

And the unity of advertising thought is, in its own field, as 
indispensable as is the "unity of military thought" in its field. 
Here, then, is one case where the whole may be made mate- 
rially greater than the sum of its parts, and each part be made 

§ Hi Ml'.DlUiMS Gl 

to stand out more clearly, by virtue of the reflected light from 
some other part. Team work is just as essential to the success 
of an advertising campaign as it is to the winning of a baseball 

Fig. 9 shows how the advertiser may correlate his magazine 
advertising and his outdoor advertising. Fig. 10 illustrates a 
good tie-up between magazine advertising and window display. 


46. A good deal depends upon the proper adaptation of the 
physical form and arrangement of advertisements to the par- 
ticular mechanical requirements of the mediums in which they 
are to appear. The general layout effect, and the character of 
art work employed, should be appropriate and suitable. Other- 
wise the advertiser fails to make the most of the medium. 

If the medium be one that is examined at close range, and 
generally at the reader's comparative leisure — such a medium, 
for instance, as a newspaper or a magazine — it is usually well 
to go into much greater detail, both as regards text matter and 
also illustrations, than if the medium be of the long-range, 
purely interruptive, catch-them-on-the-fly type, such as a bill- 
board poster, or a motion-picture slide, or a window-display 

If the medium be of the periodical class, then the style of art 
treatment will depend entirely upon the mechanical possibilities 
of the medium. Most women's magazines, for example, are 
printed on calendered paper of very good quality, permitting of 
delicate and highly artistic art work, including the succe^ful 
reproduction of either minutely detailed photographs, on the 
one hand, or of shadowy, impressionistic ones on the oflier; 
the finest and most intricate pen-and-ink drawings ; the won- 
derful depth and tones of good etchings, or the soft blendings 
of light and shade in crayon and charcoal drawings. 

Many agricultural papers, on the other hand, utilize cheap 
newsprint paper on which good results can be secured only by 
the use of line cuts. In them, therefore, a considerably modified 
and simplified style of art treatment is desirable. 

ii-2 .MI'.DIL'.Ms §10 

Other kinds of magazines present still other possibilities and 
limitations, such, for example, as rotogravure, intaglio, and 
otTset color priming. A number of the class magazines olTer 
excellent four-color-process printing at a cost low enough to 
justify the addition of a color page or two, in one or more of 
them, quite as much for the sake of such supplementary uses 
as can be made of these color pages along merchandising lines 
as for their own normal consumer value. 

47. The nature of the medium has a great deal to do with 
the determination of space unics. If the advertisement is of 
such a character as to demand or justify domination over all 
neighboring advertisements, then the space unit will be largely 
decided by (1) the size of the page ; (2) the method of making 
it up; and (3) the probable nature and number and size of the 
other advertisements likely to appear on it. Each of these three 
factors is of course a variable one, depending solely upon llu- 
medium itself. vSo the type of medium should receive due 
consideration in the determination of units of space. 

48. As a general thing, and subject to many exceptions, it 
may safely be said that the present trend of experienced adver- 
tisers is clearly in the direction of using larger and larger units 
of space. This is true with but comparatively few exceptions 
so far as general-publicity advertising is concerned; that is, 
advertising whose chief purpose and function is to tell a story, 
to preach a commercial sermon, and thereby convert readers 
into an attitude of greater friendliness and greater desire to 
purchase, use, or recommend the -commodity advertised. 

There is no general rule as regards large or small space units 
in the case of advertising the chief purpose of which is a direct 
return of some kind or other — either a mail order, or an inquiry, 
or a request for a booklet, or sample, or whatever else the 
advertising may urge the reader to send for. Advertisers of 
this type, of course, have the benefit of a definite means of 
checking up the returns received from any given advertise- 

§10 aii:diuais . G.; 

nicnt, since their system of keyinj^ all advertisements enables 
them to figure very closely just what each inquiry and each sale 
produced by a given advertisement costs. In sucli cases, a 
certain space unit is sooner or later found to be most econom- 
ical and therefore most eflicient. Ordinarily, this most effective 
space unit is neither very small nor very large. Even in such 
cases as these, however, the general tendency seems to be in the 
direction of larger spaces rather than smaller. 

Some shrewd advertisers have found it more effective to 
increase the number of their insertions in a given issue of a 
given publication and limit each insertion to whatever size has 
been found most efficient, rather than to combine these several 
smaller insertions into a single advertisement of much larger 

Every case is a law unto itself, and every case must be judged 
upon its own merits entirely. Just as the medicine which the 
doctor orders depends wholly upon his diagnosis of the patient's 
condition, so the s[)ace unit utilized by an advertiser nnist be 
determined by analysis and sludy of tliat advertiser's condition 
in all of its varied aspects. 


49. Frequency of insertion is obviously afifected in high 
degree by the frequency of issue or appearance of the medium, 
and by its normal average duration of life. Here again, how- 
ever, each and every advertising problem presents some new 
phase or other, and the ultimate decision must rest chiefly upon 
the individual requirements of the case in point. 


50. Advertisers usually try to avail themselves of every 
advantage of position that a medium offers. In making use of 
different kinds of mediums it is accordingly helpful to know 
just what are the regulations and the habits of each with regard 
to this matter. Definite knowledge concerning position require- 
ments is almost indispensable in all cases where color is 

04 Mi:i)ll'MS §10 

involved, where coupons are to be utilized, or where the layout, 
or actual text matter of an advertisement is of such a nature 
as in any way to presuppose a particular location on the page, 
or on some special page, or a certain location in relation to any 
permanentlv fixed feature, such as a margin, a gutter (made by 
the two inside white margins) between two pages facing each 
other, or some regular editorial fixture. 

When a coupon is used, it is, of course, desirable to have the 
coupon located along either an outside or a bottom margin, 
()referably both, in order to reduce to the minimum the trouble 
involved in tearing or cutting it off. So the whole layout of 
the advertisement is very largely dependent upon the posi- 
tion which it is to occupy in the medium that is to carry it. 

I'he same thing is true in the case of special locations or 
special pages. If a double-page spread in a magazine is con- 
templated, for instance, it is important to know whether or not 
the two center pages can be secured. If so. one unbroken 
design and one large plate will answer for both pages, as the 
center gutter between the two type pages will form an integral 
part of the whole. If, however, the center spread is unobtain- 
able, and it is a case of using some other two pages facing, then 
the layout must allow for the two inside white margins, com- 
monly called the gutter, and two plates will be required instead 
of one. 

Fig. 11 shows how one advertiser tied together the two pages 
of an. advertisement. Another advertiser worked into the 
double-page illustration the trunk of a large tree, one half 
of it on one side of the gutter and the other half on the 
opposite side, thus binding the two pages into one whole 
almost as well as if the two center pages of the magazine 
had been used. 

Again, if the adopted space unit be small, in comparison with 
the size of the page and the size of the average advertisement 
appearing on it, then it will be well worth while to pay the extra 
charges made for special position on the page. Otherwise there 
will be danger that the advertisement may be so obscured and 
overshadowed as to sufiFer heavily in efficiency, or perhaps even 
be overlooked and lost entirely. 

"Just Like This" 

"This glass stopper furnishes a handy illustration of 
the tapered construction of a Tiniken Bearing, which 
resists end-prcssurc and offsets the effect of wear. 

"When I put this stopper in its place it fits. It docs 
not drop dou-n through the neck of the bottle, because 
it is tapered. 

"Just so the heavy side-wise lurch of your car on 
the rough road, or the steady pressure as you round the 
comer, cannot push the conical cone and rollers of 
the Timken Bearing through the cup. Whatever the 
pressure, the tapered rollers continue to revolve smooth- 
ly and easily between cup and cone. 

"Thus the tapered design resists perfectly one of the 
most destructive forces, 'end-thrust' that, unchecked, 
would wear out and ruin your bearings. 

" Now suppose I turned this stopper round and 
round in the neck of the bottle, till it wore a little 

**The Glass Stopper 
Illustrates the Principle'* 

Smaller. Would it drop through or become loose ^ 
No — it would simply move a little farther into the 
opening and fit as well as ever. 

"So when TinUccn Bearings wear a trifle, as all 
bearings will after thousands of miles, a part turn of 
the adjusting nut brings cone and rollers into perfect 
contact with the cup, and your bearings arc as good 
as new. 

"That is why Timkcn Bearings cannot be worn out 
by anything but accident or abuse— why they give 
greater security against wear and replacement of trans- 
mission and rear axle gears— why practically every 
well known motor car and truck has Timkcn Bearings 
in its wheels." 

[m Roller Beariof Cooi 
Timkcn Bcannxt. 

I i.T in.>r § 16 

s u; 



51. Definite locations with respect to iLxed points are most 
common in the case of outdoor advertising. Now and then, 
however, some advertiser will try to turn some regular period- 
ical feature to his advantage, perhaps, for example, by inti- 
mately relating his use of a magazine back cover to the front 
cover subject, or by directly linking up his advertisement to the 
subject of some leading editorial feature. 

This latter practice is more or less common in the case of 
certain technical, professional, and class magazines, where an 

Ring your wheels 

with 'Royal Cords'. 

It's for better — not 

for worse. 

United States Tires 
are Good Tires 

The Better Ole 

There's no such 
thing — n o t i n 
a tire. Guard 
against them with 
'Royal Cords'. 

United States Tires 
are Good Tires 

Fro. IJ 

F:g. 13 

entire issv:e is fre(iuently devoted to some noteworthy new 
achievement in the particular field covered by that magazine. 
In such issues, those advertisers whose services or products 
have been employed in the designing or construction of this 
particular accomplishment often feature this fact in their 
advertisements in that issue. 

Another illustration of intimate relationship between adver- 
tisement and medium is offered by an advertiser who has made 
excejjtionally telling use of New York City theater programs. 

I L T 102C-6 

0.3 South eotrance to Waiihinctun Square; tum right thru aquart, 
passing fountain un left. Go under WaHhington Arch 13.4, 
cominif into 6th Ave. 
14.3 1.0 FUitirun Building on right, Madison Square ahead on right. 
Crosu 23rd St. trolley, and bear left on Broadway, using 
caution for trafhc regulations at 23rd, 33rd :ind •12nd Sts. 
16.1 1.8 COLUMBUS CIRCLE; 59th 8t. & Broadway. 

For diverging routes see Folded General Index Map in front of book. 

Route 80— New York City to Coney Island and Manhattan 
Beach— 23.9 in. 

Bcvoxae Route. No. SOIt. 
Long Iklanil Clly kfiil Fortai tlllls. Lungtr tti&n Rautt 't. r»i*ni«Dt *n4 

Total Intcrmcd. 

For this 

«r exits, sec City Map, pagtc 192. .91. 

0.0 0.0 COLUMBUS CIRCLE, 59th St. & E'way. Go east on 69tb St. 

0.5 0.5 Curve right at Sherman Statue into 6th Ave. (2 blocks) 

0.6 0.1 Tum left on 07tb St. 

1.1 0.6 Turn left under lecond elevated (2 blocks). 

1.2 1 Turn right on to Queensboro Bridge. 

2.7 1.5 Long Island City. Straight ahead with trolUy across viaduct. 

Drive Now to the 

J^l CV" Free Service 
JT 1 JV Branch at 

Brooklyn, 1207 Bedford Ave- 

All life •eivlca FREE ocopi •ciu.l ic- 
pairaand auppliea-no raatlcr whether you 
uio Fi;k T.rct or not. Viiii Fnk FREE 
Sctvke bianchct ihioughoul jrour liavcla. 
More than I2S in principal cilica — acorn- 
plela aod GotioUywida fcrvica. 

§ 10 MEDIUMS 67 

by taking the name of the particular play to which the program 
is devoted, and which the audience is to sec presented, as the 
text for his advertisement appearing in that particular program. 
Figs. 12 and 13 show two of these advertisements, the first 
line of each being the name of the play. 

In the outdoor field, the most effective use of special loca- 
tions is that which in some way ties up the commodity adver- 
tised with the location employed. Locations adjacent to rail- 
road and steamship terminals are most effectively used by 
advertisers whose message is of such a nature as to make its 
strongest appeal to travelers or conmiuters. Locations border- 
ing on main automobile routes are best used by advertisers of 
automobiles and motor accessories. Fig. 14 shows how such an 
advertiser made effective use of an item of local history. 
Similar bulletins in proper locations feature other adjacent 
points of interest or historical importance. 

Similarly, local advertisers often make special use of car 
cards in those cars which pass their doors, by featuring the 
words "This car takes you there." 

Still other instances will readily suggest themselves ; the 
Fisk-tire advertisement, Fig. 15, for instance, appears at 
exactly the proper place in an automobile guide book. 


52. Seasonableness is almost always an asset. And 
because good advertising usually looks forward, at least in its 
creation, it is generally the part of wisdom to make plans for 
the seasonable use of mediums a considerable length of time 

A highly successful advertiser of cameras, for instance, pur- 
poses always to feature in each montli's advertising some phase 
of outdoor life which calls for a camera, but which will not 
make its strongest appeal until at least a full month or so later 
than the time that advertising will be current. In September, 
to illustrate, his advertisements will portray the delights of late 
autumn, in October winter scenes will be used, in February 
the copy will breathe the call of spring, and so on. In this 

G8 MEDIUMS § 16 

manner, liis advertisements almost always receive the benefit 
of longer lifetimes than would be the case were they closely 
timed to the immediate present. He is wise enough to know 
that the average American is always thinking ahead — living in 
the near future more than in the present. 

Of course a great deal of advertised merchandise is distinctly 
seasonable in character. Most wearing apparel, and practically 
all merchandise which is in any way affected by fashion, falls 
into this class; also a large proportion of the ftjod products 
which are advertised. 

A certain sweater manufacturer has his advertising instruc- 
tions so issued that his copy is self-released whenever the 
temperature drops to a specified point. Hius his advertise- 
ments are automatically timed to appear on the day following 
the first cold snap of the autumn, just when his prospective 
customers are naturally beginning to think about buying new 

Several food advertisers regularly take advantage of the 
special conditions incident to the Lenten season. Seed adver- 
tisers, of course, confine their advertising entirely to two or 
three months in the late winter and early spring. Innumerable 
other instances might be cited. 

53. Timeliness is closely related to seasonableness. The 
more timely advertising copy can be made — the greater the 
news interest that it can be given — the more quickly responsive 
will its audience prove to be, other things being equal. 

At first thought, soap would not appear to be the sort of 
article which permits of much seasonableness in its advertising. 
However, one notably successful soap manufacturer gives to 
his advertising that timely, seasonable tone without which no 
advertising can make its strongest appeal. His January copy 
fairly tingles with the cold, clear air of a sparkling winter day. 
A few carefully chosen, descriptive phrases culminate in the 
line "What if your skin does burn when you come indoors? 
Ivory Soap will enable you to wash hands and face without a 
particle of irritation." The next month's advertisement fea- 
tures an indoor scene, because i)eo[)le are aj)! to be indoors 

§10 MEDIUMS <■•••' 

most during the month of February. "The charm of the 
colonial" is the text for this copy, which gradually leads up to a 
brief statement of the various qualifications of Ivory Soap for 
cleaning finely finished woodwork and old furniture. Another 
winter advertisement draws its inspiration from the long win- 
ter evenings around the reading-table lamp with grandmother 
in her easy chair crocheting some kind of trimming. The harm- 
lessness of Ivory Soap for laundering trimmings and delicate 
fabrics of all sorts is brought out. Late winter is blanket- 
washing time, therefore the next advertisement is devoted to 
careful instructions for washing blankets, the particular rea- 
sons why Ivory Soap is best for this purpose being clearly 

In the next piece of copy, appearing just about the time of 
spring house-cleaning, both illustration and text matter are 
devoted to the merits of Ivory Soap for house-cleaning, and a 
special offer is made of a book entitled "Unusual Uses of 
Ivory," which explains just how to clean many of the things 
which ordinarily cause the most trouble at house-cleaning time. 
Another piece of copy timed to appear not much later in the 
spring also draws its text from house-cleaning activities. 
"Mirrors" is the principal subject selected and the copy pro- 
ceeds to explain the merits of Ivory Soap for polishing mir- 
rors, glazed ware, silver, and similar articles of all sorts. The 
June advertisement is made doubly effective because of its 
timely appeal— the washing of the soft white clothes dear to 
the feminine heart in early summer. The following advertise- 
ment is toned to the hot noontimes of July days. Illustration 
and text both bespeak warm sunshine and soft summer air. 
From that point on it is a simple matter to add that Ivory Soap 
is the third necessary essential for a really delightful shampoo. 
The August illustration and copy take the reader to the burn- 
ing sands of the bathing beach. The probable injury to the 
skin, caused by salt water, summer sun, and ocean breezes, may 
be nullified by the use of Ivory Soap. What could be more 
timely? Another piece of ^\ugust copy plays up the delights 
of an Ivory Soap bath, after strenuous play or work in warm 
weather. A tennis game is illustrated in the drawing, since the 




tennis season reaches its height in August. Then there is 
another effective piece of copy for early autumn, "If you ever 
have gone camping you doubtless know how many things Ivory 
Soap can do and how well it does them." The illustration of 
course lends additional point to the text. 

Autumn time is pie time. So the next advertisement takes 
the reader into the kitchen and explains why "millions of good 

cooks always wash their 
hands with Ivory Soap 
before baking." To most 
women new clothes and 
October mean one and the 
same thing. Therefore, 
the next advertisement 
tells just how coats made 
of such hard-to-launder 
fabrics as white corduroy 
may easily and safely be 
washed with Ivory Soap. 
Another October adver- 
tisement strikes a chord 
that will find an almost 
universal response — most 
men readers as well as 
every woman reader will 
be interested. Fall house- 
cleaning is the subject, 
skilfully handled in illus- 
tration and text matter. 
T.ace curtains are referred 
^'i'^- 16 tQ specifically; full 

instructions for washing them with Ivory Soap are included 
in the copy. 

This advertiser is not content, however, with merely making 
his advertising timely. He carries specialization a step farther, 
and in his farm-paper advertising, omits all fine illustrations 
and fussy borders and decorations — rolls up his sleeves, so to 
speak, and gets right down to fundamentals with the farm 


This Company is issuing 
special policies covering the 
hazard of Elxplosion upon 
Manufacturing, Mercantile 
and Dwelling properties. 

Injojraitco Company' of 

North America 


Oldest American 
Stock Insurance Company 

Downtown OfBce: Third and Wabut Sis. 
Uptown Office: Real Estate Trust BIdg. 

§16 MEDIUKIS 71 

women he is addressing. One farm-paper advertisement, for 
instance, is devoted wholly to dish washing, that bane of the 
farm woman's existence. Another one is headed "Women who 
do their own work." Each piece of copy fits the occasion — 
talks the language of the prospect. 

54. Advertisers frequently try to make their advertise- 
ments more timely by tying them up in as close a relationship 
as possible to some contemporaneous event or movement of 
more than average general interest. The copy used in Fig. 16 
was prepared to appear the day following a disastrous explo- 
sion, and position was secured for it next to the reading account 
of the accident. 

As illustrated in Fig. 17, a successful phonograph manu- 
facturer follows very closely the concert tours of the various 
famous artists who have made phonograph records for him. 
On the day of the concert, he gives to the local papers large 
advertisements featuring the particular star involved and the 
various records reproducing his or her voice, or playing,. as the 
case may be. The delight of hearing the artist perform right 
in one's own home, with neither the trouble nor the expense 
of attending the public performance, is effectively emphasized. 
The result of this very timely advertising has been most 

A large bonding house has secured exceptional efficiency for 
its advertising by utilizing the daily papers in any city where 
occurs a case of defalcation or theft by employe which is of 
more than passing interest. By having its advertisement appear 
on the very next day after the loss, and, if possible, on the 
same page as the detailed story, this company has obtained for 
its advertising an almost perfect score from the viewpoint of 

Manufacturers of fire extinguishers, or of fire-proof mate- 
rials or specialties, often capitalize an important fire by imme- 
diately following it with their advertising in the local mediums, 
or by drawing from it a text for their national advertising. 

Perhaps the most perfect instance of seasonable advertising 
on record, up to the time of writing this, was the 1917 "Save 



the Fruit Crop" campaign of the American Sugar Refining Co. 
Part of this campaign consisted of small newspaper advcrtis- 


is appearing at 

Aeolian Hall 

Dec, 1st 

During the past year, Louis Graveure liaS won dcstrvrd 
recognition aa one of the great baritonos of the present 

PosscsKe(l of a voice of rich and resonant lower range, 
clear and powerful as a bcl canto tenor in 
his higher notes, he has proved his ahility 
to sing with equal charm all the wide 
range of vocal music, from operatic arias to simple ballads. 
There has been fTrat demand for the records whirli CraTcurn 
has made rxclueivcly for the Columbia, and this demand will 
be understood by any lover of true music who hears them. 
At any Columbia dealer's you may enioy Cravcurc records 
plaj ca for you on the Columbia Grajfonofa. When you listen to 
them, you will realize the wholly satisfying qualities of this 
artial's voice and of Columbia reproduction. 

New Columbia Rtcordt on Sale the 20th cf Evny Manth 

C^unbi* CratnxU 



Fig. 17 

nients urging every one to save the particular fruit crop that 
was seasonable in that particular locality at the exact time of 

§1G Mi:i)lUAIS 73 

appearance of that advertisement. To carry out this idea 
effectively, it was necessary to speciaHze every single news- 
paper advertisement in three distinct ways : First, according 
to fruit crops; second, according to localities; third, according 
to weeks of the year. This campaign was so successfully con- 
ceived and executed that it was subsequently pronounced by 
the president of the sugar refining company to have been "a 
perfect campaign from start to finish." 

Cases in point could be multiplied indefinitely, referring to 
such occurrences as national holidays, as Christmas and Easter 
and Thanksgiving ; Presidential campaigns ; Better-Baby 
weeks ; Clean-up and Paint-up weeks ; National Fire Preven- 
tion day ; June weddings ; the Safety-First propaganda ; 
Buy-at-home activities ; the Food Conservation crusade ; Auto- 
mobile, Food, Business, and other shows ; and so on, almost 
without limit. 

Care must always be taken, however, not to overdo these 
factors of seasonableness and timeliness, as too nuich harking 
back, into even the very fresh and recent past, becomes tire- 
some. People very soon forget. That is a national character- 
istic of Americans. 


55. Properly handled, an advertising medium nia\ be 
made to perform a number of supplemental services. In other 
words, in addition to its normal function of delivering the 
advertising message to the should-be consumer, a good medium 
is capable of accomplishing various other incidental and indi- 
rect functions. These are the by-products of the medium. 

5(>. Indirect Advertising. — An interesting example of 
indirect utilization of magazine advertising is supplied by two 
recent campaigns run by a large manufacturer of bags. Most 
of his bags being sold to flour manufacturers, for holding flour 
to be sold in retail stores, the most logical way for him to 
increase his business was to increase the total consumption of 
flour in bags. To increase this consumption, he advertised the 
superiorities of home-made bread, as compared with baker's 



bread. (Bakers buy their flour in large coarse sacks rather 
than in bags such as this manufacturer made, therefore the bag 

'i^. ^^^' ^ 

3%^^ ^ 

^Se Housewife's Pride 

TH E housewife who serves pure, home-baked bread makes 
the home meal a dehght and a pleasure to all. She shows 
true moiiierly pride by giving to her family the most whole- 
some and strengthening of foods. 

And she displays perfect judgment, because homemade bread 
is not only the most nourishing, but is the most economical of 
foods. Made from white flour, bread is highly digestible and 
is turned into brain and brawn with the least tax on the diges- 
tive organs. The wise housewife bakes her own bread in large 
quantities, and smiles of pleasure and strong, healthy bodies 
proclaim her wisdom. 

If you think baking bread requires more extra work than it is worth, 
just try it once. You'll be surprised at the ease with which you can 
bake bread along with your other cooking. Here's the master recipe that 
will make your table a real thing to be proud of : 


3^3 qujuls flour; 1 tablespoonful ««!( : 2 lableipoonful* >uB«r: 2 ckk< 
yeatt; 3,' ^ cupful* lukewann water. 

Warm baiin aad flour lo lave time. Sir%e floiit and »ali into ha»in. Crcim yrast a 
until liauid. Add lepM water. Make a well In the Soot and iiir in yfid and « 
Aouf [rom tldei, laaving a wall of il ritund the r^ast. Cover and put in warm 
t>lacf> uniil fiirfacf of r»tt it thi^klr covered witb bubbiei. Then knead all 
the fluiir into the iponce, uting the band. Add more lepid water if doutb it too 
ttiti Ptit ba.-tc Into basin, covet and put In warm place to tiie. Knead quivkly 
and lichily tucelher. Bake in hot oveD (940^) for firti filiern minuiet. then 
lei heat K'aduallr decrease. Time will dei>endon tize of loaves. 

Fk;. is 

in.'inutruiuri'r's interests were directly o])posecl to the purcluise 
oi baker's l)rea(l l)y the eoiisiuner. ) I loth of these eampaiyiis 



were distinct successes, as the manufacturer's increased sales 
of flour bags proved. Fig. 18 is an example of one of his 

Another successful advertising campaign which wholly 
depended for the accomplishment of its purpose upon the 
indirect use of advertising mediums was a campaign of the 
National Cash Register Company in women's magazines and 
other consumer mediums. The copy emphasized how impor- 
tant it is to the purchaser to "get a receipt," and in this 
way brought to bear upon retailers, of all sorts and kinds, 
all over the country, a large amount of pressure in the direction 
of their installation of National Cash Registers, in order that 
they might be equipped to give their customers the receipt the 
magazine advertising had taught them to demand. This cam- 
paign, too, was highly successful. Fig. 19 is one of these 

57. Direct-Mail Service. — The fact that certain medi- 
ums are to be used in a forthcoming advertising campaign may 
be capitalized, often to considerable advantage, by announcing 
it to the trade, in the form of direct-mail work. Usually this 
takes the form of a trade folder or broadside, in which the out- 
standing features of the campaign are explained, the several 
mediums listed, their respective circulation figures quoted, 
samples of the copy that is to be used shown, and the thorough- 
ness, scope, continuity, comprehensiveness, or other particular 
merits of the campaign outlined as impressively as possible. 
Sometimes these folders are very elaborate, other times they 
are little more than proofs of individual advertisements. 
Occasionally, full-size, full-color reprints of the actual front 
cover of some magazine on the list are used, the advertisement 
usually being reproduced on the fourth page and the two inside 
pages being devoted to text matter describing the product and 
the advertising. Such reprints as these constitute a good 
example of the way in which primary mediums may be manip- 
ulated to render indirect and supplemental services. 

58. Salesnien's-Helps Service. — Anything in the 
nature of an exhibit that helps to visualize the advertising that 




a manufacturer is doing, to his salesmen, or to the jobbers' 
salesmen who carrv tlie line, or to the retailers who sell it, is 

Teach children to get a receipt 

IT is often necessary to send children to the store. It is irritating 
when they bring back the wrong change. Usually it means a trip 
to the store for father or mother to straighten it out. 

Have you had this experience only to find that the clerk couldn't 
remember the transaction? Or that he insisted it was not his error? 
Either you got the missing change with an apology, or the proprietor 
gave it back reluctantly, or he wouldn't give it back at all. 

If the clerk feels he is right, he may 
suspect the child. 

If the proprietor is convinced you 
are right, the clerk is open to censure. 

In cither case an unpleasant impres- 
sion is left, and confidence destroyed. 

Merchants who equip their stores 
with the up-to-date National Cash 
Register render their customers a more 
than ordinary service. 

They protect the buyer, child or 
grown-up, against disputes. They pro- 

tect their clerks against errors. They 
protect themselves against loss. 

TAij machine furnishes every customer 
•with a receipt or sales slip. 

It prints on this the amount paid or 

On this is also printed the dale of sale 
and uho made it. 

It forces a duplicate, printed record 
for the merchant. 

It pays to trade in stores equipped 
with the up-to-date National Cash 

The National Ca«h Regitter Company, Da)rton, Ohio 





One bf one we hj*e discoveied new ■ 
mcrrhanls' profits. 

We hive now rttiy for ieWyety many 
the Nilionil Ca>h Regiiler. 

These 1116 models are Ihe very last word in p 
f o you. your ctcrks and the public . The added imp 
menls are worth your investigation. 

Write fo, full inlormation. A.ljrns DrpI A. 


I'lc. 19 

of prime value and impojiance. As a consequence, salesmen's 
portfolios have of late received a good deal of thought and have 

§16 MEDIUMS 77 

reached, in certain instances,- a fair stage of development. 
Frequently they form so critical a link in the chain of success- 
ful advertising that an advertiser is wise to pay several dollars 
apiece for them. 

Usually the mediums carrying the advertising are the suhject 
of ([uite a little attention in these portfolios. Their strong 
points are explained, the reasons given for the inclusion of each 
on the list, the distrihution of their respective circulations 
detailed. Thus another valurd)le l)v-j)roduct use is made of the 
mediums utilized for the advertising. 

59. Display-Material Sorvico. — The more effective 
and distinctive of the ideas and layouts used in the various 
primary mediums, particularly those treated in color, may he 
made to serve a double purpose, by adapting them to window- 
and store-display pieces. Sometimes an unusually effective 
layout or illustration may be repeated many times, in as many 
different forms. One large national advertiser utilizes the 
designs of his best color pages for the covers of his semi- 
annual style books, for his billboard posters, for dealers' win- 
dow-display cards, for dealers' store cards (either framed, 
hung, or mounted on easels), as a prominent feature of special 
letterheads for letters from his dealers to their prospective 
customers, on address labels for his dealers' delivery packages, 
on dealers' price tags, etc. In this way the whole campaign is 
strengthened, by virtue of being more closely knit together. 
Each repetition lends additional effectiveness and power to 
each other appearance of the design. 

60. Electro Service. — Some of the characteristic illus- 
trations of the campaign in the various primary mediums are 
fre([uently reproduced in electros that are furnished dcders. 
and that thus link the dealer's work closely with the general 

61. Direct Cooperation From the Mediums. — It 

quite often lies within the power of the medium to render very 
material assistance to an advertising campaign. Many mediums 
go so far as to maintain large and expensive cooperative 

78 MEDIUMS § 16 

bureaus, the sole purpose of whrch is to help advertisers in any 
and all reasonable and legitimate ways. Generally such aid 
takes one of four principal forms. 

1. Investigations. — A large amount of local, sectional, and 
even national, investigative work has been undertaken by diflfer- 
cnt advertising mediums in the interests of their present and 
their prospective advertisers. Reports regarding distribution 
and trade attitudes are the most commonly undertaken form of 
research. Of course a large part of this work has been too 
casual, too amateurish, and too superficial, on the one hand, or 
too biased and too prejudiced, on the other, to permit of its 
having much genuine practical value or reliability as indicative 
of conditions as they actually exist. But in a number of con- 
spicuous instances very fine work has been performed, and a 
highly worth-while contribution made to the available trade and 
merchandising data of the industries involved, partially upon 
which sound and successful advertising plans have been built. 

Let advertisers beware, however, of very many so-called 
investigations that are investigations in name only, being in fact 
neither accurate nor impartial, and which, by misleading infer- 
ences, and sometimes by actual misstatements and deliberate 
warping of the facts, do incalculably more harm than good ; 
"A little knowledge is a dangerous thing: drink deep or taste 

not ." Faulty or inadequate diagnosis is apt to be 

fatal, in advertising just as in medicine. 

2. Local Surveys. — Many mediums whose field is limited, 
either geographically or as regards special interests, have com- 
piled detailed and authentic data with reference to population, 
crops, per capita wealth, average wage, trading habits, buying 
preferences, and the various other conditions obtaining in their 
respective trading territories. Trade maps and lists of dealers 
in various lines of trade are often furnished. Certain pub- 
lishers have rendered advertisers a particularly noteworthy 
service in their comprehensive surveys of merchandising con- 
ditions in their especial fields. Conspicuous examples include 
the Chicago Tribune's "Winning a Great Market on Facts" 
book ; the "Journal's City Analysis," by the New York Journal ; 
the Cleveland Plain Dealer's "To Tell It to Cleveland Is to Sell 

§ ir, MEDIUMS 70 

It to Cleveland" book ; the New York Globe's "Graphic Com- 
mercial Survey of New York City" ; Woman's World's "Hand- 
book on National Distribution" and "Guide to Profitable Dis- 
tribution" ; the series of "Definite Data Maps" produced by 
Successful Farming; the "Agricultural Michigan" book pre- 
pared by the Michigan Farmer; the National Farm Power's 
(Orange Judd Company) "Automobile Survey"; the Boston 
American's blueprint Trade Maps ; "Pierce's Survey," pub- 
lished annually ; the Standard Farm Papers' annual "Year 
Book" ; the Mitchell, South Dakota, Republican's "Cooperation 
and Service" booklet; Better Farming's "Presentment of 
Facts" ; the Cincinnati Times-Star's "Cincinnati — Facts and 
Figures" ; etc. 

Occasionally a local medium is able and willing to go to the 
length of analyzing the local market from some special point of 
view, thus rendering to its advertisers and prospective adver- 
tisers a complete report of the various local peculiarities and 
localisms, and the best ways and means of overcoming trade 
indifference or resistance, and of surmounting consumer 
obstacles of all sorts. These differ from ordinary investiga- 
tions in that they have no specific objective in view, no definite 
axe to grind, other than the general familiarizing of advertisers 
with the facts regarding the local market for their goods. 

3. Trade Introductions. — Through their promotion, or mer- 
chandising, or cooperative service bureaus, some mediums 
have developed to a considerable extent the service they can 
render advertisers in the way of securing for the latter's sales- 
men good hearings on the part of the better local dealers. This 
is most often accomplished by sending a representative of the 
newspaper to accompany the advertiser's salesman and per- 
sonally introduce him to the merchants. In other cases, letters 
of introduction to the trade are given to the salesmen. Very 
good results have been secured in many cases along these 

4. Trade Announcements. — Sometimes local mediums, par- 
ticularly newspapers, are willing to run off — usually on their 
own presses — and then distribute, a notice to the local trade, 
that on a given date a certain advertising campaign will com- 


mence in that medium, running in accordance with a specified 
schedule, and for a stated length of time. This notice generally 
takes the form of a circular letter, a folder, or a broadside, and 
may, or may not, include proofs of sample advertisements of 
the campaign. 

The medium urges the local dealers to keep their stocks of 
this particular commodity fresh and ample, in order that no 
newly created business may be lost. Also it bespeaks the 
cooperation of the trade, in linking up their individ\ial stores 
with the advertising, by giving special effort to displaying and 
pushing these goods during the continuance of the local adver- 
tising campaign. This form of cooperation on the part of the 
medium has usually been productive of excellent results, when 
properly carried into execution. 

G2. In a more general sense, all the educational work car- 
ried on by advertising mediums and directed toward a better 
understanding of modern advertising methods on the part of 
the local trade, a truer appreciation of the value, to the trade, 
of advertising and advertised goods, and a keener realization of 
the importance of linking up their stores with the advertising, 
should be included as a vital and valuable part of the direct 
cooperation which mediums are capable of extending to adver- 

It should be carefully noted that none of these four clearly 
defined lines of cooperation obliges the medium to discriminate 
in favor of any single one, as against the others, of a number 
of competitive products, or in any way subjects the medium to 
charges of partisanship. Whatever a medium undertakes to do 
for one advertiser should in no way prejudice the chances of a 
competitive advertiser ; in other words, nothing should be done 
for one advertiser that cannot be done equally well for two or 
three, even when mutually competitive. This safeguard obvi- 
ously disqualifies a medium from actually selling any adver- 
tiser's goods — undertaking to do so is clearly beyond the func- 
tions of any medium — or from soliciting or placing window 
displays for any individual advertiser, or in behalf of any 
individual commodity, that has competitors in the field. 

§ 10 MEDIUMS 81 

Broadly speaking, the chief thing to be avoided, in all forms 
of medium cooperation, is the danger that the advertiser's 
judgment of what constitutes sound advertising value may 
thereby be warped and twisted, and the relative merits of that 
which is of genuine worth, as contrasted against that which is 
mere tinsel and glamour, may be viewed in other than their 
true perspectives. 


63. Advertising mediums are generally used by advertisers 
in accordance with a definite contract basis. It makes little 
difference whether such a contract for the use of an advertising 
medium by an advertiser be formally worded and executed on 
an elaborately prepared form, or whether it be simple and 
in formal in its nature, as in the form of a business letter. Most 
publishers employ regular contract blanks, on which are speci- 
fied the various details of the order. Advertising agencies like- 
wise have their regular printed forms for issuing orders in 
behalf of the advertisers for whom they are acting. 

It makes far better business to have the phraseology of the 
contract as simple and direct as it can be made. The important 
thing is to cover all the essentials of the contract with the few- 
est possible words. These essentials should normally include 
the total space ordered, the expiration limit, the rate that is to 
apply, and the basis upon which payments shall be due. 
Usually the unit of space which will be used and the schedule 
of insertions do not comprise part of the contract. Any special 
features of the contract must, however, be clearly defined if 
they are to have legal status. 

64. Usual Forms of Contracts. — Contracts with pub- 
lishers usually take one or the other of two forms. The general 
practice nowadays is to use some such form as the following, 
which, when accepted by the publisher, becomes a contract: 

Please enter our order for lines of space, 

to be used in your edition, within a period 

of (usually one year) from date, at the rate 

of cents per line. Payments to be made 

monthly as earned. 
I L T 102C— 7 


Since this form of contract states only the total amount of 
space to be used within a given period, the advertiser is wholly 
free to use it in such manner and at such time as he may think 
best, while, at the same time, he is fully protected as to rate — in 
other W'Ords, he has definite assurances that each and every 
advertisement he may insert during the specified period will be 
charged at the lowest rate to which his entire volume of adver- 
tising in that period entitles him. It is obvious that it is to the 
interest of the advertiser to contract for the largest total amount 
of space that he feels reasonably sure he will be in a position to 
use during the year. On the other hand, it is equally to his 
interest not to contract for more space than he will probably 
use, for if he fails to use as many inches as his contract calls 
for, he will, of course, fail to earn that rate, and all of the 
advertising which he has done under that contraot will be 
charged at the somewhat higher rate to which the amount of 
space he has actually used entitles him. This procedure of bill- 
ing an advertiser for the difference between the rate specified 
in the contract, but subsequently forfeited by failure to use the 
total contracted number of lines, and the rate to which he is 
actually entitled by the number of lines used within the speci- 
fied period, is known as sliort-ratin«-. It means simply that 
if an advertiser at the end of a given contract period has failed 
to use the total space contracted for, he is rebilled for whatever 
difference there may be between the price of the advertising he 
has actually done at the contract rate and the price of that 
advertising at the rate to which it actually has entitled the 

To illustrate, at the time of writing this, a certain newspaper 
charges a line rate of 8 cents for run-of-paper space, which, on 
yearly contracts, is reduced to 6 cents, 5 cents, 4 cents, and 
3 cents, for yearly contracts of 1,000 lines, 2,500 lines, 5,000 
lines, and 10,000 lines, respectively. Suppose that a local store 
contracts with this paper for 5,000 lines of advertising during a 
year at the rate of 4 cents per line. Space is used regularly and 
payments are made from time to time as used. At the end of 
the year, it becomes apparent that instead of using a total of 
5,000 lines, the advertiser in question has used only 4,000 lines. 

§10 MEDIUMS • 83 

For tliese 4,000 lines, at the rate of 4 cents per line, he has, of 
course, paid $160. At the end of his contract year he is short- 
rated by the publisher in the amount of $40, this being the 
ditTerertce between the cost of 4,000 lines at the contract rate 
of 4 cents per line, based on 5,000 lines, and at the rate of 
5 cents per line, based on 2,500 lines, which is the lowest rate 
to which his 4,000 lines of advertising entitles him. 

If, on the other hand, this same advertiser, during the year, 
should use enough advertising over his contracted 5,000 lines to 
bring the total up to 10,000 lines, practically all publishers 
would give him the advantage of the 3-cents-per-line rate, 
applying on 10,000-line contracts, although his original contract 
calls only for the 5,000-line rate of 4 cents per line. In this 
instance, it is apparent that his total of 10,000 lines of advertis- 
ing would cost him $300 rather than $400, or, in other words, 
he would receive a rebate of $100. 

Short-rating is always to be avoided if possible. It often 
happens that it is really cheaper for an advertiser to continue 
his advertising in order to fill out a contract than it is to stop 
advertising and vnidergo short-rating, even when it appears 
absolutely unnecessary to continue the advertising for its own 
sake. In the case just described, for instance, the advertiser 
made a serious mistake in not using the 1,000 lines of advertis- 
ing remaining unused at the end of his contract year. The 
fact is these 1,000 lines, if he had used them, would really 
have cost him nothing whatever, inasmuch as his total year's 
expenditure Vv'ould have remained $200, at the 4-cent rate to 
which his advertising would then have entitled him, as com- 
pared with exactly the same expenditure for the 4,000 lines he 
actually did use, figured at the 5-cent rate, which was the best 
rate to which that amount of advertising entitled him. 

65. The second form of contract between advertiser and 
publisher is nothing more nor less than a definite order for a 
specified imit or units of space in a specified issue or issues of 
the publication, at a specified price. There is nothing at all 
unusual, of course, about such a contract as this — it is just an 
ordinarv business order form. The first form of contract 




described is normally employed only l)y newspapers, whereas 
the second form is of more frequent occurrence in the case 
of weekly and monthly publications. 

66. Discounts and Special Rates. — There is, at the 
present time, a marked tendency on the part of newspai)er pub- 
lishers toward doing away with discounts based on yearly con- 
tracts. A large number of newspaper publishers have already 
established a uniform rate applicable to all advertisers alike, 
irrespective of the total amount of space used by each. Such a 
rate is known as a flat rate. It is obvious that in the case of 



Display Advertising, per acate line, . . $ 2.50 

Quarter Page, . . each insertioa, . . 425.00 

Halt Page, ... •• . . 850.00 

Full Page, inside, " . . 1500.00 

Inside Page, two (clore, " . .1800.00 

Second Cover. '■ " . . 1800.00 

Third Cover, " " . . 1800.00 

Fourth Cover, " " . . 2250.00 

Center Double Page, two colors ■ .360000 


$1.25 per Agate Line 

Stock. I'ouUry. Egas. Situations 

Advertisements of I „ 

Wanted or Help Wauled tool to exceed lOU 
are accepted at litis ijte ilpaid for casti in advance 


All cuts and copy intended for full slngle<olumn width 
must me.a*ure2'; In.; doubie-coiumn, 4*. in. 

Pull Pages, Inside . . . 12!'i In. high by 9H In. wide 

Quarter Page. ■ ... 6 4H " " 

Single Column. " ... 12^^ 2\t " " 

Double •■ "... 12H «H " " 

Second and Third Covers . . 12',4 " " " 9>i " " 

fourth Covet 12W 9,'i " " 

Center L>oublc Page . , . I2ii 2(r/i." " 

Copy and pUtes must be sent to publishers not 
later thiin 



Copy and plates for all color work must reach 

the Publishing Office ONE MONTH in advance 

of above date. 


words average one line: fourteen li 


and reading 

bUck-faced type. 



borders etc.. arc subjc. 

resettmtf of type matter 

Ha'ftonc platea (or black or color p«t[c» .1 

acceptable only when made with screen not hn 

than 120. and proofs in duplicate should be »u 

mitted on our own super stock, from the idcni 

cal plates furnished us. 

Any deviation from. exact mciauremcnls of plat 

for - 


charge for thi 

Orders for preferred pos; 
Orders specifying po»it 

nd labor of udjusttng dia 


known as preferred positions ar< 

No discounts for space or time. 

A cash discount of 2' . will be allowed 

All bills are due on the closmg date o( 1 

which the advertisement appears. 

A new rate immediately applies to all I 

not previously covered by a formal ordei 

deAnile dales and space. 

The line rate will apply to all adv 

cepi eXACl quarter-page, half-page and full-page 

All note, named herein are .ub,ect to CHANGE 


■ giving 


Imi;. 20 

I)ubhcations employing the flat rate yearly contracts are rather 
superfluous, and the only contract relationship really necessary 
between publisher and advertiser consists of definite written 
instructions on the advertiser's part as to when, where, and 
how the publisher is to insert that advertiser's advertising 

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S6 Ml-:i)IL'MS §16 

message. However, niatiy newspapers employing the flat rate 
make it a practice to urge their advertisers to sign a contract 
with them, because of the protection the contract gives the 
advertiser against a possible increase in rate. 

The larger number of newspaper publishers still employ the 
sliding scale of rates, based on yearly contracts, but the flat 
rate has many advantages which are becoming more generally 
recognized all the time. When the sliding scale is utilized, dis- 
counts are almost invariably based on space used, the ordinary 
rate-determining units being 1.000 lines, 2,500 lines, 5,000 lines, 
10,000 lines, and occasionally 20,000 lines. A good many news- 
paper publishers base their rate on so much per inch, rather 
than per line, and some scale their rates at 100, 300, 500, and 
1,000 inches. 

If advertising is to occupy special or preferred position and 
the contract is of the type that specifies space units and inser- 
tion dates, the special position and the price are always stip- 
ulated in the contract. If the contract is of the kind first 
mentioned — that is, for a certain amount of space to be used 
within a given time — the extra rate that is to apply on all pre- 
ferred or special-position insertions is stated in the contract. 
Newspaper publishers usually charge 25 per cent, extra for 
so-called full position; that is, a position at the top of column 
and next to reading matter, or first following and next to read- 
ing matter. Some charge only 20 per cent., others 33}i per cent., 
and some even as high as 50 per cent. Many publishers charge 
so much per line, or per inch, extra for position, but these 
extra charges, which are added to whatever basic rate the 
advertising earns, ordinarily amount to from one-third to one- 
fourth additional. 

In the case of weekly and monthly magazines, there are a 
few publishers who still offer either time or space discounts, or 
both, but the great majority employ flat rates. There is also a 
clear tendency in the direction of making the charges for frac- 
tional parts of a page strictly pro rata to the charge for the 
whole page. One conspicuous exception to this rule is the case 
of the full-column spaces in women's magazines, which ordi- 
narily coiniiiaiid a higher rate than an e(iuivalent amount of 


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space in (juarlcr-pat^c units. Line rates are, of course, almost 
invariably considerably higber for tlTC small-space units 
(usually up to ^ or ^J of a page) wbich are charged at tbe line 
rate, than they are for tbe larger-space units, such, for instance, 
as tbe half or quarter pages. 

67. Rate Cards. — Different publications issue their rate 
cards in different forms. A number of rate cards that arc 
typical of the various forms used are given in Figs. 20 to 24, 


Advertising Rates 

7 I3-eni columns to page; 21 '/4 inches to column: 
14 lines to inch 



! .ess than 1 .000 lines I ce n ts 

1.000 lines 7 cents 

2.500 lines 6 cents 

5.000 lines 5 cents 


Next to reading 10 per cent, extra 

Full position 25 per cent, extra 


Reading notices 35 cents per count line 

First-page readers 50 cents per count line 

Telegraph readers $1 per count line 

Headlines count double. All readers marked Adv. 

15 cents per Agate line 

15 cents per Agate line 


One cent per word each insertion. No order accepted 

for less than 15 cents — cash with order 

Fig. 24 

Fig. 20 is tbe rate card of a large weekly magazine with a 
circulation of nearly 2,000,000. 

Fig. 21 gives the rates of a typical woman's monthly publi- 
cation with more than 1,000,000 circulation. 




Fig. 22 is the rate card of an important standard monthly 
magazine having a circulation of about 1,000,000. 

Fig. 23 shows the rates of a metropolitan daily paper employ- 
ing the flat rate for all advertisers ; its weekday circulation is 
190,000 and its Sunday circulation 135,000. 

Fig. 24 is the rate card of a morning paper in a city of about 
140.000; circulation about 28.000. 

One country weekly paper, with a circvilation of 1,400, quotes 
a rate of 10 cents per inch with 15 per cent, discount to adver- 
tising agents. 

The prevailing rates per inch per thousand of circulation of a 
group of publications representing each of the more important 
kinds are given in Table III. 



Kinds of Publications 

Rate per 
Inch per 
I, GOO Cir- 

National Weeklies ; 6 to 17I 

Standard ^Magazines (general and literary) 

Standard Magazines (fiction) 

Women's publications 

Agricultural publications 

Juvenile publications 

Religious publications 

Daily newspapers 

County newspapers (weekly and scmiv/cekly) . . . 



7 to ID 

7 to 10 


8 to 10 

It to 15 
10 to 20 


(PART 1) 



1. A great variety of printed matter that differs widely in 
character, size, and purpose may be included in the general 
subject of catalogs, booklets, and folders. With so broad a 
subject, all that can be done is to define and illustrate general 
principles. With these grasped, there should be little difficulty 
in deciding on the kind of printed matter required to meet 
certain needs, or in preparing something of an original nature. 
In catalogs, booklets, folders, etc., as well as in advertisements, 
there is need for distinctiveness ; the examples in this Section 
should not therefore be taken as styles to be copied slavishly. 
Furthermore, a number of the examples shown are from copy- 
righted publications and should not be copied unless permission 
is obtained from the original publishers. 

Then, too, nothing is gained by following designs used by 
others. Ideas, however, for entirely different designs may be 
suggested by examination of the work of others. 

This Section is devoted principally to the description of 
catalogs, booklets, and folders, with special reference to their 
form and appearance and the mechanical and artistic problems 
connected with their production. The uses of such advertising 
pieces for the promotion of business will be treated, further 
on, in a Section entitled Direct Advertising. 






2. A dictionary definition of the word catalog: is, "a list 
or enumeration of things, sometimes with explanatory addi- 
tions." The difference between a catalog and a booklet is not 
very marked, but, generally speaking, the catalog is a pamphlet 
of fair size, with or without illustrations, in which a number 
of things are described in detail. The catalog deals more with 
full descriptions of goods, while the booklet treats sometimes 
of only one point, and is written more in the argumentative 

Catalogs usually have, in addition to the description and 
illustration of a number of articles, some matter relating to the 
methods of manufacture, the excellence of the goods, the 
advantages of the advertiser's selling plan, etc., and often con- 
tain testimonials from users. 


3. Various small pieces of bound printed matter known 
as booklets, circulars, brochures, primers, etc., may be included 
under the general head of booklets. 

'J"he booklet differs from the catalog, first, in that it is smaller 
and, secondly, in that it does not treat of such a variety of 
subjects. It usually has a single purpose — the presenting of 
one subject or one line of argument. 

Most booklets printed nowada}S for the better grade of 
advertising work cither have covers or are ])rinted on paper of 
a quality that can be used for both cover and inside pages. 


4. A folder, as its name implies, is a piece of printed 
matter consisting of only a few pages folded one or more times, 
and not bound in the usual book style. Most folders consist 


of 4, 6, or 8 i')ages, printed on paper of a quality that ean be 
used for both outside and inside pages. There is no fixed 
method of folding or binding such matter. 


5. Determining- the Kind Needed. — The class of 
people to be reached, the method of selling, the nature of the 
service, and the goods to be sold are the factors that determine 
what the printed matter of the advertising campaign should be. 

If the people to whom printed matter is to be sent are those 
who receive very little advertising by mail, then conciseness 
is no^ the most important point. On the other hand, if the 
matter is to go to a very busy class — people that receive a great 
deal of mail — it must be either very concise or unusually attrac- 
tive to receive attention, unless, of course, it is sent in response 
to an inquiry, in which case it may safely deal with the subject 
or subjects more in detail. Whenever a busy man contem- 
plates purchasing some article of im^iortance, such as an 
automobile, for instance, and sends for a catalog, he expects to 
receive full information. However, an automobile company 
might have brief booklets and folders for the jjurpose of 
developing inquiries. 

G. The important question when about to prepare a catalog, 
booklet, or any other kind of printed matter is : Is it to be 
sent in answer to inquiries, or is it to be sent to arouse interest? 
The person already interested will pay close attention and read 
much matter. Where there has been no inquiry or no indi- 
cation of interest, the printed matter must be more to the point 
and much more attractive, if it is to receive attention. 

7. Size. — The tendency among advertising men seems to 
be more and more toward having printed advertising matter 
of as few pages as possible. Conciseness is a virtue, but when 
it is seen how eagerly the bulky catalogs of such concerns as 
Sears, Roebuck & Company and Montgomery Ward & Com- 
pany, the great mail-order dealers, are read by hundreds of 


thousands of people in small towns and rural districts, it is 
evident that there can be no set rule, but that the size of a 
catalog or booklet nutst be determined by a most careful study 
of its purpose. 

It would be poor policy, for instance, for the International 
Correspondence Schools to send to those who inquire about 
courses, a brief booklet giving merely the list of subjects taught 
in a course, and a few other details. These inquirers want 
more information than such a booklet would afiford, and, exjept 
in a few cases, will not pay for a course until they are fully 
convinced that the instruction will be of great benefit to them. 

The average inquirer about a piano or a kitchen range will 
not be convinced by a mere illustration with a price under it. 

8. In plannuig printed advertising matter, the writer should 
put himself in the place of the person that is to receive it. He 
should imagine that he is that person, and should endeavor to 
determine how much information he would want. The Inter- 
national Correspondence Schools prepared a booklet to be sent 
to capitalists and employers describing the work of the institu- 
tion in about one-sixth of the space in which the same subjects 
would have been described to an inquirer about a course ; the 
reason for the condensation was that capitalists and employers 
are interested merely in the characteristic features of the Inter- 
national Correspondence Schools and not in the details of its 
methods and its courses. 

9. Influence of Method of Selling?. — If the method of 
selling is by agents, or retailers, there is not the urgent need 
for completeness as to description, illustrations, and all details 
as there is where the sale must be closed by mail, because the 
agent or the retailer can supply details that are not given in 
the printed matter and possibly show the goods themselves. A 
piano manufacturer, for instance, may send to inquirers a 
handsome catalog consisting mostly of fine illustrations, and 
by then referring the inquiry to an agent in the inquirer's town, 
make it possible for the inquirer to see the piano in the local 
salesroom. It is safer not to leave too much to agent or retailer, 
but to describe the article as attractively as possible, and possi- 

For Ford Cars 

Practically every third car is a Fcrd. Eccry Ford Car 
needs a Maxim Silencer. Every Maxim Silencer you sell 
pays you a good profit. It is a money-making Ford 
accessory that you should by all means handle and push. 

The Maxim Silencer makes the Ford motor 
as quiet-running as the most expensive cars. 
It also increases the engine's efficiency by de- 
creasing back pressure. It saves gasoline, 
makes the car quicker-starting and a better 

The fame of the Maxim Gun Silencer and 
the Maxim Motor Boat Silencer almost in- 
stantly established a nation-wide demand for 
this new Automobile Silencer. It is backed by 
an extensive advertising campaign. The price 
is so reasonable that it is within the reach of 
every Ford owner. 

303 § 18 

Fig. I 

K^^p ®i|ta at l|att& 

And when canvassed for LIFE INSURANCE 
ask the agent the questions given below^. If he 
cannot say "yes" to e^ch, his company's policy is 
not as liberal as the policies issued by the 

MusBntiinBtttB iltutual 
Utfr Hlnauranrr (Eumpanu 


Incorporated 1 85 1 

Under which a policyholder enjoys all the privi- 
leges that an affirmative answer indicates. 

1. Is the policy issued under the Massachu- 
setts Non-Forfeiture Law? 

2. Does the policy participate in annual divi- 

3. In case a policy lapses through non-pay- 
ment of premium, and becomes paid-up for $ 1 00 
or more, does it participate in dividends ? 

4. Can dividends be used each year to reduce 
premium payments? 

5. Or, if desired, to buy an annual addition 
to the policy? 


Inside pages ui a folder used ii 
308 S IS 

6. And if used to buy additions, can the»e 
additions be surrendered on any anniversary of 
the policy after the second ? 

7. If preferred, can dividends be left with the 
company to accumulate at compound interest? 

8. Can the whole or any part of the sums so 
accumulated be at any time withdrawn in cash or 
used in payment of premiums ? 

9. Can the premium-paying period be reduced 
by the use of accumulated dividends? 

1 0. Can the policy be surrendered for cash on 
any anniversary after the second? 

I I . Are the cash values for each year written 
in the policy? » 

1 2. Does the policy, in case of failure to pay 
a premium aifter three amnual premiums have been 
paid, become binding upon the company as a 
paid-up insurance. WITHOUT ANY ACTION 

1 3. Are paid-up values for each year written 
in the policy? 

1 4. Can such paid-up insurance be surrendered 
for its cash value on any subsequent anniversary? 

15. Is an extended term insurance policy granted 
on request in case of lapse? 

1 6. If so, has such extended term Insurance a 
cash surrender value, and does the policy partici- 
pate in annual dividends? 

insurance uunipuny's foUuw-uy 


e (ullv 


for man able to >vntr cn5p and ,, , , . 
The advancement will be rapid, better the work, 
bigger the salary: a knowledge cf mechanical 
lines will be an advantage. Address Agency, 

STENOGRAPHER, private secrctarv; rapid 
enough to take board mectinss; $1J0 month to 
tart, with advancement to official position. X. 
' ' ,545 H ■■ 

CORDAY & GROSS want, permanently, a 
designer of covers and cf general buukJtt and 
catalogue, illustrative and decorative work: an 
apt man with good ideas and ability to portray 
them. Corday & Gross. Anti-Waste-Basket 
PrinterSi Cleveland Ohio. 

WANTED. — Thoroughly competent double 
entry bookkeeper; must write good hand and 
furnish unquestionable references: salarv $-0 to 
125 per week. Exceptional, 3-0 Herald Down- 

steam constn 
riptaik P ; imber .-IfH Hr 

look after jl ruling and 

•MF.iHANlCAL dri.d 
experienced in the detail design ol steam a 
electrical apparatus, tools and manufacturing 
methods. Address box K. S., 31 Washington 
St., Brooklyn, N. V. 

YOUNG woman with knowledge of stenog- 
raphy and double-entry bookkeeping; need not 
be an e.xpert, but must wntc well and knew 
arithmetic thoroughly. Address in own hand- 
writing, stating salary expected, G., 452 Lexing- 
ton Ave. 

MAN.^GER able to build up department of 
advertising art for leading engraving and printing 
house: also to contract for catalogues and book- 
lets; must know engraving, printing, sales meth- 
ods, and advertising literature. Apply to Order 
Taker, box 450 Herald. 

COMPETENT double-entry bookkeeper in 
extile line: commission house: state experience, 
alary required. Willing, 226 Herald. 

W.^.NTED. — Experienced stenographer and 

t^-pewnter; must be rar-id and accurate. Apply 
to superinur.dent. Chapman & Co., Fulton St , 






11 ranicu- 
« Superin- 

BOOKKEEPER who is thoroughly familiar 
with ctpavtrr.ent stcre work: knows s> stems 
and up to date in every respei-t: good opportunity 
to wide awake man; Al references required. 
Address, stating salary expected, K., 17X Herald 

W.\.NTED. — Experienced man for interior 
and intercommunicating telephone work; must 
understand wiring for intercommunicating sys- 
state wapes expected, 
aid Downtown. 

terns and telepho.... 
Address E. M., 570 H 

WA.NTED Signs.— We w-ant a glass sign 
painter; permanent situation and good wages. 
Address Dames Manufacturing Co., Pittsburg, 

ENGINEERS, marine, in operating suction 
dredges in salt water; salary Jl.SOO; state 
former and present employers. Engine, 396 
Herald Do-vntown. 

man. Address, giving full particulars and 
ape, education, experience and salary expected. 
No. 515, care Engineering Record. 

STENOGRAPHER.— Large law firm require 
expert: must be able to take 175 v.-ord.^ a minute; 
salary $30 a week. F. .M., 296 Herald. 

Fiox 2291, 

manent position in Philadelphia for the right 
man; must be qualified to design and supervise 
construction of all classes of steam and water 
heating, power piping, etc. Address. No. 506, 
Engineering Record 

erection, with company handling steel rail- 
road bridges and viaducts, light hiijhway bridges, 
mill buildings, substructures of piles, cylinders. 
masonry and concrete, etc.; requires executive 
ability to control and direct twenty or more 
construction crews: give age. detailed experience. 
references, salary expected, and when can report. 
Address, No. 521, Care Engineering Record. 

SHEET-METAL WORKERS, experienced in 

sheet metal window frame work; good wages and 
steady employment. Klauer Mfg. Company 
Dubuque, Iowa. 

W.^NTED — Railroad draftsman familiar with 
track and station layouts: work in vicinity of 
New York City. Address "D. A. 3," Engineer- 
ing News. New York. 

A man to manage our plumbing department: 
one that is capable of drawing plans lor steam- 
and hot-water jobs, plumbing, estimating same, 
buying plumbing apd steam heating goods, buy- 
ing tinners' supplies, estimating on tin work; in 
fact, we want a man fitted to look after our tin 
shop and plumbing business. Address C. M. Dur- 
land, care L. H. Durland, Son & Co., Watkins, 
N. Y 

MACHINIST in small jobbing shop; central 

location; with some experience as leading 

hand on repairs to engines, pumps, boilers, etc 

building machinery from d"- "'•'"- •"•>"•<•;" 

uiiQing macninciy iiuiii ui,i»,„^a, managing 
■ork and men both in shop and outside. Address 

ith particulars of p •"•" ••-'-i'-""'«'-« <■■•». 

id sa]ar> 

ing kn 

„ -. employineot, agy 

L 502. Ktccrd. 


Fig. 3 
First pace cf a 4-pai.'e folder prepared <or distribution by hand 


bly leave the price, the plan of payment, etc. to the salesman, 
especially if the price is the greatest obstacle to overcome and 
the point on which personal talk and demonstration is most 
needed. A great deal of first-class advertising matter is printed 
not to bring direct orders, but to send the inquirer, or recipient, 
to a retailer. But as not all retailers handle the advertised 
goods, many advertisers provide for a direct sale in case the 
prospective purchaser cannot get what he wants at the retail 
store. Direct-by-mail to the consumer forms a very large 
advertising field and will be treated in another Section. 

10. Influence of Nature of the Article. — It is mani- 
fest that in preparing a booklet describing an ordinary toilet 
soap the writer need not go as much into detail as he should in 
writing a catalog describing high-priced, intricate machinery. 
As a general rule, the greater the cost of the article, the greater 
the need for full description. 

11. Circulars for Use of Retailers and Jobbers. 

Many circulars are printed with the idea that they will be given 
out by the retailer and not sent by the manufacturer direct to 
the prospective purchaser. 

Sometimes it is a good sales policy to supply the jobbers and 
middlemen with circulars to enclose with correspondence and 
bills going to retailers. If there are no middlemen such 
circulars can be used by the manufacturer. Fig. 1 shows the 
front page of a circular used by the Maxim Silencer Company. 

12. Folders for Follow-Up Letters. — Good folders 
are very helpful when sent along with form letters in follow-up 
systems. The question of cost is frequently an obstacle in 
making a sale. A prospective will inquire about a set of books, 
a piano, an investment of some kind, an insurance policy, etc., 
and then finally conclude that it costs too nuich money. A 
vigorous canvass is then needed to show that the expenditure 
is an investment, not an expense. 

While it is advisable to present the strongest argument when 
the inquiry is first answered, some additional "sledge-ham- 
mer blows" at the chief obstacles in the way of a sale are 
effective in the follow-up. In Fig. 2 are shown the inside pages 


of a 4-page folder used by an insurance company in its follow- 
up to overcome the prospective's hesitation in coming to a 
decision as to which is the best company. Therefore, this 
argument is right to the point, and in case the agent is not able 
to see the prospective immediately, the folder may temporarily 
keep the business from going to another company. 

13. Circulars for Distribution by Hand. — In Fig. 3 
is shown the first page of a 4-page folder prepared by the 
International Correspondence Schools for distribution by its 
field representatives. A million circulars of this kind are 
handed out in shops, factories, stores, etc. every month. This 
circular does not present a complete canvass. It is practically 
an expanded magazine advertisement. It does not explain the 
method of teaching employed by the International Correspon- 
dence Schools, nor does it give the price of any course. The 
object is merely to interest — to convince the reader that tech- 
nical education means a higher position and a larger salary and 
to arouse his ambition and impel him to investigate further. 
An attached post card gives a list of the various courses and 
provides a convenient way l)v uliii-h the reader can obtain 
further details. 


14. The important mechanical details to be decided on 
when planning a catalog, booklet, or any other kind of circular 
are the following: Size of the leaf ; number of pages; method 
of binding; the kind of illustrations that shall be used, if any; 
if the catalog or booklet is to have a cover, the kind of cover 
that shall be used, whether paper, cloth, leather, etc. ; the 
quality of stock, the design and the color combination for the 
cover ; and the paper, typography, and color combination for 
inside pages. 



15. Standard Proportion. — Amon^- ])ook printers tliere 
is a standard proportion tliat provides tliat the leni^th of a book 
should be one and a lialf times the width. The size of the pages 
of this Section conforms very nearly to that standard. In 
accordance with this rule, a catalog that is 6 inches wide should 
be 9 inches long. It is not necessary or even desirable to follow 
the rule invariably, for originality and individuality should be 
sought when they can be attained without the sacrifice of any- 
thing else. If the designer of catalogs and booklets is original 
enough to depart from the standard proportion, well and good, 
but he will be sure of a good effect if he makes the length of 
his book about one and a half times the width. Sometimes 
the subject of the catalog makes it desirable to adopt a long 
narrow page or a page that is almost square. Three favorite 
sizes in catalogs are the 4^"X6" size, the 6"X9" size, and the 
9"X12" size. These are well adapted to filing and are more 
likely to be kept by those who file catalogs than are other sizes. 

16. Size of Catalog's. — Catalogs may be made in almost 
any size that an advertiser desires. There are three things, 
however, to be considered : ( 1 ) attractiveness and convenience ; 
(2) dimensions that may, without undue waste, be cut out of 
the kind of paper the advertiser wants used; and (3) a size 
that will go into a regular size of envelope (if the catalog is to 
be sent flat in an envelope), thus avoiding the necessity and 
the extra cost of having special envelopes made. 

17. Sizes of Envelopes. — The names and dimensions of 
the common, or standard, sizes of envelopes are given here- 
with. A catalog 6 in.X 9 in. in size can be used in a No. H 
or a 15 Catalog envelope; one 7 in.XlO in. in a No. 6 Catalog 
envelope; and one 9 in.X 12 in. in size in a No. 12^ Catalog 

It is sometimes advisable to make an envelope from a lighter 
weight of the same stock as the cover used on the catalog, to 
add character and to increase the effect of the catalog upon 

I L T 102C— 8 


the recipient. Even in such cases, it is best to use one of 
the standard sizes, because the envelope manufacturers have 
machines suited to these sizes, whereas other sizes would have 
to be made by hand. 

Standard Sizes of Envelopes 


Sice, ill Inches Sice, in Inches 

No. 3 2i X 4| No. Si 3,^ X 8| 

No. 4 2.:^ X 5i No. 9 3i X 8i 

No. 5 3i X 5i No. 10 4^ X 9^ 

No. 6} 3^ X 6 No. 11 41 X\Oi 

No. 62 3:^ X 6i No. 12 4!! Xll 

No. 7 3^ X 6| No. 14 5 XIU 


No. 9 3J X 8J No. 11 4^ Xm 

No. 10 41 X 9| No. 12 42 Xll 


No. 4 3f X 45 No. 5J 4fi X Sl'j 

No. 5 41 X 51 No. 6 5 X 6 


No. 6 41 X 61 No. 8 5 X 7i 

No. 7 4^X 7^ 


No. 1 6 X9 No. 6 7.i XlOi 

No. li 61 X 9i No. 8 8| Xlli 

No. 12 6^ X 9^ No. 9i 8i X lOi 

No. 2 6^ XIO No. lOi S X12 

No. 3 7 XIO No. 121 9i X12^ 


Small ca])inc't.... 4UX 7\ Royal 5i X 8 ^ 

Imperial 5f X 7i 


No. 1 5A X 8^ No. 3 6,\,X 9A 

No. 2 6i X 8f 

18. Sizes of Booklets. — A popular size in booklets is 
that which is 3] or 3^ inches wide by 6 or 6| inches lon^. this 
size fitting the No. 62 and the No. 7 sizes of envelojies. Many 
advertisers prefer, however, to make Unir tiut-lopc booklets 


3'i inches wide and about 5i inches lonj;, which is nearer the 
standard proportion than the other sizes mentioned. 

In choosing the size for a booklet or folder, care should be 
taken to see that the size of the cover (double, including back 
and front) cuts out of a full sheet evenly; that is, witliout 
wasting any of the stock. In figuring on size, the plan should 
be to have covers cut a little longer and wider — ^ inch is 
sufficient — than they are to be in the completed job ; this margin 
allows for trimming after the books are printed. Any waste 
paper, while not given by the printer to the customer, must 
nevertheless be paid for by the customer. As an illustration, 
a cover the size of one page of which is 6 in.X9 in., makes a 
sheet 12 in.X9 in. when opened up (including back and front), 
and this will "cut to advantage" (that is, without much waste) 
out of 20"X25" cover stock, cutting four out of a sheet and 
allowing a little extra paper for trimming after the book is 
printed and bound. 

19. Follow-Up and Circularizing Folders. — The 

regular, or standard, sizes of envelopes — shown in the accom- 
panying table — have a bearing on the sizes of circular matter 
that is to be used in them. The most used sizes are folders 
that fold to 3| in.X6 in. for use in No. 65 Commercial envel- 
opes, which are 3f in.X6^ in.; and folders that fold to 3^ in. 
X9 in. for use in No. 10 Commercial envelopes, which are 4^ in. 
X9^ in. 

20. Sizes of Direct-by-Mail Circulars. — There are 
three general classification of sizes for direct-by-mail circulars. 
The larger ones are known as broadsides and the smaller ones 
are known as standards and cards, while the flat cards whick 
do not fold are known as niailing cards. 

The broadsides are usually 11 in.X14 in., 16 in.X22 in., 
19 in.X25 in., or double these sizes. The standards are 5i in. 
X14 in., 7 in.Xll in., 8i in.Xll in., and 7] in.X14 in. The 
mailing card sizes are 4i in.X9 in., 5^ in.X7 in., and 7 in. 
Xll in. These sizes are commonly used because they cut to 
advantage from the usual sizes of paper. 


21. Supplementary-Literature Circulars. — The sizes 
of supplementary-literature circulars, such as those enclosed in 
packages, are usually determined by the size of the package. 
They must fit the package easily either with or without folding. 

'number of pages 

22. A circular in the form of a folder may be printed 
easily in 6 pages or any other number of pages that is a mul- 
tiple of 2. But in designing a 6-, a 10-, or a 12-page folder, 
care should be taken to adopt a size of page that will cut with- 
out waste out of standard sizes of paper, for with the usual 
page dimensions, a 6-, a 10-, or a 12-page folder will not cut 
out of standard papers as economically as 4-, 8-, and 16-page 
folders. In catalogs and booklets, after going beyond 16 pages, 
the number should be 24, 32, 40, 48, 56, 64, etc., having for the 
total either a multiple of 8 or a multiple of 16, preferably of 16, 
as this size of form reduces the cost of presswork. A 52-page 
booklet can be printed, but the 4 pages added to the 48 cost 
proportionately more than the others, on account of the addi- 
tional expense in the mechanical details of production. Ordi- 
narily, it costs no more to print a booklet of 48 pages than it 
does to print one containing 44 pages ; and sometimes the cost 
is less. Therefore, it is well to avoid nuiltiples of 4 after going 
beyond 16 pages. Usually, the cost of an extra 4-page form 
will be about 40 per cent, of the cost of a 16-page form, and 
the cost of an 8-page form, about 65 per cent. 


23. Square and Oblong Bindinjj.s. — As a general rule, 
the catalog or booklet bound in the square-binding style, 
that is, along the long side of the page, is better than one bound 
at the short end of the page, known as oblong-, or album, 
binding. A large catalog that is bound oblong is awkward 
to handle. Both hands are required for holding while reading, 
















s 2 


























00 o 



f^ o 






















































_ '^ 


























































































































































12 CATALUCS. P,( K )KIJ-:TS, AXI) I-oLDI-.KS §18 

and, unless supported by stiff backs, the sides fall over the 
hands. Therefore, unless the pamphlet is small, square bind- 
ing is usually better. 

Sometimes the illustrations or testimonials to be used are 
of such character that oblong binding, or binding at the short 
end of the sheet, is preferable. In Fig. 4 is shown a page taken 
from a catalog that was bound in the oblong style. If this 
catalog had been bound on the long side of the page, it would 
have been necessary, with the present arrangement of cuts, for 
the reader to turn the book half way around in order to read 
(as is necessary in looking at the reproduction of the page in 
this Section). If the person that prepared the catalog had 
tried to avoid this by running his text across the short way of 
the page and putting one of the illustrations under the other, 

the arrangement would 
not have been so good as 
that shown. 

24. Saddle-Stitch 
and Side-Stitch Bind- 
ings. — Usually, book- 
lets containing 64 pages 
or a smaller number are 

Fig. 5 

Fig. 6 

bound through the center, the wire stapling, or stitching, being 
put through the book by machinery from the exact center ; 
that is, between pages 24 and 25 in a 48-page book, as shown 
in Ficf. 5. This method is known as saddle-stitch binding:. 
Larger booklets may be bound this way where the paper is 
very thin. 

Booklets containing more than 64 pages are usually stitched 
through from one side to the other, as shown in Fig. 6. This 
method is known as side-stitch binding. 

25. Cord Binding Compared With Wire Stitching. 

For the ordinary catalog or booklet, wire stitching answers all 
purposes, and besides it is not costly. If it is desired to have 
something especially attractive, a silk cord may be used to 
fasten the printed matter together, but this increases the 
expense. It is true, however, that a good exterior color bar- 



may be produced by cord binding, a red cord, for 
instance, being used for a booklet bound in a buff or a green 
cover; red in such a case produces a pleasing effect. Sonic- 
times a leather thong is used instead of a cord. Cord bwdituj, 
Icathcr-thong binding, etc. are practicable only in cases where 
there are comparatively few pages and where artistic effects 
are in keeping with the subject of the catalog or the booklet. 

2G. Double Cover. — Sometimes it is possible to use light- 
weight stock and double the cover ; that is, a cover sheet twice 
as long as the booklet is used. The booklet is stitched through 
this, and the upper half of the cover is then folded back on 
itself, thus making the cover double, and the stitching does not 
show' on the outer part. Double covers are practical only on 
small editions. 


27. The purpose of the catalog is to give the reader very 
nearly as good an idea of an article as he could get if he were 
present and could examine what he is thinking of buying. 
Obviously, then, with most circulars, no matter how well the 
descriptive matter is written, illustrations are needed to 
picture the goods. It is difficult to make solid printed matter 
look interesting, but nearly every one is attracted by good 
illustrations. Therefore, while good illustrations for circular 
matter are expensive, they are usually worth all they cost. 

28. Opportunity for Liberal Illustration.— The 

variety and the fine quality of papers available for catalog and 
booklet printing give the advertiser a free hand in illustrating. 
In general magazine and newspaper advertising, the advertiser 
is rarely able to get just the right combination in paper and 
cuts ; and the speed of magazine and newspaper presses makes 
it almost impossible to produce the finest results. But in cata- 
log and booklet work, and in a few magazines and trade papers, 
he can, if the purpose justifies the cost, use page and half-page 
illustrations of the best character in line, half-tone, and color; 
and he may have an artist design special borders, initials, and 

Then the entire con- 
tents — indexes and all — 
are easily lifted off the 
posts and put on the 
transfer wire, which 
keeps them in the same 
position as before. 

The arches used in 
transferring to Shannon 
Binding Cases are iden- 
tical m quality with 
those provided for the 
file and file drawers. 

Letters or papers that 
have been transferred 
from a Shannon File to 
a Shannon Binding Case 
may be examined with 
exactly the same facility 
as when in the original 

This is due to the 
fact that all letters are 
transferred intact. 

This process is very 

The cover is opened 
back over the arches; 
the arches are opened; 
the U-shaped transfer 
wire is fitted into the 
hollow posts. 

Fig. 7 


Fig. 8 

1 L T 102C 5 18 Catalog: illustration with decoration of historical character 

1 L T 1U2C i 18 

Fig. 9 



I L T 102C § 18 

Fig. 11 


f t 



f - 




-^ % "^ 


1 L T 102C § IS 

Fig. 12 


ornaments for the pages, ^\'hctller line cuts or half-tones 
should be used depends on the subject, and on the paper 
selected for the book, as has been explained in the Sections on 
Engraving and Printing Methods and Advertisement Illus- 

29. Descriptions should not be left incomplete merely 
because they are supplemented by illustrations. People do 
not ordinarily send for catalogs merely to look at the pictures. 
The description should be made as attractive as possible and 
the illustration used to give realism. Fig. 7 shows a fine 
example of a well illustrated catalog page. Not only are the 
files themselves shown, but how conveniently they may be 
handled. The two illustrations are well arranged in connection 
with the text. In the original page, the text was printed in 
olive, which color contrasted well with the black used for the 
illustrations, and made a more effective page than that here 

30. Illustrations in Color. — Color cuts are expensive, 
yet in certain catalogs nothing except a color cut will give the 
proper idea of the subject. Some of the larger mail-order 
houses now illustrate their rugs, carpets, wallpaper, etc. 
entirely in color, and many manufacturers use two or more 
colors in their illustrations. 

Figs. 8 and 9 show examples of the very fine illustrative 
effects that are possible with two-color half-tones. The impres- 
sions from the original plates were superior to the reproduc- 
tions shown here and, as printed in the catalogs, were larger 
than these reproductions. 

The background of the illustration shown in Fig. 8 is typical 
of the Louis XV Period, and forms a most appropriate setting. 
Note that it does not come close enough to the half-tone of the 
bed to lessen the effectiveness. Decorative work of this kind 
requires the service of a high-grade artist. 

While illustrations of this character are cosily, the difference 
in effectiveness between a catalog with illustrations of this 
grade and a catalog with one-color illustrations is so great that 
the extra expense is often more than justified. 


Fig. 9 shows how a tint may be used for a border setting 
as well as to give a dark tone to parts of the illustration itself. 
This high type of machinery illustration requires much careful 
work on the part of the artist, engraver, and printer. Note 
how the high lights (portions almost or wholly white) have 
been brought out by the engraver. 

Fig. 10 illustrates the effect produced with two colors by the 
use of two line plates. Fig. 11 is printed with two colors from 
two half-tone plates, the appearance of several colors being 
produced by the varying tone of the shading and the printing 
of one color over the other in some parts. A similar effect can 
also be produced by use of two line cuts. 

In Fig. 12 is shown a three-color process illustration. An 
illustration of this kind gives the reader an impression that he 
could not possibly get from a page printed entirely in black. 
It is almost eciuivalent to looking at the tiling itself. 

Color printing and the illustration of printed matter have 
been treated in the Sections on liiujraving and Printing Methods 
and those on Advertisement Illustration. However, since color 
work in catalogs and booklets often adds much to their effec- 
tiveness, the student of advertising will do well from time to 
time to get specimens of the work of the plate makers and 
color-work specialists that advertise in advertising and print- 
ing magazines. One or more of the magazines published for 
printers will enable such a student to increase his knowledge 
of fine illustrative and color effects, fur these magazines show 
specimens of the finest work. 

J51. Character, Shape, and 8ize of Illustrations. 

In determining the character and size of illustrations to be 
prepared for a catalog or a booklet, the subject of the catalog 
nuist be considered as well as the shape and size of the page. 
The descriptions of such merchandise as fine furniture, pot- 
tery, pianos, and jewelry are made more realistic and impres- 
sive by artistic illustrations, delicate colors, and decorative 
borders and backgrounds. Subjects like steam lioilers, farm 
wagons, etc., while often helped much by color illustrations, do 
not require delicate decorative treatment. 

§18 CA'rALCXKS, liUUKLia'S, AND i'ULJJl-:RS 17 

The shape and size of ilhistralion should hannoni/.e with 
the shape and size of the page of the book. A book with a 
deep, narrow page pre- 
sents the best appear- 
ance with an ilhist ra- 
tion that is deeper than 
it is wide. In Figs. 13 
and 14, the outside 
lines represent the 
boundaries of book 
pages, and the small 
inside spaces, the illus- 
trations. It is evident 
that the illustrations 
represented in Fig. 13 
(a) harmonize better with the shape of the page than those 
shown in Fig. 13 {b) ; likewise, there is more harmony between 
the shape of the illustration and the shape of the page shown 
in Fig. 14 (a) than is the case with that shown in Fig. 14 (b). 

This principle of harmony is a safe one to follow generally, 
though it is departed from in exceptional cases. Fig. 14 (b), 
for example, would be a better style for a refrigerator catalog 
than Fig. 14 (a), owing to the fact that an illustration very 
much wider tha^i it is deep is not well adapted for a picture 
of a refrigerator of the usual shape. If, however, it is desired 
to show two views of the refrigerator, one with the doors 

Fig. 13 

Fir,. 14 

closed, the other with the doors open, the size shown in 
Fig. 14 (a) would be convenient, because the two illustrations 
could be placed side by side. 


32. It should he borne in mind that the size of the leaf 
should in the first instance be fixed with some regard to the 
subject. A page like that shown in Fig. 13, for example, is 
much better for a catalog of clothing or upright drills than a 
page like that shown in Fig. 14. A shape like that in Fig. 14, 
on the other hand, is well adapted to a catalog of couches or 
traction engines. When the appropriate size of page has been 
adopted, there will be little difficulty in arranging the sizes of 

No rule can be laid down as to what proportion of a page 
an illustration should occupy to give the best effect. If there 
are only one or two illustrations to be placed on a large page, 
they should not be so small as to destroy their detail. On the 
other hand, unless an illustration is to take up the entire width 
of the page, it should not be so wide as to leave a narrow space 
beside the cut for type and thus cause the type to be letter- 
spaced freely. This is a common fault of illustrated pages. In 
a type page 4 inches wide, the cut should not occupy more than 
2^ inches of the measure, if type is to be set alongside and the 
best appearance is desired. 

In ordering an illustration designed to take up about the 
width of the type page, have it made just a little narrower than 
the type measure ; that is, for a 4-inch measure, a 34-inch cut 
should be ordered. Particularly when the cut has a dark tone 
this slight difference in width helps the artistic effect. Light 
illustrations, especially those with a vignette, can often be 
made to extend into a margin — that is, beyond the type 
measure on one side — with good effect. The principle of 
balance should be looked after carefully. 


II A R 31 ON V 

33. Advertising literature will win or lose orders accord- 
ing to the way it impresses the persons that read it. A cheap- 
looking, poorly prepared catalog or booklet will have a tendency 
to cheapen the goods it describes. People are not likely to 
put faith in statements about quality when quality is belied by 
the very appearance of the paper, type, and illustrations that 
claim it. Catalogs, booklets, and circulars go where no sales- 
man can follow and into places too small to justify sending a 
salesman. Therefore, they should be made as attractive as 
circumstances will permit. However, in spite of the fact that 
attractiveness and good quality of paper are usually desirable, 
there are exceptional cases where the number of articles to be 
described or the class to be reached make it advisable to pack 
'pages with matter and to use cheap grades of paper. 


34. Catalogs, booklets, and other advertising matter 
derive much of their power to make a pleasing impression 
from the proper use of color. High-class printers and illus- 
trators are able to assist in the selection of appropriate colors 
of papers and inks for printed matter, but as comparatively 
few printers and not all illustrators are specialists in color 
w^ork, the advertising man should be able to decide for himself 
as to what colors are appropriate to the subject of the work 
and harmonious with one another, as well as suitable to the 
class of people addressed and the character of the message. 

Because the subject of color is so intimately related to the 
make-up of catalogs and other advertising matter, the prin- 
ciples of color harmony will be here explained before the 
subjects of paper and typography are taken up. 



35. The subject of color harmony is a broad one; never- 
theless, a clear understanding of a few fundamental principles 
will guide the advertising man safely in the selection of colors 
for whatever work may be required. 

3G. Source of All Color. — What is familiarly called 
color is the sensation produced upon the retina of the eye by 
those rays of light that are reflected from any lighted surface, 
other rays being absorbed by the surface. 

White light, which is considered as pure light, is composed 
of all the colors that exist naturally or are made artificially. 

If a beam of white svmlight is allowed to pass through a 
glass prism, the light is decomposed or separated by refraction 
into colors. 

If these colors are allowed to fall on a screen in a room 
that has been darkened, a beautiful band of colors will be 

This band of color is known as the solar spectrum and 
contains every gradation of pure color, but for convenience 
the following division is usua'lly made, the colors being given 
in the order in which they are located : violet, indigo, blue, 
green, yellow, orange, and red. 

Fig. 15 shows a spectrum, but indigo is omitted for the 
reason that this particular color is often considered as a grada- 
tion of the blue. Red, yellow, and blue are sometimes consid- 
ered as the primary spectrum colors, and orange, green, and 
violet as compound spectrum colors, caused by combining or 
overlapping of the primaries shown in the circles in the upper 
portion of Fig. 15. 

37. For industrial purposes the pigment theory of color 
is adopted, and this is based on the assumption that there are 
three primary pigment colors — red, yellow, and blue — which 
are independent and separate pigments, dilTering widely from 
each other. These pigments are made as nearly like the 
spectrum colors as possible, but it is impossible to manufac- 
ture pigments that will cxactlN- match a spectrum color. 


All colors used in printing arc made by combining; llie three 
primary colors — red, yellow, and blue — and they may be modi- 
fied by the admixture of white or black pij^ment. White and 
black pigments are usually considered as colors in printing, but, 
as shown by the spectrum, white light contains all colors and 
black represents the absence of color. When the three primary 
pigment colors, red, yellow, and blue, are mixed in correct pro- 
portions they neutralize each othi'r and produce an approxi- 
mate black. 

38. Related and Contrastins- Colors. — Correct color 
harmony means a pleasing elTect obtained from colors by their 
action upon each other when placed side by side. 

There are two classes of good color combinations, one based 
on relationship and the other on contrast. The former is called 
a related harmony because it is based on colors selected close 
together in the spectrum. The second kind of Imrmony is 
called the harmony of contrast, in which complementary colors 
are selected such as blue and orange ; but these should not be 
used in their full intensity unless separated by black or white. 
It is advisable to neutralize or reduce the intensity of one of 
the colors used so that the other color may give sufficient con- 
trast and produce harmony without glaring results. 

Analysis of any color will show the presence of one or more 
of the primary colors with or without the addition of black or 


39. Primary Colors. — The first step in the study of 
colors is to form a mental picture of the true primary colors 
and to keep these in mind as a basis of mixing all other colors. 
The primary colors are. as follows: 

Red. — The nearest thing to a true red is flag red, which is 
found in the American flag. This red is usually known among 
printers as flag red. 

Yellow. — The color of a ripe natural lemon is nearest the 
true yellow color. Chrome yellow in i)rinting inks is very 
close to trut^ \ellow. 


Blue. — The blue in the American flag — known as flag blue 
— is about the purest shade of bkie colors. 

40. Secondary Colors. — With the primary colors firmly 
fixed in the mind, the next step is to mix the primary colors 
for the purpose of securing the secondary colors, which are as 
follows : 

Orange. — A pure orange is made by mixing pure red and 
pure yellow in about equal proportions. 

Green. — A pure green is made by mixing equal amounts of 
blue and yellow. 

Purple. — A real purple color is about half blue and half red. 

41. Hues. — In every-day use it will be found that the 
true primary and secondary colors are not "always just the 
proper tones desired. The next step is to use hues of the prim- 
ary or secondary colors. 

When a color has more of one color than of another it is a 
hue of the predominating color. 

Red-Orange. — When orange contains more red than yellow 
it is a hue of red and known as red-orange, or vermilion. 

Orange-Red. — When orange contains more yellow than red, 
it is known as orange-red. This is also known as bright red. 

Blue-green contains more blue than green. This color is 
sometimes known as Prussian blue. 

Green-blue contains more green than blue. 

Red-purple contains more red than blue. It is sometimes 
known as magenta. 

Purple-red contains a larger amount of blue than of red, 
thus making a darker shade of pure purple. 

Olive is made up of a small amount of pure orange and a 
large amount of green, therefore olive is a hue of green. 

42. Shades and Dark Colors. — When black is added 
to primary or secondary colors or hues, it produces a shade 
of these colors or hues. Some of the shades thus produced are 
as follows : 

Dark Red. — A small portion of black added to real red will 
make a dark red. 

§is CATALO(;s. nooKLi-rrs, and 23 

Dark Brown. — Black added to orange-red will produce a 
dark brown which is sometimes specified as chocolate brown. 

Reddish Broi^ni.—A small amount of black added to red 
will produce a reddish brown. 

Bottle green is made by adding a very small amount of black 
to real green. 

Blue-Black.— Blue can be deepened in shade to a blue-black 
by the use of about one-third black with two-thirds blue. 

Green-black is made by the same method as blue-black, using 
green instead of blue. 

Dark purple is sometimes made by adding one part black to 
two parts of red and tw^o parts of blue. 

Yellow cannot be mixed with black because the slightest 
amount of black will absorb allthe yellow and leave the pig- 
ment lifeless, muddy, and of no value. 

Gray is made by adding black to white. 

43. Tints and Light Colors.— The addition of white 
pigment to any primary or secondary color or a hue will pro- 
duce a tint of that color or hue. Just as black makes a color 
or hue darker in shade, so white makes it a lighter tint. 

It should be remembered that any tint of a color or a hue 
contains a preponderance of white pigment. A very little of 
the color added to the white pigment produces the tint. 

B^ue tint is made up of a very small amount of blue and a 
large amount of white. 

Light blue is more intense than a blue tint, having more blue 
to produce the desired strength. 

Turquoise, or sky, blue is made with a touch of yellow added 
to light blue. 

Yellozu tint as a background is weak in appearance and 
should therefore be avoided as much as possible. It is hardly 
visible under a yellow light. 

Light yellozu, which is more intense than the yellow tint, is 
eflFective with black and produces good contrast. 

Buff. — A good tint to use instead of the yellow tint is buff. 
This is made with a very small portion of reddish brown, 
yellow, and white. 

I LT*102C— 9 


Ta}i collar contains a small portion of l)ro\vn and mnch white. 
It is really a lii,dit brown r Aur. 

Tan tint is detained by adding more white to give the lighter 

Green tint is made by adding a small portion of green to 

Light green is made by using more green with the white. 

Olive tint, light olive, purple tint (or lavender), light purple 
(or violet), are all produced by adding white to the color in 
the same way as the blue and green light colors and full tints 
are made. 

When an extremely small proportion of black is added to 
white a gray tint is produced. 

44. Warm Colors. — Red is the warmest color made. It 
is the symbol of fire and riot. The addition of pure red or 
orange-red to any color makes the color a warm color. For 
example, olive is only ordinarily warm. By adding a trifle 
more orange-red a warm olive is obtained. 

By adding sufficient red to purpie. which is a cold color, 
the purple is changed to a warm color similar to tlu- natural 
color of an American I'eauty rose. 

YeJloiv is neither warm nor cold, but rather a neutral color. 
The use of yellow in a color tends to lighten or brighten it. 

Yellow in red makes orange, which is a warm color l)ut not 
so warm as pure red. 

45. Cold Colors. — Bine is the coldest color. It is always 
used to typify coldness. 

Green is a cold color also, but not so cold as l)lue. The equal 
proportion of the neutral yellow^ with blue softens the ultimate 
color — green — and produces coolness rather than coldness. 
Green looks cool, but the sky looks cold. 

Purple, which is a cold color, has always been the symbol 
or royalty ; hence, its use as the insignia of power and mystery. 
Thus, violet or purple has been used appropriately for religious 
mysticism, half mourning, etc. 

Blaek and gray are considered cold colors. In reality they 
are not colors at all but represent the cold, flat absence of color. 

§1S CATALOC.S, ROOKI.irrs. AND I"()LI)I:ks 'jr, 

40. Metallic Colors. — Gold, silver, and copprr are 
known as metallic colors. 

Gold is really a tone of yellow. 

Silzrr is a gray-black with a touch of yellow. 

Copper is a shade of reddish-brown. 

These metallic colors may be had in several tones of either 
color. But they are made and mixed at the ink factory and 
cannot be altered or combined by the printer. 


47. Tliere are two general methods used for putting 
colors together. One is to secure harmony, the other is to 
gain contrast. The two purposes should be borne clearly in 
mind. Most of the color effects that suggest refinemenl, exclu- 
siveness, and luxury are harmonious effects. Most of the 
strong every-day color effects are the result of an effort to 
get force and strength by contrast — either strong or modified. 

48. Harmonizins Color.s. — In order that two or more 
colors shall harmonize it is necessary that they be related ; 
that is, they must each contain a part of the same color, h'^or 
instance, a straight olive and a warm brown are good harmony. 
Likewise, a dark chocolate brown and a warm olive are good 
harmony, lioth of the colors in each of these combinations 
have a greater or smaller degree of orange used in their 

Dark chocolate brown is mostly black with a touch of orange, 
and olive is mostly green with a touch of orange. 

Dark chocolate brown, warm olive, and light brown, all 
three together, may be used on a buff stock and all tliree 
colors and the color of the stock will be related, because all 
have the elements of orange color. The light brown is simply 
some of the dark brown with white ink added, and the buff 
paper has the same color as the light-brown ink with a trifle 
more orange and more white. This entire combination is a 
warm combination because the orange, a warm color, jjre- 
dominates in all the colors and tints. 


Dark blue and light purple produce a related cold com- 
bination. Dark green and light blue also produce a cold 
combination. Both of these combinations have one common 
element — blue, a cold color. A cold combination is more cold 
when printed on white paper. 

The color of the stock is a starting point in choosing a com- 
bination of colors. If a light-green paper is used a green tint 
and a dark green or a dark olive green should suggest itself if 
harmony is the ultimate object. 

All the colors used should have one common element, when 
related harmony is desired. When contrast is desired, one or 
more of the colors chosen should be the same color element as 
the stock and one or more should be contrasting colors. 

49. Contrasting- Colors. — The related harmony of 
colors produces softer, more refined, and more esthetic effects 
than contrasted colors. Yet, it is a fact that force and strength 
are vital elements of modern advertising work, and the larger 
part of an advertising man's work in colors will be the handling 
of colors to produce contrast. 

Contrast is obtained by using one coior that consists wholly 
or in part of one or more of the primary colors in combination 
with a color that is made up wholly or partly of another primary 

Green and red form violent contrast when used in their pure 
state, because green is half primary yellow and half primary 
blue, and the red is primary red. This combination then con- 
tains all of the ])rimary colors. For this reason it forms the 
strongest of contrast. 

Several related colors of one primary element of color can 
be made to contrast with several related colors of another 
primary element of color. Thus, light brown and dark brown 
can be used with a light blue and a dark blue. The element of 
red in the first two colors will contrast with the element of 
blue in the last two colors. 

The first method, then, of contrast is to put together oppo- 
site primary colors, or tints and shades of these colors which 
produce less violent and more pleasing effects. 


Another method is to put together warm and cold colors. A 
dark chocolate brown and a turquoise blue make good contrast. 
The same is true of dark blue and light brown. 

Dark green and orange, dark olive and orange, and dark 
olive and light purple (or violet) are more examples of the 
contrast of warm and cold colors. 

Contrast is also obtained by the use of light (or bright) 
colors with dark colors, and the use of dark colors with light 

Dark brown, which has a small part of orange, contrasts 
well with real orange, which is a bright color. 

Light blue and dark brown produce another good combi- 

Any real dark color will produce contrast with a tint. The 
tint may be related or it may not, the contrast can be made 
because of great difference in shade between the two colors. 

Dark green on a buff tint or on a buff (or India) stock makes 
a contrast that is not closely related yet it is not a poor com- 

Dark brown on a gray tint or a buff tint looks well and afford 
good contrast. 

Black with orange is about the strongest combination because 
orange is the brightest color and black is !he darkest color. 

Light blue and black make strong contrast. So also do light 
green or light olive wnth black. 

50. Balancing- of Colors. — In determining how much 
and which parts of a design or page of type shall be in color, 
it is important that the strength or brilliancy of the colors to 
be used be taken into account. 

When strong contrast is desired, the parts to be in the strong 
or bright color should be few and well separated by the 
darker color. When red and black or orange and black are 
used, for instance, only the main heads or the subheads and 
perhaps a rule or so should be in the bright color. 

As the color scheme blends more toward harmony of tones 
the use of the light or bright color can be increased. 

As a general rule, the stronger the color the less of it should 


be used. Of a softer or lighter color, however, more may be 
used, even to the point where the entire space is covered by a 
tint. In the latter case, for a color like brown the tint must be 
very light, and extremely light for black and dark blue, other- 
wise small type in the text cannot be easily read. 


51. The subject matter of a booklet or a catalog has a 
bearing on the colors to be used in printing the cover. In 
a catalog of undertakers' supplies, it would be absurd to use 
bright colors like red, warm brown, l)right green, etc. ; black 
or gray, however, would be particularly appropriate. In 
designing a jewelry catalog, an arts-and-crafts booklet, or 
a brochure descriptive of fine laces, millinery, etc., the color 
design should be refined — not glaring ; such colors as brown 
and olive, blue and gray, green tint and green-black, bull and 
chocolate Ijrown, etc. should be used. 

The tints and shades of related colors for harmony are best 
for appealing to women or to all classes that have fine sensi- 

A cover for a catalog of mercantile-decoration and show- 
card-writing supplies should be designed to appeal to esthetic 
temperaments and the colors should be cliosen with this idea. 
When the appeal is to a somewhat primitive class, free use 
may be made of the primary and secondary colors and hues 
and strong contrast. To the more refined, appeals should be 
made with harmonious and well-balanced tints and hues. 

Fig. 16 shows a group of catalog covers printed in a variety 
of color combinations. 


52. The cover of a catalog, booklet, or folder is the part 
that has the first opportvmity to attract or to repel interest; 
special attention should therefore be given to its preparation. 
Some very cheap catalogs are printed without covers, but most 
advertisers have found that a cover on the catalog is worth 


the extra cost. It not only improves the appearance, but it 
protects the first and last pages of the catalog from wear. The 
cover is a very important part of a high-grade catalog. In 
the production of a cover, there are three factors that require 
careful consideration; namely, (1) the paper; (2) the design; 
and (3) the color harmony. Unless these three harmonize, the 
effect will not be good. 


53. Sizes and Weights of Cover Papers. — Cover 

papers are made in sheets of various sizes, those most com- 
monly used being 20 in.X25 in. and 22^ in.X28 in. These 
papers are sold by the ream (500 sheets) and are made in 
various weights, from 30 to 130 pcnuids to the ream. This 
docs not mean that every cover paper is made in both the sizes 
mentioned, for many covers are made in only one size ; nor 
does it mean that every cover stock can be obtained in all the 
different weights, for most cover stocks are made in only one 
or two weights. When a cover stock is listed or spoken of as 
20X25—100, it means that a ream of 500 sheets of this stock, 
20 in.X25 in. in size, weighs 100 pounds. 

It is impossible to show in this Section samples of even most 
of the cover papers in common use. Therefore, it should be 
understood that the specimens that are shown are merely a few 
representative styles. The beginner should not always call for 
one of these papers when it is necessary to make a selection, 
but may do as he would do with type ; that is, give the printer 
a general idea of what is wanted and let him submit the avail- 
able paper that comes nearest to that kind. It should also be 
kept in mind that most of the papers shown here are of a good 
grade ; much cheaper papers can be secured that will do well 
enough for some classes of work. Printers usually have sample 
books from paper manufacturers, and can get the kind of paper 
an advertiser desires. The cost, however, on small special 
orders will usually be higher than the list price. 

54. Cover-Paper Finishes. — A great variety of styles, 
colors, and finishes of cover papers are furnished by the 


various paper manufacturers, some of them, however, being 
popular for only a short time. The finishes (the surface of 
the paper is called the "finish") in general use are enamel, 
antique, crash, linen, plate, ripple, and onyx. The manufac- 
turers furnish many varieties of style and color in each of 
these finishes. 

55. Enameled Cover Paper. — The surface of enameled 
cover paper is smooth and polished and is particularly adapted 
to printing halftone engravings of from 133- to 200-line 
screen. Line cuts and type designs also print well on this kind 
of paper, the glossy surface adding a luster to the ink and a 
sharpness to the type that is very pleasing. Both subdued tints 
and strong colors can be obtained. No matter what kind of a 
type design, drawn cover, or color combination is desired, it 
will be easy to secure an appropriate tint of enameled cover 
stock to harmonize with it, Some of the colors obtainable are : 
white. India tint (very light buff), green tint, pink, straw, 
scarlet, azure (blue tint), and rose (pink tint). This stock 
comes in sheets 20 in.X25 in. and 25 in.X40 in., and it weighs 
60, 80, 100, 120, and 130 pounds to the ream. In Fig. 17 is 
shown a cover printed on an India tint, XXX embossing 
cover stock. 

'56. \\'hen a catalog or booklet exceeds \ inch in thickness 
or where the finished work will receive rough handling, enam- 
eled cover stock is not the best paper to use, as it has little 
tensile strength ; its lack of strength is due to the small amount 
of rag-fiber body and the large amount of glue, chalk, and clay 
used to give the highly polished surface. If it is desired to bind 
catalogs thicker than | inch with enameled covers, the crease 
in the paper should be made to run with the grain, so as to 
lessen the tendency to break. As the size and weight of the 
catalog or booklet increases, the weight of the cover stock 
should be increased proportionately. As enameled stock soils 
easily, it should not be used for covers of catalogs or booklets 
that will be handled by machinists, molders, etc. during work- 
ing hours. 

SIS CATAr-ocs, BooKi.ias, and i.ui.dicrs -.m 

57 Dull-Coated Cover Paper.-Tlie surface of ,l„ll- 
coated paper ,s sn,oo.h without the high fiuish of eua„,el pap ' 
Th s paper w,ll take a I33-scree„ half-tone, a„<l the eff^e^ is 
softer and „,ore refined than the effect of the ,darin. po is 
of ena,„eed paper. Fig. 18 shows a cover printed on W 1'- 
"ood dull coated. This paper i. u,a<Ie :„ white and India. 

58. Smooth Antique Finish.-A great variety of 
papers have a surface that is slightly rough^nd fuzzy to the 
touch These are known as antique papers, and as thev are 
at tracfve, tough, and durable, they n,.>ke practical covers Jor 
catalogs and booklets. Dark, n.ediun,, and light colo s are 
made, the dark predon,i„ati„g in variety. White, black and 

can be obtanred from any paper dealer, the prices varying 
according to quahty. For covers of sn.all booWets, the light- 
colored stocks, such as white, buff, light blue, ligh gray sea 

eur;o° ;"■ ""' "' ''' '"' '" "^^- -^^ «'-^ °ff" ""k diffi- 
culty to tl,e average pnnter ,n securing color effects, and afford 

a strong contrasting background for type and plates. Half- 
tone .Ihistrafons, or illustrations con.posed partly of halt-tone 
and partly of hne cuts, will not print on antique" paper of any 
k.nd. Lme cuts, however, print very acceptably on this stock 
Ihe e.xan,ple shown in Fig. 19 is printed on art brown, antique 
nnish, Potomac cover stock, 20X25—60 lb. 

JiH: f"^""" Fi„isu._0„e of the n,ost popular current 
stvlcs of cover paper ,s crash iinish. This stock has a finish 
resen,bhng coarse linen, showing the' threads crossing each 
other and makmg a series of small, irregular squares This 
fimsh ,s made by placing a piece of coarse linen cloth on each of the sheet of paper, then placing the sheet of paper 
be ween sheets of zinc, and running under heavy pressure 
between the rolls of a plating n.achine. With the excep on 
of the very small sizes, display type will print as easily on this 
finish as It w,ll on the smoother stocks. Light-faced body 
type and hall-tones will not print satisfactorily on crash- 
hmshed cover stock, on account of the irregular surface Line 
cuts, provided they do not have too large spots of solid surface 

Ii2 CATALUCS. J'.OUKLI";rS. AX[) F(.)LL)I':KS h« 

give very satisfactory results. Crash-tinish covers are made 
in a variety of colors and shades and are very appropriate for 
booklet covers and folders. The colors include white, light 
blue, dark blue, coffee, light gray, dark gray, light green, dark 
green, brown, terra cotta, and bright red. The example shown 
in Fig. 20 is printed on buff crash-finish antique cover stock, 
20X25—60 lb. 

60. Linen Finish. — The cover paper known as linen 
finish is similar to crash finish, except that the grain on the 
surface is very much closer, resembling line linen. This finish 
is very popular and is suitable for almost any kind of cover 
■work except where half -tope cuts are used. Linen finish can 
be obtained in almost any tint or color desired. 

01. Hantl-Madc FinLsh or Hip])Ie Finish. — The 

cover paper called hand-made finish or rij)ple finish has a some- 
what hard surface that is rippled in imitation of hand-made 
stock, and may be used for printing with any kind of type, 
plate, and color work, w'ith the exception of half-tone cuts. The 
colors include all the desirable shades. In Fig. 21 is shown a 
cover printed on ripple-finish stock, 20X25 — 60. 

62. Plate FinLsh. — The cover paper called plate finish 
has a hard, polished surface thr.t is very smooth and suitable 
for all kinds of printing, including half-tone cuts not finer than 
120 screen. Plate finish is made by placing stock, before it is 
calendered, between sheets of zinc and subjecting these sheets 
to hydraulic pressure. The result is a very hard, smooth sur- 
face, without high polish. The example shown in Fig. 22 is 
printed on plate-finish stock, 20X25 — 65. 

63. Onyx Cover Paper. — There is a special cover paper 
made with beautiful mottled colors resembling the graining of 
onyx. This is called onyx cover paper. Its surface is smooth 
to the touch and slightly wavy, providing a fine printing surface 
for type and line engravings. The colors are white, ash gray. 
azure, opal, French gray, blue gray, Quaker gray. blue, purple, 
sea green, tunjuoise, cerise, sage green, heliotrope, mustard, 
onvx gray, blue onyx, brown onyx, green onyx, and purple 

§ 18 (."ATALUC.S, UUUKLl-rrS, AND FOLDJ'.KS .'53 

onyx. Onyx cover paper is made in a special size — 21X33, 60 
and 80 pounds — and it is rather costly. This stock, made in 
crash, ripple, and vellum finish, is very distinctive, and can he 
relied on to give first-class results. The example shown in 
Fig. 23 is printed on onyx cover stock, 21X33 — 80. 

64. Imitation Leather. — Cover stock in imitation of 
leather is made in several shades, such as green, red, gray, 
black, and brown ; one variety known as Levant is very. expen- 
sive. In many cases such stock is an economical substitute for 
leather. Sometimes such covers are reinforced with board 
backs to give them more strength. 

65. Cloth for Covers. — Where a catalog or booklet is 
intended for hard usage, it is best, wherever cost will permit, 
to consider the use of a cloth binding. Cloths for this purpose 
are made in many styles, weaves, colors, and prices. '1 he 
binder should be consulted on such matters because of the wide 
range of price and (juality. 

(>6. Pebbled Paper. — Sometimes, after being printed, 
cover pages or inside pages of a catalog or booklet are run 
under heavy pressure through sets of rolls, one set having a 
rough surface resembling sandpaper. These rolls produce a 
fine grain effect in the paper, known as pebbling. If it is 
desirable to pebble the entire booklet, the work is done after 
the job is printed and before the sheets are folded and bound. 
Pebbling is appropriate only for work printed on smooth-faced 
stock. The price of pebbling is approximately $1 per 100 
sheets, irrespective of size. The effect on half-tone illustra- 
tions is very distinctive and adds greatly to the artistic appear- 
ance of high-grade booklet covers and pages. Fig. 24 shows 
an example of this kind of work. Other effects can be pebbled 
on smooth surfaces as well as the egg-shell effect shown. The 
treatment in this illustration is rather too dainty for the nature 
of the subject. 


Tvi'K covKR de:sig:vs 

67. Type Covers and Dra\vn Covers. — When the 
saving of time and cost enters largely into the production of a 
catalog, a booklet, or a folder, it is advisable to use a type 
cover design ; that is, a design set up in type. Such a design 
is cheaper than a drawn cover design, can be produced in much 
less time, and sometimes is quite as effective. The comparative 
cost of a high-grade, two-color type design, similar to that 
shown in Fig. 21, and a high-grade, two-color drawn cover, 
similar to that shown in Fig. 24, is as $L50 is to $25, not includ- 
ing the cost of engraving. A type design of the character of 
that shown in Fig. 21 can be set in about 1 hour; whereas, a 
two-color drawn cover of the character of that in Fig. 24, 
would require a week or two for the artist and engraver to 
complete the drawing and plates. Of course, the design in 
Fig. 24 is an example of a very high-grade cover ;" that in 
Fig. 21 does not compare with it in point of quality. Very 
often, on small booklets or folders, the nature of the subject 
precludes the use of a drawing unless ornamental lettering is 
desired or the proper weight cannot be obtained with type. 

68. Relation of Subject to Cover Design. — In design- 
ing a cover the subject of the catalog, booklet, or folder should 
always be kept in mind, so that the design, so far as possible, 
will be in harmony with the subject matter. If the catalog is 
to treat of heavy machinery or bulky material of any kind, the 
design may be of a strong, bold nature and be in perfect har- 
mony with the subject (see Figs. 21 and 25). On the other 
hand, if the cover is intended for a fine brochure, a jewelry or 
a fine-arts catalog, or a booklet descriptive of millinery or 
high-grade books, or something of a like nature, the design 
should be light in effect and very tastefully arranged. In 
designing lodge folders, brochures, catalogs of regalia, etc., if 
possible, use a design and einblematic cut appropriate to the 

69. Use of Solid Backfirrounds. — Sometimes an excel- 
lent effect can be obtained, as in Fig. 20. by using a reverse 


plate such as is used for producing wliite letters on a dark 
background. This allows the color of the stock to show 
through and also gives a larger showing of the color of the 
ink used. 

4O. Embossing-. — Good effects in cover designs can be 
secured by embossing; that is, by having type lines, trade- 
marks, or illustrations on covers appear in raised lines, as 
shown in Figs. 19 and 23. Both the lettering and the design in 
these instances are drawn ; but set type can be embossed in the 
same way. This effect can be produced to a limited extent 
on a job-printing press, but the best results can be obtained 
only by the use of an embossing press. This raised effect is 
produced after the printing has been completed. 

71. Use of Ornamentation and Rule Work. — In 

designing a cover page to be set in type, care should be taken 
to secure artistic type effects without complex elements entering 
into the design. Ornamentation and rule work that interferes 
in the slightest degree with the reading of the title and other 
wording on the cover, should be avoided. 

72. Use of Small Type on Dark Covers.— Body type 
or small sizes of light-faced display type should not be used 
on dark stocks. This would not only be injurious to 
the sight, but it would do more than anything else to send the 
advertising matter to the waste basket. People will not waste 
time in trying to read matter that is hard to decipher. 

73. Display Lines on Catalog Covers. — The subject 
of the catalog should usually be the strongest line on the cover. 
If the name of the firm or other copy is to appear also, it 
should be of a size of type that is easy to read, but in such 
form and position that it will not detract from the main idea. 


74. Drawn Cover Designs. — Sometimes in order to 
obtain a strong and effective design that will be in keeping 
with the subject advertised, it is advisable to have it drawn 


especially for the purpose. A drawn cover design should be 
symbolic, if possible, and should s^ivc a suggestion as to the 
contents of the book. While the lettering may be artistic, it 
should be simple, plain, and forceful. Where a symbolic 
design cannot be used, a plain, tastefully lettered title makes 
a very handsome cover, its very simplicity giving the work a 
dignity that a labored design always lacks. Hand lettering, as 
shown in Figs. 24 and 25, has a distinctiveness that is impossi- 
ble to duplicate with type. 

Simple designs are far more effective than ponderous or 
complex ones. Grotesque designs should be avoided, ^^'hile 
they may for the moment attract attention, they will seldom 
stimulate a careful reading of the text pages. 

75. Instructions to the Artist. — When a drawn cover 
is decided on. the advertising man should give the designer a 
general idea of what is wanted. If the writer has anything in 
his file of a similar nature, he should let the designer have it 
so that the idea and the general appearance desired may be 
gras])ed. If a leaf or a texture is to be imitated, the designer 
should have a sample or a photograph. Designers appreciate 
this service, as it removes to some extent the uncertainty of 
satisfying the customer with the fmished work. Unless the 
advertisement writer is an artist or has had much experience 
in having designs made, he should not limit the designer to any 
rigidly specific plan. The experienced artist is a specialist, and 
if given some liberty he may be able to modify the advertise- 
ment writer's idea to great advantage, or to draw something 
that is far more appropriate than is suggested. When 
requested, the artist will furnish a rough sketch of the design 
before making the finished drawing. This will prevent any 
misunderstanding and afford satisfaction to both the artist and 
his customer. 

r\ill particulars should be given the artist as to the color and 
finish of stock, the subject to be advertised, the reading matter, 
the colors to be used in j^rinting (unless this is left to the 
artist's judgment, which is often advisable), and. by all means, 
the exact dimensions of the cover, in inches, and whether the 


design should be drawn to vv:u\ the loii!:,' way or the short vay 
of the page. 

76. Advertising: Value of a Desiffli. — Care should be 
taken to see that the designer does not draw an illustration that 
contains more pure art than advertising value. It is not always 
the object of a catalog or a booklet cover to present merely a 
beautiful appearance. Usually, beauty should be combined 
with advertising value. Only illustrators accustomed to com- 
mercial work can be trusted to keep the advertising idea before 
them in designing covers. Artists are likely to make serious 
mistakes, and when these mistakes are incorporated in the 
finished drawing, it results in expensive alterations to meet 
requirements. For instance, a manufacturer of a harvesting 
machine placed a catalog job in the hands of an advertising 
man, giving him liberty to use his judgment as to the design. 
The advertising man wanted to use an illustrated cover that 
would be attractive and strongly suggestive of both the machine 
and its use, and he gave the artist instructions to that effect. 
When the drawing was delivered, it showed a beautiful field 
of wheat — a work of art — but the harvesting machine was so 
far in the background and so insignificant in size that it had 
practically no advertising value. The artist had drawn a design 
that was more appropriate for a grain-seed catalog than for 
a catalog of farm machinery. In this case, it was necessary to 
redraw the entire illustration and to bring the machine to the 
foreground. Had the advertising man requested a rough 
sketch before the artist made the finished drawing, all diffi- 
culties, lost time, and extra expense would have been avoided. 

In designs more or less technical in nature, it is well to have 
the finished drawing inspected by technical experts for errors 
in detail before the plates are made. Neglect to do this some- 
times results in ludicrous mistakes. Such mistakes have been 
made as that of showing a hunter shooting from the right 
shoulder, with the right foot forward ; an interior bank scene 
with no cage around the teller ; a locomotive dashing ahead 
with the reverse lever in the gear that would make the loco- 
motive run backward ; etc. 

3s c\'r.\[.()(;s. B()()Kli:ts. axd folders §is 

77. In Fig. 25 is shown the cover page of a circular of 
a mechanical- and architectural-drawing course issued by the 
International Correspondence Schools. This is an excellent 
emblematic design, combined with a color appropriate to the 
subject. It has the appearance of a blueprint, and a blueprint is 
a direct suggestion of drawing and the drafting room. This 
design was printed from a reverse line plate on white paper 
in blue ink, the lettering standing out strongly on the original 
white stock. 

It is not an easy matter to have a design made up that is 
typical of the subject, and it requires great care and fore- 
thought in the preparation ; but as the mails are full of com- 
monplace work, the advertisement writer will usually be repaid 
for making special efforts to have his design appropriate as 
well as attractive. 

Suppose it is desired to get up a cover for a manufacturer 
of refrigerators. A photograph of the particular refrigerator, 
with the doors open, and a neatly attired, attractive-looking 
young woman in the act of placing something in it may be 
procured. This would give an element of life to the illustra- 
tion. Printed in light and dark green on white cover stock, this 
design would give a suggestion of coolness and cleanliness 
particularly appropriate to the subject. 

The design shown in Fig. 24 is appropriate for a booklet 
describing a device for thawing out pipes. The colors and the 
design are in perfect harmony with the subject. Note the 
frozen appearance of the tire-plug, the pebbling, and the pure- 
white background suggesting snow and ice. The treatment, 
however, is a trifle too dainty for the subject ; a sturdy upright 
lettering would be better. 

In Fig. 26 are reproductions of a number of covers, showing 
effective use of illustrations and hand lettering. A study of 
this exhibit will show the wide range that is possible. 

In such cities as New York, Chicago, Philadelphia, etc., it is 
an easy matter to find designers capable of oroducing high- 
grade covers. The advertising man located in a small city, 
however, will likely have to have this work done out of town. 
There are, in large centers, designing and engraving firms that 



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Fig. 16 

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make a specialty of sucli work, and they can, when furnished 
with a general idea of the advertiser's needs, not only prepare 
an appropriate cover but also print the entire catalog. 


78. Artistic cover designs can be produced by the use of 
two colors of ink. These colors should be of a hue, shade, or 
tint that will harmonize with a colored stock by which another 
element is added to the combination, thus producing a three- 
color efifect with the use of only two inks. 

If related harmony is desired the ink should be the same 

color as the stock but should be sufficiently lighter or darker 

to get good contrast. The following are some pleasing com- 
binations : 

Black and light green. . Dark green and bright brown. 

Black and light blue. Green-black and buff. 

Black and orange. Green-black and orange. 

Black and red. Green-black and red. 

Blue and brown. Green tint and dark green. 

Blue and orange. Light gray and dark gray. 

Blue tint and deep blue. Olive and bright red. 

Buff and chocolate brown. Olive tint and dark olive. 
Olive and brown. 

79. Effect of Cover Stocks on Colors. — An important 
point to keep in mind is that colored cover stocks will change 
the effect of colored ink from that which it shows when printed 
on white. For instance, an ink that is chocolate brown on 
white will be almost black on some cover stocks and a 
lighter brown on others. In printing, when the pressman 
knows the exact tone desired, he will modify the ink so as to 
make it produce what is wanted. 

A study of the examples shown in Fig. 16 will show what 
beautiful effects can be produced by the harmonious association 
of various colors. The covers there shown are representative 
of the work of the best American printers. This illustration 
is also an example of what may be done in color reproduction 
by the four-color j^rocess. Only four plates were used in 
printing this illustration. 


80. Printing and Embossing on Dark Cover 
Stocks. — On very dark cover stocks, attractive results can be 
obtained by printing a single line or a couple of lines in a bright 
color, such as pure white, silver, gold, light red on black ; very 
bright buff on dark brown; white or turquoise blue on very 
dark blue, etc. This effect may be heightened by en^bossing 
the lines. No ornamentation or rule work is needed for a cover 
of this class, the harmonious contrast of stock, color, and 
embossing being sufficient in themselves. 

81. Use of Tints on Dark Cover Stocks. — On very 
dark covers, light tints are often printed in masses and the 
title printed on the tint. For example, suppose it is desired to 
use a very dark-blue cover and to print the title on the cover. 
As it would be practically impossible to print any color of ink, 
except a very bright one, on dark-blue stock so that it could be 
easily read, the best plan would be to print a white or very 
pale-blue tint over part of the cover, and then print the title 
over this tint. If the work is done well, the result will be very 
artistic. Either one or two colors of ink may be used in print- 
ing on the tinted panel, according to the amount of money that 
can be spent for the work. 

If the cover is only medium dark, as in Fig. 21, fairly good 
effects can be produced by printing a panel in a little darker 
color than the cover stock and using on it bold type printed *in 
ink of a dark harmonious color. 

82. "Tipping- On" Dark Stocks. — Striking effects can 
be secured by printing all or part of the title on a slip of white 
or very light tinted stock, such as onyx, enameled book, etc., 
and then pasting this on a dark cover stock. This method is 
known as tipping on and may be applied to booklets, prospec- 
tuses, brochures, etc. When a half-tone illustration must be 
used in a booklet, that is to be printed on antique, linen, or 
crash-finish stock, or on any dark stock where it would not 
show to advantage, it is well to print the half-tone on enameled 
book stock and tip this piece on the regular stock of the booklet. 

8.3. Objection to Colors on Second and Third 
Covers. — If the second, third, or fourth pages of a cover are 


to be printed, c.irc should be taken to see that the color combi- 
nation on the iirst cover is suitable for any desii^n that may be 
planned for the fourth cover. Two or more colors are not 
commonly used on the second or third pages of covers, for the 
reason that colors on the second cover will detract from the 
effect of the title page, especially if the title page is printed 
opposite the second cover page; and if colors are not used on 
the second cover, it would not be consistent with the best print- 
ing practice to use them on the third cover. 

In the printing world the front cover is known as the first 
cover; the inside of the front cover, as the second cover ; the 
inside of the back cover, as the tJiird cover ; and the outside of 
the back cover, as the fourth cover. By thus referring to cover 
pages by number there is no such possibility of misunderstand- 
ing as there would be in using such expressions as "the inside 
of the cover," whicli might mean cither the second cover or 
the third cover. 


84. While the cover of a catalog, a booklet, or a folder is 
of prime importance in attracting the attention of a possible 
customer, it is not advisable to make the cover the only feature 
of attraction. Some booklets are sent out with beautiful 
covers, but liave poorly arranged and printed interior pages. 
This neutralizes the good impression created by the outside 
the moment the covers are opened and the inside pages are 
brought into view. While the cover should attract attention, 
the inside pages should be designed so as to present the argu- 
ment and information in the most attractive and forceful 
manner, in order that it can be grasped with the least possible 
effort. As with the cover, three factors combine to produce 
this result, namely, (1) the ])aper; (2) the typography; and 
(3) the color harmon}'. 



85. Sizes and Weights.— Book and special papers arc 
made in a great variety of sizes and weights, the sizes varying 
from 22 in.X28 in. to 39 in.X54 in. to the sheet, and the 
weights from 25 to 150 pounds to the ream of 500 sheets. The 
principal sizes, in inches, of hook papers are 22X28, 22X32, 
25X38. 28X42. 28X44, 30AX41, and 32X44. All book papers 
are not made in these sizes, many styles and weights being 
made only 25 in.X38 in., which is the commonly accepted 
standard size of book paper. Book papers are sold in reams 
of 500 sheets, and when spoken of as twenty-five, thirty-eight, 
one hundred (written 25X38—100). the meaning is that 500 
sheets of paper 25 in.X38 in. in size will weigh 100 pounds. 
Book papers are made in various qualities, from very low to 
very high grade. 

The material used in the manufacture of paper consists very 
largely of wood fiber, known as ccllitlosc, and cotton rags. 
The cheap grades of paper are made from wood pulp, the 
medium grades from a combination of wood pulp and rags, 
and the best grades from pure rag stock. 

80. Various Paper Finishes. — Papers suitable for 
catalogs, booklets, and folders are made in various kinds of 
finish, principal among which are supercalendercd, sized and 
supercalendered (called S. & S. C), enameled, dull coated, 
plate, wove antique, laid antique, rough wove and laid antique, 
linen, hand-made finish or ripple finish, hand-made Japan, 
repousse, and translucent cardboard. The only grades suitable 
for illustrated catalog and booklet work arc those with smooth 
surfaces or surfaces that can be crushed smooth. 

Any special design, weave or finish, size or weight can be 
obtained from paper nulls when the edition is large enough to 
need one or more tons of paper. 

'87. Supercalendered and Sized and Supercalen- 
dered Papers. — Where catalogs and booklets consist of many 
pages and are sent out in large quantities, the cost of mailing 
is an important item. The inside pages of many of the bulky 


mail-order catalogs are therefore printed on a very light weight 
of supercalendered stock, sometimes as light as 25 pounds to 
the ream. Ordinarily, if the catalogs are not too bulky, 60- 
and 70-pound stock is used ; so that the use of 25-pound stock 
by the mail-order firms saves at least 50 per cent, in postage — 
which means a great deal in extensive campaigns. 

Sized and supercalendered, or "S. & S. C," as it is usually 
called, is a smooth-finished stock made in both white and 
natural (slightly tinted, without bleaching) finishes. It may 
also be had in a few tints. It is particularly suitable for bulky 
catalog work, where both cheapness and light weight are of 
primary importance. Supercalendered and sized and super- 
calendered papers do not differ greatly in either appearance or 
smoothness. Engraving and Printing Methods, Part 2, should 
be referred to in connection with these descriptions of papers. 

Supercalendered paper is tough and strong — ciualities that 
are important where the printed matter is to receive constant 

88. Proper Weights of "Super" Paper to Use. 

Supercalendered papers give excellent results, both from an 
illustrative and a typographic standpoint. They "bulk" closely, 
that is, the pages set close, allowing a large number of pages 
to come within a very thin book, especially if the light weights 
are used. Where a catalog consists of only 16, 24, or 32 pages, 
it is advisable to use 70- or 80-pound stock, so as to give 
stability and bulking qualities (thickness) that will impress 
the customer. Where the pages are few in number, extremely 
thin paper might give an impression of cheapness. For small 
booklets and folders, a 60-, a 70-, or an 80-pound stock is best 
adapted to meet general requirements. 

89. Enameled Book Paper. — Where it is necessary to 
print high-grade half-tones, so as to bring out the details of 
subjects with great accuracy, enameled book stock should be 
used. Vignetted half-tones print particularly well on this class 
of stock. The higher the grade of the enameled stock, the 
better will be the result. Enameled book paper will afford 
excellent results in all kinds of printing, as its polished surface 


gives the ink a gloss unobtainable with the cheaper grades of 
stock. This kind of paper has one great defect. It will not 
stand much handling ; that is, it will crack and tear away from 
the binding very easily. If enameled book paper is used for a 
folder, particular care should be taken to get a tough grade 
suitable for folding, otherwise, after the folder has been opened 
and closed a few times, the stock will crack and break. This 
can sometimes be avoided by scoring on press. This is done 
by printing the crease with rules without using ink. 

Enameled book paper is practically the same as enameled 
cover paper, except that it is lighter in weight. It is made in 
white, flesh color, robin's-egg blue, light buff, rose, tea, golden- 
rod, primrose, and light green. 

90. Use of Various Tints and Colors of Paper. 

Where half-tone cuts are to be printed, it is usually advisable 
to use white enameled book stock in order to secure proper 
contrast. Half-tone illustrations may be printed on any very 
light tint of polished paper, bvit white paper produces the 
greatest contrast and shows the fine details of the soft tones 
to the best advantage. In small folders, very artistic results 
can be obtained on India tint, light blue, light green, and other 
tints of enameled book stock by printing the type in a darker 
tone of the same color. For small booklets, where the cover 
is a very dark color, such as blue, green, brown, etc., the inside 
pages may be a lighter tint of the same color. For example, 
if a cover is to be printed on a very dark-green stock, an 
enameled book paper, with a faint tinge of green, printed in a 
darker shade of green, may be here appropriately used for the 
inside pages. 

91. Dull-Coated Book Paper. — Illustrations of furni- 
ture, and of leather or other goods that require the finished 
effect of soft tones, look best on dull-coated book. This paper 
has practically no gloss, yet the surface is so smooth as to per- 
mit of the use of 133-screen half-tones. The paper manufac- 
turers have really accomplished a wonderful result in dull- 
coated paper, and such paper has a wide use. 


When lialf-toncs are to be used on dull-coaled paper, the 
engraver should^be so informed when they are ordered. He will 
then furnish a plate with more contrast to allow for the increase 
of the size of the dots and the slight darkening of the lighter 
tints in printing. Half-tones of somewhat coarser screen are 
desirable for printing on dull-coated stock than on glossy 

Dull-coated book paper is made in practically the same sizes, 
weights, and colors as enameled book paper. 

92. Antique Paper. — Paper without a gloss is much 
easier on the eyes, especially when artificial light is used. 
Anticjue paper has a dull surface, being practically an unfinished 
paper. It is extensively used for booklets and folders in which 
no half-tone illustrations are to be printed. The porous sur- 
face prevents the use of half-tone illustrations, unless, of course, 
this surface can be crushed smooth. Some processes are being 
developed (such as the offset process and others) that make 
it possible to print half-tones on rough stock. In ordering 
such work, however, the advertising man should go carefully 
and be very sure of his printt. ability. 

When a booklet is to be printed on antique paper and it is 
necessary to use a hrdf-tone illustration, the half-tone is usually 
printed on enameled book pai)er, which is then cut to the saiue 
size as the other pages and l)ound in as an inset ; that is. an 
inserted page. The effect is artistic when well done and the 
cost is not great. 

93. Laid Antique Paper. — 'i'lie stock known as laid 
antique has a rough surface that is made by a series of very 
close, fine lines. On holding laid paper to the light, slight 
parallel wire marks from ^ inch to 1| inches apart will be 
noticed. Laid antique paper is particularly appropriate for 
printing semibold faces of type, such as Old-Style Antique, 
Cheltenham, Avil, etc. 

94. Wove Antique Paper. — The paper called wove 
antique has a surface closely resembling the sheil of a newly 
laid egg. This paper gives fine results in high-grade booklet 
and folder work. On wove antique, Old-Style Roman type 

ijis CATALCUiS. !'.()( )KlJ';rs, ANM) 1'()LI)1-:KS 17 

and similar type arc i)articularly appropriate for the l)o(ly 
matter, and line cuts are particularly good for illustrations. 

J>5. Rou^h Antique Paper. — Another antique paper 
having the same quality and body as wove and laid antique 
papers, except that the finish is rougher to the touch, is called 
rough antique. It is a very fine paper for brochures and high- 
grade booklets and folders. 

1)6. Plate-Finish Paper. — The paper known as plate 
finish is a smooth-surfaced paper, but not so smooth as enam- 
eled book. Plate-finish paper is really a high-grade, heavy 
antique book or cover paper that has been run through hot 
' rolls with tremendous pressure. It is not coated — simply pol- 
ished by the hot rolls and the pressure. It is suitable for all 
kinds of illustrations, including half-tones of not more than 
133-line screen. As the finish is part of the body of the stock, 
this paper is tougher and stronger than enameled book. 

J)7. Linen-Finisli Paper.— Book papers with a linen 
finish arc much finer in texture vji the surface than are the 
linen-finish cover papers. Book papers of this kind will there- 
fore take the smaller sizes of type more easily and can be used 
satisfactorily for line engravings, provided there is not too 
much solid color on the plates. Half-tones will not print 
properly on linen-finish paper. As a rule, linen-finish book 
papers are lighter in weight than the linen-finish cover stocks, 
and are of a soft, pliable texture. This kind of book paper 
comes in white, hght bufT, and various tints, the principal size 
being 25 in.X38 in. to the sheet. 

98, Crash-Finish Paper. — Book stock with a crash 
finish resembles very closely the crash-finish cover stock, but 
it is Hghter in weight and somewhat smoother on the surface, 
so that body type can be used successfully. This paper 
comes in white and light buff only, and is of the same size as 
linen-lfinish book paper. It is not suitable for half-tone print- 
ing or for small type. 

99. Hand-Made Finish, or Ripple Finish. — Tlie 
hand-made-finish book papers can be had only in the higher- 


priced qualities. The surface of this stock greatly resembles 
the hand-niade-finish cover paper, but it is made lighter in 
weight and slightly finer in texture, so that body type may be 
used in printing on it. Hand-made-finish papers are suitable 
for fine line cuts, but half-tones will not print satisfactorily on 
them unless the paper is treated specially. 

100. Hand-Made Paper. — The genuine hand-made 
paper, as its name implies, is made by hand instead of machine. 
It is very costly, as each sheet is made separately and only 
the finest raw materials are used. Hand-made paper has an 
antique finish, and is particularly attractive to the touch 
and eye. 

101. Japan-Finish. Paper. — The paper with Japan 
finish is made in only one or two styles, principal among which 
is the Strathmore Japan, a very high-grade paper made in both 
plate and very fine antique. These papers resemble parchment, 
are made of the very best grade of rag stock, in white and 
buff, and are extremely durable. Very artistic results can be 
produced with this stock. 

102. Vellum-Finish Paper. — The stock known as 
vellum finish is made by the Japanese from the wood of the 
Japanese paper mulberry tree. This paper has a remarkably 
fine texture, is buff in color, and is very durable. On holding 
vellum-finish paper to the light, it shows a mottled surface that 
is very distinctive. Vellum paper is used for the highest grade 
of letter-press work, line engravings, and photogravures, but 
it is not suitable for half-tone engravings. It is a very high- 
priced stock and is used principally for insets of fine illustra- 
tions in books printed on antique paper. 

103. Onyx Paper. — The book stock known as onyx is 
the same as the onyx cover stock. It is useful for a great 
variety of small work, such as folders and small booklets 
consisting of not more than 8 or 16 pages, enclosures, announce- 
ments, insets for periodicals, and various kinds of high-grade 
miscellaneous printing. It is made in crash, vellum, and plate 
finish, and is very distinctive. 


104. Translucent Cardboard. — Direct-by-mail folders 
arc often printed on translucent cardboard. This is really a 
supercalendered stock with a heavy enameled coating on both 
sides. The supercalendered body makes it strong and allows 
it to fold without excessive cracking. It is made in one stand- 
ard size — 22X28 inches. It is nearly always spoken of as 
2, 3, 3|, or 4 ply (meaning the number of layers of stock) 
rather than so many pounds to the ream; 22X28 — 160 would 
be about 3 ply. It is made in white and colors about the same 
as enameled book. It can also be obtained from a few paper 
dealers in the dull-coated finish similar to dull-coated book 

105. Deckle-Edged Papers. — A number of high-grade 
antique-, linen-, crash-, and plate-finished stocks have what is 
known as a deckle, or "ragged," edge on two sides. This edge 
is made in imitation of the old, genuine hand-made paper, 
which has a deckle on all four sides. The deckle consists of 
an irregular, soft, feathery edge, in place of the straight, sharp 
edge usually found on ordinary paper. The modern machine- 
made paper has a deckle on only two sides, usually running the 
long way of the sheet. For folders, high-grade booklets, and 
other line work, the deckle gives an artistic finish that is very 
desirable. Deckle edges are not found on supercalendered and 
enameled book stocks, and only a limited number of crash- 
and antique-finished stocks have the deckle. Some of the 
imported papers have the deckle on all four sides, but these 
are very few in number and very expensive. Where the 
edition is small, however, they can sometimes be used with 

The advertisement writer should not call for "close-register" 
color work — that is, color work printed with great exactitude 
— on deckle-edged stock, as it is extremely difficult in printing 
to feed the deckle-edged sheets accurately. There is less diffi- 
culty when only one color is used, but the printer will always 
charge more for handling deckle-edged stock. 



106. Importance of Good Display. — Attractiveness is 
as essential to the inside pages of a catalog as it is to the cover, 
and legibility is even more essential. Attractiveness is secured 
by means of proper margins, well-balanced display, neat type 
faces, high-grade illustrations, and color harmony, while legi- 
bility is secured by using type that is easy to read, and by 
arranging the matter so that its meaning can be grasped with 
the least expenditure of time and efifort. 

107. Title Pages. — The title page, if the plan of the 
catalog or booklet calls for one, should be made very neat and 
attractive. This effect is secured by simplicity and dignity of 
design and color harmony. Plenty of white space should be 
carefully distributed throughout this page, which should be 
more open than the text pages. The title of the work should 
always be the strongest line. If additional copy is used, it 
should be set in a much smaller size of the same or a har- 
monious face of type and arranged as simply as possible. For 
example, if the text is to be set in Caslon Oldstyle, a very 
artistic effect for the title page can be produced by using 
Engraver's Old English or Cloister l>lack Text type for the 
main line and setting the balance of the page in Caslon Old- 
style, as shown in Fig. 27. 

108. The designer should be consistent in the use of 
capitals and capitals and lower case. If capitals are desired 
for the title, the use of all capitals for the whole title page is 
recommended, unless there is a verse of poetry or a short 
extract from some other work to be used. In this case, the 
poetry and extract should be in upper and lower case. It is 
not regarded as good taste to alternate lines in capital letters 
with lines in capital and lower-case letters, although, in excep- 
tional instances, one or. two lines of capitals could be used. 
Large type and bold-faced type should not be used unless it is 
artistically printed in colors, and then only in catalogs dealing 
with heavy, bulky articles. 



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109. Divisions of a Title Pase. — Ordinarily, a title 
page has tliree divisions: the iiauie, the subheading, and the 
imprint, or address. The entire page should be designed to 
conform to the main line — the title — and all other words or 








1919- 1920 




lines should be made subservient in size and strength. A title 
with the main-display line set full measure at the top of the 
page seldom looks well. This weakness may be avoided by 
"sinking," or dropping, the top line a few picas lower than the 


top of the page. The main line of a title page should in all 
cases be above the center of the page. 

110. Subheading and Additional Matter. — Title 
pages are sometimes extremely simple, consisting of only the 

Trade Catalog of 

Silverware, Jew^elry 

and Fine Metal 

Including a Special Selection of 
Bronzes and Library Novelties 
in Ink Stands and Desk Sets 

For the Season of 

Brown & Jenkins 

480 Pennsylvania Ave. Washington, D. C. 

mam title and the imprint. Often, however, there are several 
secondary features to be placed carefully. See Figs. 27, 28, 29, 
and 30. Note that in Fig. 29 the matter is set entirely in 
capitals, while upper- and lower-case letters are used iivFig. 30. 






^^^^^ F OUNDED.185 6 ^^^^^ 

308 § 18 

Fig. 31 


111. Imprint and Address. — In bound books, tbc title- 
page imprint usually includes the date, the name of the pub- 
lisher, and the name of the city in which the publisher is located. 
On catalogs, booklets, and folders, however, the date is usually 
omitted in the imprint, the copy consisting of the advertiser's 
name and address only. Figs. 29 and 30 show methods of 
handling a date on catalog and booklet title pages. Imprints 
and address lines should always be set in the series of type used 
on the remainder of the page. 

112. Borders. — Heavy borders are not appropriate for 
title pages. In fact, many title pages are printed without 
borders. Where a border is used, it should be a plain, light, 
single or double rule. For small booklets, a single 1 -point rule 
is sufficient. A heavier rule than 2 points should never be used 
for even the larger pages, and even this size should be used 
carefully. Unless printed in a tint, a 2-point rule ordinarily 
looks too heavy on a title page. Figs. 27 and 28 show the same 
copy set with and without a border. 

113. Drawn Title Pages. — Where drawn borders are 
used throughout the catalog, the title page is often hand- 
lettered. There is a freedom about good hand lettering that 
cannot be equaled with type. In addition to the lettering, line 
work emblematic of the subject of the catalog or booklet may 
be efifectively used. Fig. 31 shows an emblematic border, 
embodying outline drawings of revolvers and cartridges, and 
also a neat monogram. The border is printed in a light-brown 
tint, with the lettering in black. In Fig. 32 is shown an emble- 
matic ornament in line work used in conjunction with a type 

114. Color Divisions. — If the title page is to be printed 
in two colors, either one of two plans may be followed : print- 
ing the subject line only in the bright color, as in Fig. 28, or 
printing the rule border in the bright color. The rule on a 
title page should always be printed in the same color as the 
rules on the body pages. This will not only assist the printer 
in his work but will add to the harmony of the job. Figs. 29 


and 30 show a title page printed in one color, and they illus- 
trate the neat, simple effects that may be produced with black 
ink and artistic type. 

115. Index and Table of Contents. — IT the catalog 
consists of many pages, or treats of a great variety of things. 


and how to read them 

Copyright 1005 by 

Wcslinghouse KUctric &• Maiiufacluring Co. 

Pilliburg, Fj, 

Fic. 32 

it is usually provided with an index or a table of contents. 
The difference between an index and a table of contents is that 
in the index the various items of the catalog are listed in 
alphabetical order, with page numbers opposite, while in the 


table of contents, the items are listed in the order in which they 
come in the catalog. Fig. 33 shows an index arrangement, 
while Fig. 34 shows a table of contents. An index always 
gives the page numbers ; a table of contents may or may not do 
so. Where there are a great many short items to be indexed, 
the index is usually arranged in two or more columns, as shown 
in Fig. 35, the number of columns depending on the size of 
page and the length of the lines. Such an index is ordinarily 
made the last part of the book. The advertiser will find it to 
his interest to make it as convenient as possible for customers 
to find what they are looking for. 

IIG. Botl3^ Pag-e.s. — The body type used for catalogs, 
l)Ooklets, and folders ehould be of a clean-cut, legible style and 
not too small. Undoubtedly the best all-around letters are 
Old-Style Roman and modern Roman. These types are found 
in practically every printing office. Other types that are appro- 
priate for this work are Caslon Oldstyle, French Oldstyle, 
Cheltenham Oldstyle, and Scotch Roman. For special book- 
lets and folders printed in olive or brown and colors of like 
strength, Old-Style Antique, Strathmore Oldstyle, Chelten- 
ham Wide, or any medium-weight type that is legible and well 
proportioned can be effectively used. 

117. Leading-. — The body pages of catalogs, booklets, 
and folders are nearly always more readable and have a better 
general appearance when the body type is leaded than when 
it is solid. But if it is necessary to set body type solid on 
account of the amount of copy, care should be taken that the 
headings and subheadings are given plenty of white space for 
background, and that there is a little extra space between para- 
graphs ; otherwise, the page will present an overcrowded and 
"mussy" appearance, similar- to cheap patent-medicine dodgers, 
and will not appeal to discriminating persons. 

118. Sizes of Type. — The best all-around type sizes for 
body matter are 8- and 10-point, and these sizes are used in 
most catalogs, booklets, and folders. If possible, 10-point 
should be used for medium- and large-size catalogs, as it is 
easier to read than is 8-point. Very small type should be 

I LT 102C-11 


I 'age 

Advertising 58 

Architecture 39 

Arts and Crafts 58 

Boilermakers' Coursic 37 

Chemistry 33 

Civil Engineering 31 

Civil Service CI 

Commerce 55 

Drawing 35 

Electrical ENGiNEERi.a-, 23 

Electrotherapeutict, 27 

English Branches 52 

French 54 

German 54 

Languages 54 

Law 60 

Lettering and Sign Painting 53 

Locomotive Running 22 

Marine Engineering 21 

Mathematics and Mechanics 32 

Mechanical Engineering 17 

Mines 49 

Navigation 57 

Pedagogy 54 

Plumbing, Heating, and Ventilation -11 

Sheet-Metal Work 42 

Spanish 54 

Steam Engineering " 19 

Structural Engineering 39 

Telephone and Telegraph Enginkerinc 29 

Textiles 43 

Window Trimming and Mercantile Decoration 61 

Tig. 33 eg 

Table of Contents 

Exterior House Painting 7 

General remarks regarding the best materials to use 7 

Painting new wooden structures 10 

Repainting wooden structures I3 

Painting brick buildings 15 

Painting shingle roofs Ig 

Painting tin and metal roofs 19 

Staining shingle roofs 20 

Painting porch floors and stc;;s 21 

Painting blinds or shutters ; 22 

Window sash 22 

Exteriors of doors 23 

Painting Bams, Fences, and Outbuildings 25 

Interior Woodwork 27 

Varnishing new woodwork 27 

Revamishing old woodworl: 29 

Staining new woodwork 3I 

Staining woodwork previously painted, enameled, varnished, or stained 33 

Enameling new woodwork 34 

Enameling woodwork previously finished 35 

Floors 37 

Varnishing new floors 37 

Revamishing floors 33 

Waxing new floors 39 

Rewaxmg floors 39 

Staining and varnishing new floors 40 

Staining and varnishing old floors 41 

Painting new floors 43 

Painting old floors 43 

Walls and Ceilings 44 

Enameling walls and ceilings that have not previously been finished 44 

Enameling walls and ceilings that have previously been finished 44 

Calcimining 45 

Refinishing Fumittire 47 

Varnishing 47 

Staining 49 

Staining and vamishinj at one application 50 

Waxing 51 

Enameling 52 

Painting 53 

Renewing polish of varnished surfaces 53 

Picture Frames and Other Things About the Home 54 

Varnishing 54 

Staining 56 

Staining and varnishing at ore application 56 

Waxing 58 

Enameling 58 

Radiators, Steam, and Water Pipes 61 

Stoves, Ranges, Stovepipes, and Similar Surfaces 62 

Bathtubs and Surfaces Exposed to Hot and Cold Water, Steam, or 

Moisture 63 

Carriages and Other Vehicles 65 

Wagons and Farm Implements 67 

Lawn and Porch Furniture 69 

Garden Tools and .Implements , 69 

Window and Door Screens 71 

57 F,G. 34 


Abney's Levels 2.^3 

Adhesive Tape 1-4 

Adjustable-Curve Rulers 1-17 

Air Meter 206 

Alt-Azimuth 254 

Pocket 204 

"Alumnus" White Drawing Paper 

(sheets) 5 

Amber Curves 148-150, 154. 155 

" Lined Straightedges 139 

Protractors 127. 128 

T Squares 144, 145 

" Triangles 136,137 

A.neniometers 265-267 

Biram's 207 

Ar.erojd Barometers 262-2S4 

Angle Mirrors 2.j7 

Angles, Lettering 138 

"Apache" Tracing Paper 12 

Architect's Certificate Books 23 

Arkansas Oilstones 17."> 

Arrows 217 

Artificial Horizon 257 

Artists' Pencils 188 192 

A. W. Faber 188-192 

" Water Glasses 175 

Ash Straightedges 139 

Atomizer 1 < '' 

Attachments for Drawing Tables 107 

" and Extras for Engineers' 

Instruments 249-250 

"Azure" Tracing Paper 17 


Barograph 2CS 

Barometer, Recording 268 

Barometers 202-264 

Bars for Beam Compasses l-^O 

Bath Trays 28 

Bausch & Lomb Binoculars 273, 274 

Beam Compass and Ellipsograph 156 

Bars 146 

" Compasses 58. 59. 74, 84. 98 

Binoculars 273, 274 

Biram's Anemometers 267 

Blacktioard Dividers 101 

I Blocks, Cross-Section 38 

I " Sketch 38 

Blue and Brown-Print Papers a..d Cloths 


Blueprint Baths 28 

Felt 26 

Frames 26,27 

Paper and Cloths 17-21 

" Papers, Unprepared 21 

Blueprinting 24 

Boards. Bristol 7 

Drawing l.-,7-159 

" Illustration 7 

" Mounting 7 

Boat Compasses -CO 

Lond Drawing Paper, in Sheets 12 

in Rolls 5 

Books, Architect's Certificate 29 

Cross-Section <?!, 41 

Engineers' Field 40-43 

Level 42. 43 

Transit 42, 43 

Border Pens 4S 

" r.oston" Drawing Tal.le 166 

Low-Compasses r,0-53, 68-70, 82. 89 

•■ Dividers 50-53. 68-70. 82. 89 

•' Pens 50 53. 68-70, 82. 89 

F-or.cs. Empty Japannetl Tin 172 

Water-Color 173 • 

F-oxwood Protractors 126 

Scales. Flat 116-118 

" In Sets 121 

'• " Triangular 123 

Brass Protractors 126 

Bristol Boards 7 

Brown-Print Papers and Cloths. . . .17. 22, 23 

Brunton Pocket Transit 229 

Brush Tube Mucilage 187 

Brashes 176-179 

" Water-Color 176-179 

Buckeye Electric Blueprinting Machine. . 29 

Buff Drawing Papjr, in Rolls 9 

" ■■ ■■ in Sheets 5 

Building Contracts 39 

Trades Pocketlwok 277 

Bubincbb Mull's PotkctUjok -78 

Fig. 25 


§1S CATALOGS, BOOKLl"rS, AND F0L1)1:RS :>'.) 

avoided for all catalogs except those in which a great many 
different articles have to be described in small space. Mail- 
order advertisers are occasionally compelled to use very small 
type — sometimes even as small as 5- or 5i-point — in order to 
keep down the weight of their catalogs. For the larger sizes 
of catalogs and booklets, 12-point type is often used, as it is 
very easy to read on account of its size ; 10-point is a good size 
to use for a 9"X12" catalog. Small-faced types like Chelten- 
ham can be used in larger sizes than ordinary old-style, as a 
10-point Cheltenham lower-case letter has approximately the 
same size of face as an 8-point Old-Style Roman lower-case 
letter (although the capitals are full size), and averages nearly 
the same number of words to the line. The writer should not 
call for 12-point body type on the smaller sizes of catalogs, 
booklets, or folders without first consulting a reliable printer, 
as 12-point type is too large and bulky for small work, except 
under special conditions. 

It is well to be consistent in the use of body type. If a 
catalog is started with the main text in 10-point leaded, the 
style should not be changed to 10-point solid or to 8-point 
leaded. Of course, the style can be consistently varied when 
extracts, testimonials, or minor descriptions are to be 

119. Margins. — Nothing depreciates more the value of 
catalogs, booklets, and folders intended to be high-grade work 
than sparse, or "skimpy," margins. They give an appearance 
of cheapness and false economy. Note Fig. 36. One method 
in arranging small pages is to make the margin approximately 
equal on the top and both sides, allowing a little extra space 
at the bottom. Should there be only a little copy for each page 
and the pages be rather small, the copy may be set in a narrow 
measure in the center of the page, with a broad band of white 
space around the four sides. On medium and large pages, it 
is advisable to follow the book publisher's rule, which is to 
have the narrowest margin at the binding, a little more at the 
top, still more at the outside, and the most at the bottom. 
For example, on a page 5 in.XZ in., a good broad-margin effect 

TTHE built of antiqae mahosany furniture, 
•^ here in America, derives iu den'gn from 
one or another of the tfuee great 18th century 
designer!, Chippendale, Hepplewhile. and 
Sheraton. The characleriitic style ot the first 
named vai based on good old classic lines, 
and though graceful, vat tomewhat heavy in 
appearance; the socond went to the other 
extreme, but the Sheraton attained the happy 
medium, combining the three desired qualitiej 
—strength, lightness, and grace. 

W hile Sheraton designs are wclI-conceived. 
admirably proportioned and extremely grace- 
ful in line, the appearance of delicacy ar.d 
lightness it cleverly attained without the sacri- 
fice of security or strength. To the possession 
of these qualities in so great and unusual a 
degree is due no doubt the present populanty 
of the true Sheraton. 

Tfiis style is distinguished by the tapering 
legs, which may be either square or turned, 
severe but rraccful lines and quiet ornamenta- 
tion, usu:."y in the form of inlays of narrow 
Lnes of satinwood. Sheraton trusted almost 
entirely for decoration to his marque'r/. 
This was very delicate and of excelleat 
workmanship. While the Sheraton sometimes 
rarries some carving, the inlay work consti- 
tutes the chief beauty, aside, of course, from 
the artistic value of the graceful lines that dis- 
fanguish the true conception of the style. 
Mahogany is the wood principally used in the 
produclioa of Sheraton pieces. 

^X'ilh a greater refinement of taste than ifw 
other old masters, Sheiaton drew such of fus 
ideas as were not purely iinginal from the 
"Louis Seize" — by far the most chaste am) 
refined ot all French styles. So admiiable an J 
accurate, indeed, was fus interpretation ot that 
style that his version of it is commonly called in 
France "Louis -Seize-Anglaise." 

In fust>est work, Sheraton never permitted the 
ornament thai he employed to lake the place of 
construction, but jjwaysmadea point of keep- 
ing it abisolutely subservient to the general form 
and main construenve lines of lus designs. 
In tfie enrichment ot his productions he was a 
decorative artist in the strictest sense ot th; 
word. Having in the first place de-rised 
he considered to be a graceful torm, which sat- 
isfied his hypercntical mind in every particular, 
and might therefore bie depended on to salisly 
others less exacting, Sheraton set about to 
enrich it with such inlay or carving as he 
deemed most suitable for the attainment ot the 
object he had in view. The result was invari- 
ably successful, exciting the admiration of all 
possessed ot sufficient culture to appreciate 
such taste and craftsmanship. The consistency 
with which ihis principle was adhered to, 
keeping artistic fitness continually in view, is 
especially apparent in his chair-backs; but tl-.e 
same rule was brought into force in the design- 
ing and construcrion of the cabinetwork which 
has made his name tamous. The truest and 
best conception of the Sheraton style today is 

Fig. 36 
Pases too full— poor mar2final efTect. The l!:;-:t rules merely show limits <.f pages 

THE bulk cf antique rrahogany 
1 furniture, herein America, de- 

square or hirned, severe but grace- 

ful lines and quiet ornamentation, 
usually in the form of inlays of nar- 

rives its designs from one or another 

of the three great l8th cenhiry 

row lines of satinwood. Sheraton 

designers, Chippendale, Hepple- 

trusted almost entirely for decora- 

while, and Sheraton. The charac- 

tion to his marquetry. Ttiis was 

teristic style of the first named was 

vcr>' delicate and of excellent work- 

based on good old classic lines. 

ir.anship. While the Sheraton 

and though graceful, was some- 

sometimes carries some carving, the 

what heavy in appearance; the 

inlay work constitutes the chief 

second went to the other extreme. 

beauty, aside, of course, from the 

but the Sheraton attained the 

rrtistic value of the graceful lines 

happy medium, combining the 

that distinguish the true conception 

three desired qualities — strength. 

of the style.. Mahogany is the 

lightness, and gr~;e. 

wood principally used in the pro- 

While Sheraton designs are well- 

duction of Sheraton pieces. 

conceived, admirably proportioned 
and extremely graceful in line, thj 

With a greater refinement of 

taste than the other old masters. 

appearance of delicacy and light- 

Sheraton drew such of his ideas as 

ness is cleverly attained without ih- 

were not purely original from the 

sacrifice of security or strength. To 

"l!x5uis Seize" — by far the most 

the possession of these qualities in 

chaste and refined of oU French 

so great and unusual a degree is 

1 styles. So admirable and accurate, 

due no doubt the present popular- 

1 indeed, was his interpretation of 

ily of the true Sheraton. 

1 tfial style that his version of it 

This style is distinguished by the 

1 is commonly called in France 

tapering Iciis, which may be cither 


Fjg. 37 
The best utiect if margins are to be made almost equal 


'T'HE bulk of antique mahou- 
* any fumilure, here in 

inlays of narrow lines of satin- 

wood. Sheraton tniited almost 

America, derive* its design from 

entirely for decoration to hi* 

one or another of the three great 

marquetry. This was very del- 

1 8th century de«igners, Chippen- 

icate and of excellent work- 

dale, Hepplcwhile, and Shera- 

manship. While the Sheraton 

ton. The characteristic style of 

sometimes carries some carving. 

the first named was based oa 

the inlay work constitutes the 

good old classic lines, and though 

chief beauty, aside, oP course. 

graceful, was somewhat heavy 

from the artistic value of the 

in appearance: the second went 

graceful lines that distinguish the 

to the other extreme, but the 

true conception of the style. 

Sheraton attained the happy 

Mahogany is the wood princi- 

medium, combining the three 

pally used in the production of 

desired qualities— strength, light- 

Sheraton pieces. 

ness, and grace. 

With a greater refinement of 

While Sheraton designs are 

taste than the other old masters. 

well-conceived, admirably pro- 

Sheraton drew such of his ideal 

portioned, and extremely' grace- 

as were not purely original from 

ful in line, the appearance of 

the "Louis Seize"— by far the 

delicacy and lightness is cleverly 

most chaste and refined of all 

attained without the sacrifice of 

Frenchstyles. So admirable and 

•ecurity or strength. To_ the 

accurate, indeed, was his inter- 


possession of these qusJities in so 

pretation of that style that hi* 

great and unusual a degree is due 

version of it is commonly called 

no doubt the present popularity 

in Fraiice "Louis-Seize- 

of the true Sheraton. 

1 Anglaise." 

This style is distinguished by 

1 In his best work, Sheraton 

the tapering legs, which may be 

never (>ermitled the ornament 

either square or turned, severe 

that he employed to take the 

but graceful lines and quiet oma- 

place of construction, but alwayi 

mentatioD, usually iuthe foim of 

made a point of keeping it abto- 

FiG. 38 
Poor marsfinal effect. The ligrht rules merely show limits of pages 

'T'HE bulk of antique mahog- 
■^ any , fumilure, here in 
America, derives its design from 
one or another of the three great 
18th century designers, Chippen- 
dale, Hepplewhite, and Shera- 
ton. The characteristic style of 
the first namedl was based oa 
good old classic lines, and though 
graceful, was somewhat heavy 
in appearance;! the second went 
to the other r extreme, but the 
Sheraton attained the happy 
medium, combining the three 
desired qualities — strength, light- 
ness, and grace. 

While Sheraton designs are 
well-conceived, admirably pro- 
portioned and extremely grace- 
ful in line, the appearance of 
delicacy and lightness is cleverly 
attained without the sacrifice of 
security or strength. To the 
powessioD of thcK qualities in to 

great and unusual a degree is due 
DO doubt the present popularity 
of the true Sheraton. 

This style is distinguished by 
the tapering legs, which may be 
either square or turned, severe 
but graceful lines and quiet orna- 
mentation, usually in the form of 
inlays of narrow lines of satin- 
wood. Sheraton trusted almost 
entirely for decoration to hi* 
marquetry. This was very 
delicate and of exceUent work- 
manship. While the Sheraton 
sometimes carries some carving, 
the inlay woik constitutes the 
chief beauty, aside, of course, 
from the artistic value of the 
graceful lines that distinguish the 
true conception of the style. 
Mahogany is the wood princi- 
pailly used in the production of 
Sheraton pieces. 

With a greater tefiaemeat of 

Fig. i9 
Good marginal effect. These pages are arranged in accordance with the general book rule 



would be as follows: Next to binding. 4i picas; top. 5^ picas; 
outside, 7 picas ; and bottom, 9 picas. Figs. 36, liJ , 38, and 39 
illustrate poor and good marginal effects. Fig. Zl shows how 
the best effect can be had when the margin is to be made about 
equal all around the type. Fig. 39 shows how to proportion 
the margin properly when it is to be arranged according to the 
book publisher's rule, which is undoubtedly the best practice 
in preparing catalogs or booklets of high quality. However, 
the broad-margin style is not always followed. 

Body matter has a bearing on the margins. \'ery small type 
does not require so much margin as the larger sizes. Pages in 
bold type may have wider margins than if in light face. 

120. Hordor.s. — Catalog, booklet, and folder pages can 
l)c' i)rintcd cither with or without borders. Where a border 
is to be used, heavy rules sliould be avoided, as they give a 
funereal appearance to a page. Under ordinary conditions, 
1 -point rule is sufficiently heavy for all sizes of booklet pages, 
but when the rule is to be printed in a light tint on large pages 
with wide margins, 2-i)oint may be used with advantage. A 
happy medium between a 1- and a 2-point rule is the li-point 
face rule, which many printers have. It is advisable, however, 
to ascertain whether the printer that is to do the work has this 
face of rule, for often, where H-point rule would be very 
appropriate, the 2-point rule that would be substituted would 
be entirely too heavy. l*"ancy-type borders should not l)e used 
on title and inside pages imless they are printed in a very light 
tint and used with great discrimination. On high-grade book- 
lets and folders, a drawn border symbolical of the subject 
treated is very attractive and lends to the selling value of the 
work. Fig. 40 shows a drawn border used on a railroad book- 
let treating of fishing. The approi)riateness of this border is 
recognized at a glance, and adds greatly to the artistic value 
of the page, especially as it is printed in a bright-green tint 
with the type in black. 

I^arallel-rule drawn borders, with the space between in half- 
tone or stippled and printed in a light tint, give a two-color 
border effect that is appropriate for high-grade booklets. 


The style and size of the border should be kept uniform on 
all pages, including the title page. Where illustrations are 
used, great care should be taken to see that the border does not 
interfere with their attractiveness and strength. I'.orders look 
better around illustrations when they are printed in a light 
tint, and the illustrations in a dark color. The same facts about 
handling borders should be kept in mind when placing bands 
of color at the top and bottom of pages instead of all around. 

121. HcadinjU's. — Where possible, the main headings of 
a booklet should be so arranged as to appear at the top of a 
page (see Fig. 41). This is a much better plan than scattering 
the main heads throughout the text, as the various subjects 
treated can be ascertained more easily. If this style cannot 
be followed, the maiu heading may be put on the first page of 
the body matter, allowing a little extra margin at the top, and 
the secondary heads may come as they happen to strike through- 
out the body matter in the following pages ; as a finishing touch 
to each page, the title of the work may be put across the top 
of the page in caps of type a size smaller than the body matter, 
with a light rule the full measure of the page beneath it. Such 
a head is known as a running head. The pages of this Section 
are printed in this style, except that the capitals at the top of 
the page are not of a size smaller than the body-matter capitals 
and no rule is used under the running head. 

Page headings can be run in various styles. If a border is 
used around the page, the heading sometimes looks well, with 
no ornamentation, of any kind, when it is simply placed in the 
center of the measure with the proper space above and below, 
as shown in Fig. 42. A panel heading such as shown in 
Fig. 43 is another good style. A douljle 1 -point rule above 
the heading and a single 1-point rule beneath it, is still another 
variation. An ornamental panel border, such as shown in 
Fig. 41, is a very tasteful plan when two colors are used and 
the heading is run in a bright color. 

Squared headings, or headings running the full width of the 
type page, with a light single or double rule beneath, are some- 
times preferable to the short, center-line headings. 


122. Uniformity in Headings. — The size of type used 
in all main headings should be uniform, as should also the style 
of type in regard to the use of all caps or caps and lower case. 
If there is a variation in the style of setting of two heads of 
equal importance, the reader may be confused. Sometimes in 
very artistic catalogs, a specially drawn or specially arranged 
head will be used for each main division. In this case, how- 
ever, consistency as to strength of display should be observed, 
as well as harmony between the various st)les. The adoption 
of upper and lower case is advisable when the headings are 
rather long, for with this style more words can be set in a line. 
The style of type in the heading should be made to conform 
to the shape of the page ; that is, if the page is deep and narrow, 
a medium condensed letter, such as Cheltenham Bold Con- 
densed, should be used for the heading and subheadings; if 
the page is set the wide way, medium and extended types are 
preferable. It is well to use type that is easy to read — plain, 
clean-cut, and attractive faces. 

123. Subheads and Side Heads.— Where dififereul 
divisions of the subject occur, and when it is desired to call 
special attention to such divisions, subheads and side heads 
may be used to advantage. Subheads add greatly to the read- 
ability of some booklets, as the reader can tell at a glance where 
the particular feature he is interested in may be found. They 
also tend to exert a strong selling power, as they call attention 
to special points that are not otherwise strengthened. There 
are various styles of subheads and side heads, principal among 
which are the centered subhead, the run-in side head, the flush 
side head, the cut-in side head, and the side head in margin. 

124. Centered subheadinj?s are formed by placing the 
heading in the center of the measure and allowing a little more 
space above than below ; in other words, having the subhead 
nearer to the body type under it, to show that it pertains to that 
matter and is not a part of the preceding text matter, as shown 
in Fig. 44 (a). 

125. Run-in side headings are formed by displaying 
the subhead in a heavier face of type than the body matter and 

















































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DVERTISING in its true sense is informing or reminding 
people of the qualities of some article or proposal. 
Whether it is advertising to sell goods or services, or 
to forward a public cause, the fundamental principles 
are the same. 

The idea of advertising is old — Joseph advertised the coming 
of the famine upon the land of Egypt — but only in recent years has 
advertising developed to any considerable extent. Its growth in the 
last quarter of a century has been marvelous. It has given birth to 
a new and lucrative profession, one in which there are great oppor- 
tunities for both men and women. 

Further Development is Certain 

Nothing can stay the growth of advertising. Manufacturers and 
dealers are multiplying in numbers and in the extent of their trade. 
Competition is keener every year. To maintain sales there must 
be advertising — constant, intelligent advertising. Even the best 
known and most permanently estabhshed concerns, realizing that they 
can extend their sales only by advertising, are spending hundreds of 
thousands of dollars annually. 

The presidential campaign of 1904 marked a use of advertising 
unparalleled in the history of the world. The Republican campaign 
managers purchased page after page of space in leading magazines to 
advertise their presidential candidates and their policies. A total of 
$25,000 was spent in this way. 

The Extent of the Field 

In business of all kinds, among all classes of people, and in all 
countries, advertising is an indispensable factor of success. " Nothing 
except the mint can make money without advertising" said the great 
Gladstone. Macaulay said many years ago, "Advertising is to business 
what steam is to machinery — the great propelling power." 

It is estimated that the great sum of a biUion dollars is spent every 
year in advertising of various kinds in the United States alone. 
This amount is spent by almost everybody from the farmer and the 

308 S IS Fig. 41 

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running it in the first line of the paragraph, either by indenting 
it in the usual manner of paragraphing, or by running it flush 
to the left and indenting the second and following lines one or 
more picas, hanging-indention style, according to size of page 
and type. Fig. 44 (b) shows the regular paragraph style of 
run-in side heading. 

12G. Flush Side Heading's. — Where a subheading is 
set in a line by itself, and flush to the left, or where it is to run 
in the first line of body matter, flush to the left, with the body 
matter following hanging-indention style, as in Fig. 44 (c), 
it is called a flush side heading. 

127. Cut-in side headings can be used either at the 
beginning or half way down the left side of a paragraph of 
body matter. Such a heading is formed by indenting three or 
four lines of the body matter and thus allowing white space at 
the left side in which the subheading may be placed in a bolder 
face of type than the body, as in Fig. 44 (d). The heading 
here is set in caps ; upper and lower case, however, is the usual 

128. Side Headings in Margins. — Where wide mar- 
gins are used, a very attractive style may be obtained by 
running the side heads in short lines of one or two words, 
beginning directly opposite the first line of the paragraph to 
which the heading relates, leaving about a pica space between 
the body matter and the lines of the side head, and squaring 
these lines on the body-type side, as shown in Fig. 44 (e). 
Sometimes the running head of the entire book is used in this 
way, in the outside margin opposite the top line of body matter, 
and the side head is placed in a smaller face of type under the 
running title or head. 

129. Body Matter. — In arranging body matter, care 
should be taken to see that the paragraphs have proper inden- 
tions. When the measure is wide, such as 25 picas, the inden- 
tion should be 2 ems of the size of body type used; if the 
measure is from 30 to 40 ems pica, 3-em indention should be 
followed. The excessive use of capitals, Italics, and bold face 









































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in the body matter, in an endeavor to secure emphasis, should 
l)e avoided, as such letters will not only mar the attractiveness 
of the page l)ut will place undue strength on certain portions 
of the page and thus throw it somewhat out of balance. Where 

O live In Washington is 
in itself a liberal educa- 
tion. For the purposes 
of study and research 
the advantages of the 
National Capital are not surpassed by 
those of any other city in our country, 
and it is not difficult to imagine a time 
when it will be the world's greatest ed j- 
cational center. 

It is essentially the city beautiful, ana 
one of peculiar charm. Here are beau- 
tiful parks, broad streets, statuary, and 
galleries of art, all making a strong 
appeal to our sense of the beautiful. 
Here are gardens and fountains and 
magnificent architecture in a city whose 
ctmosphere is one of repose, quiet, 
refinement, and happiness. Washington s 
climate is the soft and even climate of 
the Seaboard, and the number of those 

Fir.. 45 

it is necessary to emphasize a paragraph describing some par^ 
ticularly strong selling point, a good plan is to set the paragraph 
in a bolder face of type of the same or a smaller size. If still 
further prominence is required, the paragraph may be indented 
2 picas on each side. These methods will not only add to the 


attractiveness of the p.'i,e^c, but will give all the strength 

1J>(). Extracts and Indorsements. — Where it is neces- 
sary to use an extract from some other publication, a speech, 

jO live in Washington Is 
in itself a liberal educa- 
tion. For the purposes 
of study and research 
the advantages of the 
National Capital are not surpassed by 
those of any other city in our country, 
and it is not difficult to imagine a time 
when it will be the world's greatest edu- 
cational center. 

It is essentially the city beautiful, and 
one of peculiar charm. Here are beau- 
tiful parks, broad streets, statuary, and 
galleries of art, all making a strong 
appeal to our sense of the beautiful. 
Here are gardens and fountains and 
magnificent architecture in a city whose 
atmosphere is one of repose, quiet, 
refinement , and happiness. Washington's 
climate is the soft and even climate of 
the Seaboard, and the number of those 

Fig. 46 

etc., this special matter should be set in a smaller size of the 
same font of type, and indented 2 or more picas on each side, 
according to the width of the regular body matter. 

Indorsements should always be set a size smaller than the 
body matter and in the same style of type, unless particular 


emphasis is desired, when the matter eaii he set in a somewhat 
bolder face. 

131. Bold-Faced Type foi* Body Matter. — As a rule, 
bold-faced type should not be used for body matter, as it is 
extremely monotonous and hard to read. In some instances, a 
semi-bold face of type, such as Caslon Bold, Cheltenham Wide, 
Old-Style Antique, Bookman Oldstyle, etc., leaded, can be 
used for body matter. It is often advisable to use a tinted 
stock when printing these faces in a black or a strong dark 
color. Antique or rough stock lends itself well to the use of 
somewhat heavier faces for body matter. 

132. Use of Initials. — An initial sometimes gives an 
attractive finish to a page of type and also leads the eye to the 
proper starting point. It is always well to choose an initial 
that is not so strong and black as to overbalance the rest of 
the body type. Heavy initials used with light body type, as 
shown in Fig. 45, mar the pages and detract from the strength 
of the display. The best initial to use is one that is approxi- 
mately the same weight as the gray color made by the mass 
of the body type, as shown in Fig. 46. A comparison of these 
two exhibits will immediately disclose the fact that the initial 
shown in Fig. 45 is entirely too heavy for the page. The one 
shown in Fig. 46 is in perfect harmony with the color tone of 
the page. 

133. Initials are made in a variety of styles, shapes, and 
sizes. In choosing an ornamental initial, it is well, if possible, 
to get one with the ornamentation in keeping with the subject, 
and to avoid one that is so extremely large as to be out of pro- 
portion with the size of the page. Where ornamental initials 
are not available, a larger size of the same face of type as the 
body matter may be used. For instance, if the page is to be 
set in 10-point Cheltenham, a 24- or a 30-point Cheltenham 
initial, according to the size of the page, can be acceptably 
used. A great many times, a larger letter of the style of the 
body type makes the most appropriate and pleasing initial that 
can be used. See Fig. 47. At any rate, it is an easy means of 


securing a simple, dignified, and harmonious effect with any 
style of type. Where the work is of extreme importance or of 
very high grade, and cost is a secondary consideration, special 
initials of two or more colors may be drawn in a combination 
of line and half-tone, each one illustrating or suggesting some 
feature of the work described in the booklet or the catalog. 

134. Square, ornamental initials mortised in the center 
for the initial letter, should be avoided. This style of initial 
has several bad features, among which may be mentioned the 
following: (1) It throws the initial a considerable space 
away from the word to which it belongs; (2) the initial is not 
in line with the top of the word to which it belongs, as it should 

ALL ADVERTISEMENTS may be grouped into 
^^ two general classes, (l) informing adver- 
^ ^ tisments and (2) suggestive or reminding 
advertisements. The informing advertisement gives 
information about the commodity advertised; in order 
for the advertisement to be effective, the information 
must necessarily be of such character that it will 
influence readers to buy. The suggestive or remind- 
ing advertisement contains little or no specific infor- 
mation but gives publicity merely to the name of the 

Fig. 47 

be; and (3) it usually throws ornamentation between the 
initial and the remainder of word, which is decidedly unattrac- 
tive to the eye. 

The space around the intitial should be equal both on the 
side and underneath. Avoid wide gaps of white space at the 
right and under an initial. AMicre the letter T is used, for 
instance, without ornamentation, the second and following lines 
of body type should not be indented, but should be set flush 
with the side of the body of the initial, on account of the blank 
space between the stem and outside edge of this letter. Where 
a capital L or A is used, the printer should be instructed to 
mortise the right side of the letter at the top, so that the follow- 
ing letter of the word can come close to the initial and thus 
avoid a gap. See how the initial is treated in Fig. 45. Where 


Lorgnette or Guard Chains 




Ten Baroque Pe.irls. cable links ■ ■ Len^'th, 
Oval and round gold beads .... Length, 
Eight oval Amethysts, cable links • Length, 
Eight fancy charms, cable links . . Length, 

Cable links Length, 

Close curb links Length, 

Horseshoe cable links Length, 

Fancy twist links Length, 

Rope links Length, 

Fancy French links Length, 

Oval pierced and twist center links • Length, 


48 inches. 


60 inches. 


48 inches. 


60 inches, 


48 inches. 


48 I'nches, 


48 inches. 


48 inches. 


48 inches. 


54 inches, 


GO inches, 


Coi>yrii:ht. 1907. by the Bailey. Banks &■ BiddU Co. 

Fig. 48 

308 § 18 



g In New York and out ol 
New York. UACY'S reputa- 
t&tlon tor high valued, low 
priced table and kitchen ware 
transcends that of all other 
concerns. Wo call esfwolal 
attention to that section of the 
catalogue running {rom Page 
395 ta Page 487— you wlU find 
therein a mine of money sav- 
ing cuggefitlons. 


IIX 4330. The Tourist Cafl6n« Dish, nickel plaled; capacity 2p 

•finches; tbi» disb iaespecially adap'—* '— " '■- 

tiaguisber, handle and dish ( 

of base 6 inches; lu brs£a, $6.49; 

kei pli 

\ copper r 

ups; prifo. M.64: capacity 2Hf 
ty 3 Ji pints or 18 after dinner c 


4 after (Hn- 

llX 4337. Coffee Machine, 
city 2pintaorlO after dionerc 
ncrcupa; pricp. $9.43; capacity 3Ji pints or 18 after dinner cupa; price. $10.24: 

round (ray. -12 inches in diameter; price , SI 31 extra 

IX 4338. Chafing Dish Fork, nickel ailver, silver eoidere'd,' hand bumihsed, 



IyIacy's offers yotj a saving 
of 25 per cent on these 
table cooking appliances. 


nrfijxinij i„ $1,31; .\,j. 2 

ijill'i iri,»148: N... 3, IC.x 
H m..»1.8«; Ni>. 4. 19x13x15 

11X4332, Square Breld or Caki 

TnilUci, limwn jnpanned bent tjual 

11X4339. The Nonnartll Nur- 
xery Betrlger&tort, ciadr with deep 
lank; beat japarinoil ware,. 6ni»he<I 

three siiej); price, eaeli. No. 1. llixll 
'jXUH in.. $3.36; No. !, 19xl3«13 
iii.,M.ia; IIa.3.22ilt>xlC)>ia.«S.n 

IIZ 4330. Sponee Caka Pans, 

I2\x\i^ ioclKS..* 290 

Fig. 49 


I LT ic:c— 12 

Page 40 

National Cloak and Suit Co., New York. 

edt-e. 7 cc 

rhirf of 
iiT. G ce 
rhirr of 

; 6!* cents prr dozco. 
wn, wilh fancy embroidered 
hair dozen; 79 cents per 

larrow hemstitched edge; In- 

entii per bsif dozen; «l.2< 

I706B and 1706C.) 

170eB — Handkerchief of l.lnen; same stvlfi as No. 170fl. but 

vlthout iniliul. cents each; £2 cents per half dozen; Sl.OO 

per dozen. 

1706C— Handkerchief of Lawn: same Bt.vle as No. 170*; nar- 
row heniMlilcliid oilce; Initial in corner. 7 cents each; 40 cents 
per half dozen ; 7U cents per dozen. 

1708 — Handkerchief of sheer 
edKe of rluinly cmliroiilcry. 
2S cents. 

1711— Handkerchief of soft Cn 


(1 (!.■! 

1 ry I 

■ hen 


1712-lliindkercIilef of India Lawn, with Inserts of Val lace 
anil a l.ur td'.-.-, 13 cents each! three assorted designs, 3A cents. 

1713 — Handkerchief of Real Irish Linen, with embroiderefl 
floral wrealti: inilml in corner. Price 13 cents each; three for 
3A cents. (See also No. i713r.) 

17I3P— Handkerchief of Ileal Irish Linen; same style as No. 
17 13, but wiihoul initial. 11 c«nti each ; S4 

i cents 


.ilh lace 

Handkerchief of fin 
•ed edge. 15 cents ra 
Handkerchief of nn 


irtc assorted de^iKns, M cents. 
1718-Handkcrchlef of sheer Persh 

rciideretl; narrow hemstitched edge. 
L>rle(l designs, M cents. 

1724- Handkerchief of p 
n<l friiied e.lge of Vnl Lire, i 
7 cents; »l.3Z per half dozen. 

1725— Handkerchief of nne Val IJ 
; three as.-«irleU designs 

1 Lawn, wilh elaborately 
:nts per half dozen, 
awn, beautifiiiiy trimmed 
>; sliecial value. 10 cents 

n Lawn; beantiritlly em- 
19 cents each; tlireo al- 

en, with embroitlereil corners 
each; Ittree assorted designs. 

of nne Val laec 

ftl..t3 per half dozen, 

1730— llanokerchlef of nne quality I.ln 

Val he 
Borleil 11 

, Iti 

nl Val In 
e. ts; 

2t> t 

LInrn, wilh Val Ist-e Insertion, 
■dging of Val lacOL 34 cents each; lbrc« 
<orted disigns. »I.OO. 

1736 — Handkerchief of pure Linen, beatllifully embroidered, 
numenled with beading and edglnif ol Val lace. 34 oaots aachl 
ree assorted designs, 01 .OO. 

tsper half doze 
INITIALS I InitUl Haodkerchiefa can be h«d with mj Utter of the aJphalwt except 1, O, Q, U, V, X. Y, ud Z. 

Fig. 50 


Soaps anb Ifxitcbcn Supplies 


Quantity in box 

Gimbels Oleine 60 bars 

Gitnbels Borax 60 bars 

Babbitt's 100 bars 

Eavcnson's Naptha 100 bars 

Fels-Naptha 100 bars 

Kirkman's 100 bars 

Mule Team 100 bars 

P. & G. Lenox 100 bars 

Sunlight loobars 

Swift's Pride 100 bars 

Young's Pearl Borax ... 40 bars 
P. &: G. Naptha 100 bars 


Brook's Crystal 



Yankee Flint .. . 


Bon .Ami 



c B 




















Cake Doz. 
















Bar Doz. 

Hand Sapolio 08 .95 

Jergens' Pumiss 05 .55 


H. & H. 

Cake Doz. 
. .15 170 


Box Bar 

Lexard Castile 100 bars 4.75 .05 

Fairy (small) 100 bars 4.75 .05 

Fairy (large) 100 bars 7.75 .08 

P. & G. Ivory (small) ... loobars 4.90 .05 

P. & G. Ivory (large) ... lOO bars 7.90 .o3 

Queen of Borax (small) 100 bars 4.75 .05 

Queen of Borax (large) loobars 9.50 .10 

Swift's Wool (large) ... .loobars 7.75 .08 

Swift's Wool (small) 100 bars 4.75 .05 


Domestic, White, large bar 45 3.25 

Conti Imported, large bar 55 6.50 


Bar Doz. 

Lifebuoy 05 .53 


Each Doz. 

Standard Oil Co.'s 15 1.75 


Best Granulated lb. .01 J4 

Best Granulated, 6o-lb. box 85 


Pkg. Doz. 

Purity No. 4 package .13 170 

Army and Navy OS .35 

Babbitt's 1776 03 .35 

Fairbank's Gold Dust large .22 2.40 

Fairbank's Gold Dust small .06 70 

Kirkman's 03 55 

Pearline large .10 I. IS 

Soapine large .03 .55 

Swift's large .18 2.10 

Swift's small .05 .55 

Swift's Naptha 10 I.IS 

Young's Borax 08 .95 

Old Dutch Cleanser 10 MS 

Radax 12 1.40 

AMMONIA Hot. Doz. 

Gimbels High Test. . .extra large .25 2.90 

Gimbels High Test medium .15 175 

Gimbels Cloudy large .25 2.90 

Gimbels Cloudy medium 

Parson Household large 

Parson Household medium 

Parson Household small 

Trial Size 10 

Scrubb's 25 






Can Doz. 

Ammo large .23 2.90 

Ammo small .05 .33 

Bath Ammo, Perfumed IS I70 



Can Doz. 


Each Doz. 

Purity 3-lb. box .25 2.90 

Purity 6-lb. box .30 3.75 

Kingford's 3-lb. box .30 350 

Kingford's 6-Ib. box .60 7.00 

Durkee's Mourning 20 2.30 

Elastic large .10 

Celluloid large .10 

Viola Perfumed 10 MS 

Fluffy Ruffles large .10 MS 


Lb. 10 lb. 

Fancy Lump 06 .53 

Finest Lump 08 73 


Pkff. Doz. 
Glo-Zo OS .55 


Pkg. Doz. 
Reckitt's large .10 1.13 

Telephonesi— Bell. Walnut SOO-8441 KcT«toiie, Mall 
Prices ■abject to market abaoKeB 


Fiu. 51 


an initial is used with very short paragraphs, the ragged inden- 
tion may be avoided by running the matter in a single para- 
graph, using paragraph marks between the sentences. 

135. Arrangement of Pag-es. — Some examples of the 
arrangement of body-matter pages of catalogs and booklets 
have been shown in the preceding pages. In Figs. 48, 49, 50, 
and 51 are shown additional examples. All of these are 
reduced, being only about half the size of the original pages. 
The example shown in Fig. 48 is an unusually attractive page ; 
it shows not only good typographical and border treatment but' 
demonstrates how a number of such articles as chains can be 
illustrated well in small space by merely showing a section of 
each. Note that the text gives the length of each chain. 
Fig. 49 shows an example of a page in which a number of 
articles must be listed in small space. Figs. 49, 50, and 51 
show examples of mail-order catalogs in which space is used 
wnth great economy. It is idle to say that such catalogs are 
not read, for the facts are indisputable. This class of work 
may not command the approval of critics, but it is the kind of 
literature that mail-order firms and large retailers find well 
adapted to their purposes, and the advertising man should be 
prepared to execute this kind of matter as well as the kind in 
which more liberty may be taken in regard to the use of space, 
colors, etc. As a matter of fact, it is more difficult to lay out 
pages like those shown, reduced, in Figs. 49, 50, and 51 than 
it is to plan a catalog in which a page can be given to each' 
illustration or to each illustration and the accompanying text. 
The black background shown in Fig. 50 is well adapted to the 
subjects illustrated, but a pleasing variation from this solid 
black would be a line background resembling crash. The crash 
effect is artistic and reproduces well. 


13G. In catalogs, booklets, and folders printed the narrow 
way of the page, and in which it is necessary to run the illustra- 
tions the long zvay of the page, the bottom of the illustration 


should always face toward the right ; that is, the left side 
of the illustration should always face the bottom of the page, 
as shown in Fig. 52, which is a reduced reproduction of two 
facing pages of a catalog. Of course this rule does not apply 
where illustrations are run across the narrow way of the page, 
along with the type. Observe how the illustrations on the 
right-hand page of Fig. 52 are placed. 

Where it is necessary to use half-tone illustrations in books 
printed on antique, hand-made, onyx, crash, or linen-finish 
stock, the half-tone should be printed on enameled book stock 
and tipped in when the book is bound, as it is impossible to 
print fine half-tones on the rough finishes unless the book is 
printed by the ofifset process, which can be handled only by the 
best printers. 

137. Group Cuts. — When it is desired to use a number 
of illustrations in a limited amount of space, effective results 
can sometimes be obtained by grouping the series of photo- 
graphs and having one plate made that will embody all the 
dift'erent views in a single group. In this way, a number of 
illustrations can be printed very artistically on one page ; other- 
wise, it might be necessary to vise a page for each one. In 
Fig. 53 is shown a group vignetted cut that illustrates two 
models of a revolver and a sectional view of the breaking 

138. Placing of Illustrations. — It is well to be consis- 
tent in the placing of full-page illustrations. Use left-hand 
pages if possible. If it is necessary to print full-page illustra- 
tions on right-hand pages, all the full-page illustrations should 
be arranged to print on right-hand pages. Two full-page illus- 
trations should not be allowed to face each other, unless it is 
impossible to avoid this plan. Where two facing full-page 
illustrations must be run the long way of the page in a book in 
which the type pages are set the narrow way, the bottom of 
each illustration should face the right. If a small illustration 
is to be used in the text matter, it should be placed toward the 
outside of the page ; that is, on pages with even numbers, the 
illustrations should be placed on the left-hand side, and on 

inj oKisturi » 





pages with odd numbers, they should be placed on the right- 
hand side. Care should be taken to see that the facing pages 
balance each other and do not look overdone. Where there is 
only one illustration on a page, avoid placing it below the 
center. Its best position, particularly if it is a heavy unit of 
display, is the center of the page or slightly above the center. 
See Fig. 48. Fig. 7 shows a good way of balancing the display 
of the page when two illustrations are used. 

130. Vignetted Half-Tones in Body Matter. — In 

very fine catalogs, brochures, and booklets a very artistic effect 
can be obtained by placing small vignetted half-tones or line 
cuts in the outside margin and printing the type in a lighter 
color, allowing the very faint vignette of the cut to extend 
under the body matter. Vignetted initials are made in the 
same way, so that the vignette can be partly covered with the 
type. This gives a very fine cloud effect and adds to the rich- 
ness of the finished work. In Fig. 54 is shown an example of 
printing text matter over a portion of the vignette of the illus- 
trations. In following this plan, care should be used to see 
that no feature of the illustration is covered by body type, 
otherwise the effect of the illustration may be marred. 

140. Tint Effects. — Two-color illustrations are often 
used on high-grade catalogs and booklets — one color as a back- 
ground and the other color as the dark tone in which the cut 
proper is printed. A three-color effect is often secured by 
cutting out the high lights (partly or wholly white portions) 
in the tinted plate and thus allowing the white of the paper to 
show through. Very fine results can be obtained in this style 
by using light buff, lemon color, very pale green, or pale blue 
for the tints and double-tone colors for the half-tone portions 
of the cut. 


141. Introductory Pages.- — In catalogs, etc. the intro- 
ductory pages usually follow the title ; that is, appear on the 
next right-hand page. The introductory page is generally set 
very plain, an initial being used if desirable, and the matter 


The Rock Island Ways 


HERE are two routes over which Rock 
Island through trains and cars operate 
between the East and California, 

iierc is the Southern Route — also 

IH^^II^ I I lied the El Paso Short Line. Of all 

^Bfe§f*%v ^^^^^fc "transcontinental lines this is the 

ine of lowest altitudes and eas 

Ifc: '--'■■^^^k — '^^^ Z^ades — the short, quick 

HL^^jHM^^HJI^ :c, and at the same time the 

■HH^^^^^Hlj most southerly. Then there is the 
Scenic Route — via Colorado and Salt 
Lake Citw This is a line of scenic grandeur — every mile a milf 
of beauty — across the ''Backbone of the Continent.' 

The Rock Island will take you up in Chicago, ,m. i^olu.s, 
Kansas City, St. Joseph, Des Moines, Omaha, Minneapolis, 
and St. Paul (and in hundreds of Middle West points not loca- 
ted immediately upon its two overland routes) and land you 
conveniently and with dispatch at your Pacific Coast destination. 

There are two dady Rock Island trains, providing continuous 
service from Chicago and St. Louis to California o\or the South- 
ern Route. 

There are daily Rock Island through cars from Chicago and 
St. Louis to Pacific Coast over the Scenic Route. 

In addition to providing through, transportation facilities over 
these two superb routes to the Pacific Coast, the Rock Island 
serves all the in- 
termediate Mid- 
dle West terri- 
tory between 
the Mississippi .,' 
Valley and the 
Rocky Mountains, 
from Minnesota 
on the north to 
Louisiana a n i' 
Texas on thi 

I L T 102r § 18 


is indented a few picas from the rule border on each side ; or, 
if no border is used, a liberal margin of white space is allowed 
around the type, to make it attractive and easy to read. 

142. Full-Pase Indorsements. — If a border is used 
on pages containing indorsements, the pages should be set in 
a narrower measure than the text of the booklet and in a semi- 
bold face of type, such as Cheltenham, Old-Style Antique, etc., 
so as to give strength and to distinguish them from the body 
pages. If introductory matter accompanies the indorsement, 
the introductory matter should be set in a size larger of the 
same style type as the indorsement. Fig. 55 shows two indorse- 
ments made up for a full page of a 6"X9" circular, the intro- 
ductory matter being set in 10-point Cheltenham, and the body 
in 8-point of the same series. 

Where a whole page is devoted to a number of small indorse- 
ments, they can be set full measure in the same series of type 
as the body matter, but in a size smaller. If possible, a display 
heading should be used for each indorsement and each of these 
headings should be set in upper and lower case of a smaller 
size of the same style of type used for the main heading. A 
heading separates the indorsements and shows at a glance what 
each indorsement represents. 

143. Facsimile Letters. — Where it is desirable to show 
a facsimile of a letter written by some person whose name has 
advertising value, an entire letter sheet can be reproduced and 
reduced to any proportionate size by photographic processes, 
and a line cut then made to suit the particular job in hand. 
In Fig. 56 is shown a letter that was reduced from an original 
8i"Xll"' letterhead. This style is sometimes varied by making 
a cut of the heading and signature and setting the letter in 
some clean-cut type face. 

144. Illustrated Indorsements. — Photographs of 
indorsers can be used in connection with a full-page indorse- 
ment, and the pictures of the indorsers can be placed either at 
the top or at the side, with a plain border enclosing the page, 
as shown in Fig. 57. Two colors were used in the original of 
Fig. 57, the border and illustrations being in black and the 

Valuable Opinions 

OCT" =^ 

Our Legal Instruction is Complete 

Robert T. Miller, LL. D., a prominent member of the Ohio 
bar, comments as follows on the legal paurts of our Banking and 
Banking Law Course: 

Since receiving the books published by the International Correspondence 
Schools, 1 have given them the most careful and extensive examination I am 
capable of, and must confess rr.y surprise and gratification at the worth of 
their scope and their completeness of detail. I have seen and used scores 
of so-called "Lav/ Books," many of which have a proper place and useful- 
ness, but this publication is not such a Law Book. It is rather a complete 
Law Library from which one may derive not only a knowledge of the 
ordinary forms and processes of the Law as used in general practice, but of 
what is of far greater value to the business man, a very clear and intelligent 
idea of the philosophy of the law such as will enable him to determine not 
only when he needs the services of the barrister but when he may dispense 
with those of the attorney. 

A Canadian Opinion 

R. D. McGibbon, K. C, senior member of the noted law 
firm of McGibbon, Casgrain, Mitchell, and Surveyor, of Mon- 
treal, attested as follows regarding the legeJ features of our 
Banking and Banking Law Course: 

1 find that all the required subjects are included In yourvolumes. I have 
no hesitation in saying that any diligent student would at the conclusion of 
his Course have a good, clear, useful acquaintance with the general princi- 

fles of jurisprudence that prevail over the North American continent. I 
ave examined with care many of the subjects- dealt with and find the treat- 
ment of them full, intelligent, and satisfactory. 

Dealing more particularly wilh possible readers in Canada and in the 
Province of Quebec, I see generous and ample reference to the leading 
authorities usually consulted in the Dominion and in Quebec. While it is 
true that the Quebec system differs from that in vogue elsewhere in such 
subjects as real property, marriage covenants, successions, and other kindred 
topics, attention is drawn to the fact that special provisions in these respects 
are applicable to the Province of Quebec; therefore, with the knowledge to 
be gained from a study of your volumes, it would be quite easy for a 
student to supplement your Course on any given subject. 

i'lG. 55 


©Ijp Nortl|utrstpnt Nattnttal 2?ank 

Capital $1,000,000 
.uj Arsjo Profits SBOO.OOO 

Minneapolis. Minn., 

S07. 16, 

International Correspondence Scliftoli 

Scxanton, Fa. 

Replying to your favor of the 13th Inst., will eay that I 
have taken great pleasure in looking over your text books on banking and 
am pleased to recommend then to any student. The matter in the book Is 
arranged so that a person can get a great deal of information with 
comparative ease, and the forss used are up-to-date aad should bo 
valuable to ctudents. 

Yours very truly. 

A<,~*r'^(^ ^^«-«j*-, '--y^ 

l-io. 56 


The Cable Compan\', Chicago. 

Gentlemen: — The Conover Piano 
which was used for my recital at the 
Studebaker Theater yesterday was 
excellent. I greatly admired the 
tonal qualities and perfection of 
mechanism of the instrument. It is 
a pleasure to me to note the remark- 
able sustaining and blending qualities 
of the tone of the Conover Piano, 
which certainly are a great aid and 
benefit to the singer. 

Expressing my warmest thanks, I 
remain, Sincerely yours 

Alois Burgstaller 

The Cable Company, Chicago. 

Gentlemen: — Will you please accept 
my thanks for the Conover Grand 
Piano furnished me for my recital, 
also for the excellent Upright Piano, 
sent to my rooms in the Annex. I 
greatly admire the tone of your Con- 
over Piano, as it just suits my voice. 
Sincerely yours 


The Cable Company, Chicago. 

Gentlemen: — The Conover is in- 
deed a wonderful piano, but I did 
not fully realize it luilil using the one 
which you kindly placed at my dis- 
posal while in Chicago. The tone is 
sweet, clear, and very musical. To 
my knowledge there is no better 
piano manufactured. 

Yours very tnilj' 

(i. (".\:\ir.\N.\Kr 


\-^:s7vV<-<N,v.v.vvvv^ vv<-vv 

:VvS.Vi>.V ■: .'..-^S-W^ 


I find your Mariners' Pocketbook full 
of useful information in condensed form 
and one that I believe every officer in the 
Navy will find useful. It is also a useful 
book for enlisted men, as it contains a large amount of in- 
formation relating to the naval service. 

Rear Admiral, U.S.N. 


The Mariners' Pocketbook is a notable compilation 

compressing in a very small space a large amount of 

useful information and presenting it in a handy form. 

I am familiar with many books of the 

-vp" class which have been published in 

Europe, but your Pocketbook certainly 

deserves a high place in the series. 

Very truly yours, 

Formerly Chief Constructor, British Royal Navy 



I L T 102C § 18 

Fig. 58 

ELECTROMAGNETISM: Influence of an Electrified Circuit on a Compass; Magnetic Field 
of an Electrified Circuit; Relation Between Electric Polarity and Magnetic Polarity; 
Solenoid; Magnetic Permeability; Review of Magnetic Principles; Electromagnets 

ELECTRICAL UNITS: Relation Between Ohm, Volt, and Ampere; Ammeters; Ohm's Law. 
Ohm, Volt, and Ampere Fully Explained; Microhm; Megohm; Influence of Tempera- 
ture on Circuits; Temperature Coefficient; Specific Resistance; Rheostats; Wh atstone's 
Bridge; Voltmeters; Meters and Methods of Using Them; Application of Ohm's Law; 
Coulomb; Joule; Watt- Kilowatt. 

i? i? -if i? 
Dynamos and Motors 

97 Paoes. 58 Illustrations 
ELECTROMAGNETIC INDUCTION: Illustration; Self-induction and Mutual Induction; Flow 

of Current. 

PHYSICAL THEORY OF THE DYNAMO: Generation of Voltage; Revolving Coil; Cause of 
Reversal of Polarity; Commutator and Its Brushes; Illustration of Operation and Effects; 
Pulsation; Advantages of Many Coils and Commutator of Many Segments; Armature 
Core and Its Eflect in the Magnetic Circuit; Elustration of Armatures of all Types; 
Explanation of Peculiarities of all Armatures. 

ARMATURE REACTIONS: Causes and Effects of Reaction Illustrated and Explained; 
Counter Torque; Distortion of Magnetic Field. 

FIELD MAGNETS: Magneto Dynamos; Separately Excited Dynamos; Magnetizing Force; 
Magnetic Saturation; Self-Exciting Shunt Dynamos; Building Up; Residual Magnetism; 
Self-Exciting Series Dynamos; Compound Dynamos; Bipolar Dynamos; Salient and 
Consequent Poles. 

DIRECT-CURRENT DYNAMOS: Multipolar Dynamos; Multiple-Wound Armatures; Multi- 
polar Magnetic Fields; Mechanical Construction of Dynamos in Detail; Frame Arma- 
tures; Commutators; Brushes; Brush Holders; Bearings; Driving Mechanism; Pilot 
Lamp; Constant-Voltage Dynamos; Efficiency; Input; Output; Explanation of all 
Losses; Methods of Determining Losses; Causes and Effects of Sparking; Prevention 
of Sparking. 

DIRECT-CURRENT MOTORS: Shunt-Wound Motors; Series-Wound Motors; Compound- 
Wound Motors. 

"i: -^ i? i? 
Dynamo-Elcctric Machinery 

70 Pages, 38 Illustrations 

DIRECT-CURRENT DYNAMOS: Operation of Constant-Current Dynamos: How Constant 
Current is Maintained Under Varying Voltage; Regulatibn of Closed-Coil Armatures; 
Influence of Armature Reaction; Method of Automatic Brush Shifting; Principal Closed- 
Coil Dynamos; Wood Dynamos; Standard Dynamo; Western Electric Dynamo; Excel- 
sior Dynamo; Ball Dynamo; Illustrations and Explanations; Open-Coil Armatures; 
Principal Open-Coil Dynamos; Brush Dynamo; Westinghouse Dynamo; Thomson- 
Houston Dynamo; Output. 

DIRECT-CURRENT MOTORS: Principles of Operation; Comparison of Dynamos and Motors; 
Counter E. M. F.; Torque; Prony Brake; Classes of Motors; Action of Shunt- Wound 
Motors; Speed Regulation; Series-Wound Motors; Speed Regulation; Differentially 
Wound Motors; Accumulatively Wound Motors. 

AUXILIARY APPARATUS: Starting Rheostats; Shunt-Wound Motor Connections; Process 
of Motor Starting; Series-Wound Connections: Automatic Switches; Regulating Rheo- 
stats; Necessity of Complying With the Fire-Underwriters' Rules When Installing. 

METHODS OF REVERSING MOTORS: Armature Reversal; Field Reversal: Reversal of 
Shant-Wotmd Motors; Reversal of Series-Wound Motors: Reversing Switch; 

83 Fig. 59 


type in olive. Small "thunib-nail," half-tone cuts of indorscrs 
can be used where a number of indorsements are to appear 
on a page. These cuts arc made either oval or sqviare, from 
1 in. X 1:1 i"- to any size necessary, and can be had either with 
or without a half-tone background. 

In Fig. 58 is shown an example of a special page made up of 
two testimonials with an appropriate drawn border.. Note that 
one signature shown is reproduced facsimile. This was done 
to lend authenticity to the testimonials. The plan of reproduc- 
ing only the signature facsimile is a good one, for reproduc- 
tions of entire pen-written letters are usually very hard to read. 

When an indorsement is crisp and slinrt it can sometimes be 
used on the outside page of a circular (U-scribing a particular 
feature of an article. 

145. Pases. — Li synopses pages and pages of 
like character, a smaller-sized t\])e than that used for the body 
matter should be used, and very often such matter can be 
arranged in two columns. The hanging-indention style is 
preferable, as it displays the subheads in strong relief and 
makes it an easy matter to ascertain the subjects treated in 
each division. Fig. 59 shows a synopsis page taken from a 
6"X9" circular descriptive of a course of instruction in elec- 
trical engineering. This kind of matter may seem uninteresting 
to one having no interest in the sul)ject of electrical engineer- 
ing, but it gives specific details dcniandcd l)y many before they 
jjart with their money. 


14G. To secure easy and sure reading, the colors used in 
printing body matter should be such that they will not tire the 
eye. Without doubt, black is the best general all-around color 
for the various classes of work, but very artistic and effective 
results can be obtained by the use of other colors. ILxtremely 
light colors of ink, such as pea green, light blue, buff, light 
gray, etc., should not be used for body matter set in Old-Style 
Roman or modern Roman, as thev arc not onlv weak in aj)pear- 
ance but very trying to the eye. 


147. Use of Colored Inks for Body Matter. — Gen- 
erally speaking, strong, dark colors of ink should be used for 
body matter so as to afford ample contrast between the type 
and the paper. Chocolate-brown, dark-green, dark-blue, olive, 
green-black, blue-black, and dark-gray inks can be used to 
advantage and can be depended on to produce pleasing results. 
These colors are not so somber as black. In large catalogs and 
in elaborate two- and three-color designs printed on enameled 
book paper and in such colors as warm brown, light olive, or 
gray, very artistic results can be obtained by using a semibold 
face of type, such as Caslon Bold, Old-Style Antique, Chelten- 
ham. Cheltenham Wide, and faces of similar character in the 
10- and 12-point sizes. The additional weight of the semi- 
bold type adds the strength necessary for the use of these 
colors. Light-faced modern and Old-Style Roman should not 
be printed in these colors, as they will appear light and weak 
and will be hard to read. Rich browns, green-blacks, and blue- 
blacks are standard colors for one-color illustrations. Lighter 
greens give excellent effects where nature scenes are repre- 
sented. Where, however, such articles as machinery, cut glass, 
silverware, etc. are to be shown, it is better to print illustrations 
in black and to use an agreeable contrasting color for the text. 

148. Color Combinations.— In pages made up of body 
matter and rule border, good color combinations can be 
obtained by using a bright color for the rules and a dark color 
for the body matter. For example, if the page is to be set in 
8-point old-style, leaded or solid, and it is desired to use a 
green-black or a dark-green ink for the body matter, a 1 -point 
rule run around the page in orange or red ink will give suffi- 
cient color for the entire page. Another combination for such 
a page would be to print the body matter in a dark green and 
the rule in a bright pea-green. Where the border is printed 
in color, all rules and ornaments should be printed in the same 
color, unless, of course, the color used for the border should 
happen to be too strong. This statement, however, should not 
be construed as meaning that a great deal of ornamentation is 
desirable in catalogs, booklets, and folders. Some color si)e- 


cialists believe in placing the display lines in a bright color and 
the body matter and rule in the dark color. 

Such color combinations as red and green, red and purple, 
.blue and green, and orange and green are extremely hard to 
handle and should be used only by expert color printers. It is 
always better to strive for harmony than for glaring contrasts. 
In Art. 78 is givc'n a suggestive list of good color combinations. 

149. Effect of Paper on Color. — The principles already 
set forth with regard to color combinations for covers and the 
effect of the color of the paper on the color of the ink printed 
on it apply also to color combinations on inside pages. For 
instance, if an India-tint (light-buff) paper is used, a warm- 
brown or a dark-chocolate-brown ink will be very appropriate 
for the body matter. A two-color effect for this paper would 
be a chocolate brown for the body matter and headings and a 
light buff, orange, or crimson for the rules, provided rules 
are used. 

150. Timeliness of Color. — At various seasons of the 
year and under special conditions, there are certain colors that 
are particularly appropriate. For example, either violet or 
purple would be particularly appropriate for printing a booklet 
describing an Easter hat, as these colors are typical of Easter- 
tide. For Christmas printed matter, red and green are appro- 
priate, but in this case, as in others, great care should be taken 
to see that the proper shades are used, so as to avoid harsh, 
loud effects that would be contrary to the effects desired. 
Fig. 40 shows an example of a green-tint border used in a 
booklet describing the fishing places along the line of one of 
ithe Western railroads. The green color in this case is typical 
of nature and the scenes surrounding the lakes and rivers that 
the book describes and is therefore very appropriate. 

151. Tints as Backgrounds for Illustrations. 

Where the cost of a catalog, a booklet, or a folder will permit 
the use of two colors for the illustrations, very artistic results 
can be obtained by printing the illustrations in blue-black, 
green-black, photo brown, or one of the various double-tone 
inks, and using a background of a light tint of the same or 


sonic Ijarmonious color. For instance, if the illustration 
is to be printed in green-black and consists of a square por- 
trait, a very pale green or a buff tint may be used, (1) as a 
background for the high lights, so that the tint may show 
through and give a two-color effect in the illustration, different 
from the color of the paper; (2) as a solid background, allow- 
ing not only the high lights but the medium tones also to show 
through in the tint color; and (3) as a solid border around the 
outside edge of the illustration from -I to 1 inch in width, 
printed in a very light tone of green or buff. 

Very artistic effects can sometimes be obtained by using 
tints and colors under half-tones. For instance, a foundry 
concern issued a catalog in which a half-tone cut of their works 
in full operation at night showed the red glare from the 
windows and from the top of the furnace stacks. This effect 
was produced by printing a bright-red tint background under 
a black half-tone and allowing this tint to show through only 
at the places desired, such as windows, tops of smokestacks, 
furnace doors, etc., and then cutting out the balance of the 
red plate so as to make these particular spots appear more 

152. Color in Initials. — Where the border only is 
printed in color and the color used is a light tint, two-color 
initials may be very effectively employed to add distinction to 
the pages. Such initials may be made effective by printing 
the solid-letter portion of the initial in the light color used on 
the border and the ornamental portions of the initial in the dark 
color of the body type, as in the example shown in Fig. 54. 


153. If a very large edition of a large catalog is to be 
printed, the paper manufacturers will make paper to order in 
special sizes; orders of 1,000 pounds or more can usually be 
had in any special size wanted. A very slight inorease in the 
weight of paper will sometimes make a difference of 1 or 
2 cents in the mailing expense of a catalog. This being the 

I L T 102C— 13 


case, where large editions are to be mailed, it pays to be very 
careful in the selection of paper to see if a light paper is not 
available that will answer all purposes and that will save a 
cent or two in postage on each copy of the catalog. In con- 
nection with this, it is well to remember that paper does not 
run absolutely uniform in weight. One ream may be a trifle 
heavier than another in spite of the manufacturers' eff'ort to 
have the weight just right. Therefore, it is never wise to plan 
a catalog to run exactly to the limit that can be mailed for 
a certain amount of postage; it is best to have a slight margin. 

154. It is best not to print from the originals of fine plates, 
but to make electrotypes and use these electrotypes for print- 
ing. Then when the electrotypes are worn, new ones can be 
easily made from the original plate at much less cost than new 
originals could be made. Furthermore, accidents are likely to 
happen to printing plates. If an electrotype is injured, it is 
not such a serious matter, as a new plate can be quickly made 
from the original engraving, but the injury of a fine original 
plate may mean nwch delay and ex])ense. Of course, if there 
are just a few illustrations, the edition is a small one, and it is 
desirable to get the finest effects, the original cuts may be used. 

155. If a large edition of a catalog or a booklet is to be 
printed, or if it seems likely that later editions will be printed 
without any material changes, it is best to have electrotypes 
made of all the pages. In this way, the cost of composition 
will be saved when these later editions are printed. 

Where an edition of several hundred thousand copies of a 
catalog or a booklet is to be printed, it is best to have duplicate 
plates. As a general rule, not more than one hundred thousand 
first-class copies can be printed from one set of plates. 

Time and the cost of presswork can often be reduced by 
having duplicate plates and running two or more sets of pages 
on one large press. Although the time of the larger press 
would be worth more than that of the small one, the saving 
in the cost of. presswork would amount to considerable. J'he 
printer should always be consulted about these matters. 


(PART 2) 



1. Arrangement. — With the more pretentious catalogs 
and booklets, it is better to lay out a general plan, which can 
be varied, of course, if changes seem advisable after the copy 
has been written and the illustrations prepared. Suppose, for 
instance, that it is decided to prepare a 32-page catalog. The 
first of the inside pages might be assigned for a title page, the 
second page for the copyright notice, the third for the index, 
the fourth for a fine full-page half-tone of the factory of the 
manufacturer, and the fifth, sixth, and seventh pages for a 
strong article on the methods of manufacturing, the excellence 
of the product, the indispensable character of the product, or 
some other appropriate matter. Another good illustration 
could be run on the eighth page. Eighteen pages might be 
assigned for descriptions and illustrations of the products, the 
five pages following filled with testimonials of users, and the 
last' page made a "how-to-order" page, including perhaps a 
guarantee clause, etc. 

In catalogs of the kind just described, the first inside page 
is usually made a title page with very little matter on it, as 
shown in Fig. 1. Sometimes pages 1 and 2 are left blank and 




page 3 — the second right-hand page — becomes the title page. 
Again, the book may begin with a "foreword," a brief history 
of the business, or an introductory talk about the product (see 




Fig. 1 

Fig. 2) on the first, second, and third pages, dispensing 
entirely with the formal title page. Occasionally, in his desire 
to get a great deal of matter in a few pages, the writer plunges 


Our Standard 
Pure-Fresh-Warm- Air' ' 

IN PRESENTING tliis catalogue \vc take tlic opportunity of assuring our 
many friends that we have spared no effort to maintain tJiat high stan- 
dard of excellence upon which the reputation of our goods for economy, 
durability and efficiency, has been so firmly established. 

We invite your careful inspection of the following pages, illustrating ©ur 
line of Warm Air Furnaces, feeling confident that their manj' distinctive advan- 
tages, both in design and construction, will be readily apparent to you. 

We have been manufacturers of high-grade heating apparatus for over 
sixty years, during which time we have had a wide experience and gained an 
extensive knowledge of what should, in every respect, constitute a thoroughly 
efficient furnace. The line of Warm Air Furnaces which we now offer is the re- 
sult of careful study and exliaustive experiments. 

The growth of the Thatcher Furnace Co. has been phenomenal — starting 
with a small foundry manufacturing only a few furnaces. The popularity of 
our line has increased to such an extent that, in order to meet this demand, we 
have been obliged to steadily increase the capacity of our Newark foundry 
and some years ago we found it necessary to erect a second foundry. 

These two foundries equipped with the latest improved machinery spec- 
ially adapted to the manufacture of furnaces, now enables us to construct 
thousands of heaters of the same high standard of quality which first gained 
for us our reputation and success. 

We make the best furnaces that can be made — we sell them at a reasonable 
price — we guarantee them to the utmost limit — and those who desire the best 
cannot but be impressed by our straightforward claims and the record of the 
sixty-three years through which " Thatcher" quality has stood the test. 


Fig. 2 


into the subject on the page usually set aside for the title page 
(see Fig. 3). When space is at a premium, even the inside 
pages of the cover are used for some feature of the copy that 
can be separated well from the main body of the catalog. 

2. Not only should the work be laid out in detail as to 
cover, title page, and introductory page, if any, but also as 
to illustrations, text, testimonials, index, etc., for obviously 
the amount of straight text to be written depends on the size 
of the illustrations and the space that other features will 
take up. 

Having decided on the size and number of pages of the 
catalog or the booklet, the style of cover and cover design, 
the inside paper and type, and other preliminary matters, it is 
best to estimate how many pages will be required for certain 
parts of the circular, how many for others, etc., so that just 
the right amount of copy may be written. With some classes 
of printed matter, it is well enough to write the copy first and 
then cut down or add to the matter, so as to get just the right 
amount f(jr 16, 32, or more pages, as the case may be. In 
printed matter where it is extremely difficult in advance to 
give a head to each page of the dummy, or heads to certain 
pages, and to keep the matter strictly within the limits assigned, 
the better plan sometimes is to adopt a running-head style, as 
in Fig. 4. Then, if a description cannot be made to end on 
one page, it may be run over to another. Where cuts are 
used, proofs of all the cuts may be pasted in the best possible 
arrangement on the various pages, and then the spaces left for 
body matter calculated carefully so that the right amount of 
copy may be written for each space. 

3. Estimating: the Amount of Copy Required. — In 

Fig. 5 is shown page 2 of the same catalog of which the page 
shown in Fig. 1 is the title page. Before writing this page, the 
writer had decided on the style of the book, had laid out the 
j(jb in (lummy form, and had estimated about how many words 
of matter a page would hold after space had been allowed for 
the necessary engravings. When any special or unusual type 
face is to be used, the best way to estimate the number of 

The mere statement that the Cliev- 
rolct Motor Company would begin 
the makingof a new model is interest- 
ing news in itself; but the an- 
nouncement of a Chevrolet valve-in- 
head eight will prove of extraordinary 
interest to motor car enthusiasts 
everywhere, who have been watching 
the growth of the eight cylinder 
movement in this country. 

The Chevrolet valve-in-head eight 
is not merely another eight cylinder 
model. There is just as much dis- 
tinction and intensified efficiency in 
this new car as possessed by the 
Chevrolet four cylinder types. 

The new eight is as outstanding in 
comparison with other eights on the 
market as are the four cylinder 
Chevrolet models. 

The Chevrolet eight has not only 
the best features to be found in other 
eights, but in addition has many ex- 
clusive points of distinction. And 

hence, from the very beginning, the 
Chevrolet eight will be able to take 
an important position among leaders 
of eight cylinder cars. 

The Chevrolet eight will appeal to 
a class wishing to enjoy the charms 
of driving an automobile in which 
the motor does not lapse in its power 
impulses, but furnishes a driving 
force as constant as the flow of 

You may rest assured that we satis- 
fied ourselves as to the merits of the 
eight before announcing it. 

In strenuous tests over every con- 
ceivable road, the car proved that 
it has the necessary stamina for any 
road condition. 

Never did the machine hesitate. 

Never for a minute did the power 

On all trips the mechanism re- 
sponded readily. For thousands of 
miles in sand and clay, rain and mud. 



308 §19 

Fig. 3 

The Telegraph Gets Results 


replies to in- 
quiries get 
the business 
before your 
are heard 

On Sept. 1 4th we sent through your office nine 
Night Letters to prospective purchasers of our goods 
from whom we had received inquiries I am pleased 
to advise that out of nine prospects, we received 
favorable returns from eight . and I wish to express 
my satisfaction with the service rendered 

"It is our intention to use this service from time 
to time, for we feel confident it is one of the best 
ways of presenting ourselves to the trade to secure 
the quickest and best result." 

Washington, D C By Eastern Sales Manager 

of this sort 

On the occasion of a County School Teach- 
ers' Convention, held at Jackson, Miss , the 
S. J. Johnson Co. sent a telegram to each of 
the 178 teachers in attendance, announcing 
a special Ladies' Ready-to-wear Sale, and in- 
viting them to their store. The telegram also 
called attention to the store's advertisement 
in the daily papers, and solicited the mail- 
order business of the visitors after their re- 
turn home. The following is taken from a 
letter from the Johnson Co. 

"We have never had such prompt results from 
any form of advertising. We know that at least 
50% of the teachers that received one of our mes- 
sages visited our store that day, for they mentioned 
the fact that they had received the telegram. No 
doubt even a greater percentage came Since that 
and find that we have received orders from over half 

Fig. 4 


words required is to get some printed matter that has been set up 
in the type desired, measure off on it the size of the page, and 
make a count of the words ; or count half a dozen Hues and 
get an average. 

It is a good plan to know how to estimate the amount of copy 
if you cannot procure a page of matter set in the right size 
and style of type. In such a case the average number of words 
can be taken on a page of Old-Style Roman and a larger or 
smaller amount of reading matter allowed for the page to be 
set in the special type according to whether that type is more 
extended or more condensed than Old-Style Roman. In the 
case of Cheltenham, a rather condensed type, about 20 per 
cent, more reading matter should be allowed than would be 
necessary for the Old-Style-Roman page. 

Of course, no writer can prepare his copy so that it will 
always fill the assigned space exactly, but after a little experi- 
ence he will be able to come within a few lines of the right 
amount on most pages and strike it just right on many. \Mien 
he gets the first proof of the set copy, he can cut out a line or 
so somewhere if the matter overruns the alloted space; or, if 
it runs short and no more matter can be added without making 
the language seem "padded," perhaps an extra subhead can be 
inserted between the two paragraphs to take up tlie shortage, 
provided the pages are set in a style in which subheads are 
placed between paragraphs. 

4. Failure to follow some such system as that which has 
just been outlined will result in too much or too little matter 
being prepared for certain parts of a catalog, and this will mean 
extra labor, time, and expense. In Fig. 5, for instance, if the 
writer had written 50 words more, the matter could not possi- 
bly have been used on this page, and, as the following page 
was devoted to a different branch of the subject, none of it 
could have been carried over. The writer would have had to 
"kill" 50 words somewhere. 

It often happens that the treatment of one subject will cover 
a number of pages, but the number of pages that will be 
devoted to a subject should be determined in advance and the 

Battery and tool compartments are neatly con- 
cealed beneatli the dust shield, alongside the running 
boards— but immediately accessible. The simplicity 
of the windshields is most pleasinR. No unsightly 
slay-rods are required to hold them in position. 
They are all of the clear vision, ventilating type. 

A rim-lock tire carrier with capacity for two spare 
tires Is located at the rear. You enter the car and 
alight from it through doors of liberal dimensions. 

Door handles are easy of action and so designed 
that they are not apt to catch the clothing. ' 

' The tcide ionnrau doon. the auTiliarv ''at* ncaOv . 
' conftalfft. and the electric Ho/it wAic/i 

Uluniijiafes the entrance 

Entrance to the driver's seat Is facilitated by the 
hinged steering wheel which swings downward, but 
is held securely when driving. 

As you enter the car you are impressed with the 
'roominess of the interior arrangement. The simple 
luxury of the appointments is inviting. 

Cadillac upholstery is truly a revelation. It 
.represents the most advanced developments in 
.thorough comfort-giving qualities. The covering 
material is plaited over specially. designed deep coil 
springs. Extreme inequalities of the road are reduced 
,in their effects to the lowest minimum, while minor 
'inequalities arc lost in its soft resilience. The entire 
'construction is conducive to the very acme of seat- 
ing luxury. 

, The seats of open cars are luxuriously upholstered 
in selected full hides of hand-buffed black leather. 

Enclosed cars are upholstered In first quality 
selected fabrics, furnished in a variety of patterns. 
Auxiliary seats — in cars so equipped — fold snugly 
into compartments, out of the way when not in ser- 
vice. This feature is in marked contrast with the 
cumbersome type which fold against the tonneau 
sides and interfere with passengers' comfort and 

There are pockets in the doors to care for parcels. 

In every detail there is striking evidence of the 
care and forethought to provide every comfort, con- 
venience and facility which the most exacting could 

And. as you relax and rest from the strain and 
fatigue which motoring may heretofore have imposed, 
you appreciate more and more the delight and inex- 
pressible charm of owning and driving a Cadillac. 

The €adi]Qac Clientele 

THE Cadillac lias always been regarded as a car" 
apart — a car in a class by itself. Today it is ii^ 
a World of its own. 

Each year sees the Cadillac become more and more' 
the car which Is bought, not because its price is what 
it is, but because of what the car itself b — and 
because of what it does. 

It is the choice of the buyer who can easily afford 
any car, no matter what its price, but who recognizes 
the advantages of Cadillac ownership and who 
realizes that he cannot obtain the same advantages 
in any other car, no matter what price he pays. 

It is likewise the choice of the buyer who would 
prefer to pay less for a car but who also realizes that 
only in a Cadillac is It possible to obtain the adj^ 
vantages^ which the Cadillac affords. "' 

There i» copadivJor 

Fig. 5 


writer should endeavor to prepare just the required amount 
^f matter. Where there is some doubt as to how an article 
intended to cover several pages will run out, it is a good idea 
to furnish with the copy some optional paragraphs ; that is, 
paragraphs that may be used if they are required to fill a space 
or may be left out if they arc not needed. In such cases, a 
memorandum should be written near the optional matter, 
making it clear to the printer that he may or may not use it, 
according to the need. 

5. Some catalogs and booklets are prepared on the loose 
plan of going ahead and writing as much matter as the various 
subjects seem to require, and having it set without estimating 
or having any regard as to how many pages any particular 
subject may re(|uire. When this is done the only way the pages 
can be made up well is to let the matter run along in a plain 
style, without page heads, or to adopt a running-head style. 
Even then there is danger that copy written up for a 48-page 
circular will make 52 pages, which will necessitate cither kill- 
ing four pages of the composition and bringing the number 
back to 48 pages, or supplying more matter and bringing the 
number up to 56 pages, a nuiltiple of 8. Besides, the running- 
head-title style is not suitable where it is desired to make 
certain features of the catalog prominent. 

(y. There are catalogs sent out with pages partly filled 
with text matter and partly blank, but such arrangements, 
unless artistically treated, are commonplace, and lack the pleas- 
ing symmetry of the circular with pages uniform as to the 
amount of matter on them. This criticism does not apply to 
pages containing special display features ; these are not always 
expected to be uniform with other pages. A final page of a 
circular with a little blank space left does not necessarily 
present a poor appearance. Sometimes, it is better to leave a 
half page blank at the end of a circular than to put in matter 
that is obviously of a padded nature, but, as a rule, blank parts 
of text pages in the other parts of a circular should be avoided. 
\\'hen blank parts do occur through inability to estimate the 
amount of matter accurately, and enough appropriate matter 

Under such conditions, a plain four 
circle integrating dial as used on most 
watthour meters may be employed, this 
dial giving the total readings in ampere- 
hours of input or output over any period 
from the preceding reading. 

Totalizing Duplex Dial A type 

of dial 
originally developed for use on meters 
installed with batteries on head end rail- 
way train lighting equipment is the du- 
plex type shown in Fig. 21 . This dial has 
two sets of integrating circles; one for 
total charge and the other for total dis- 
charge, each set of gears having a de- 
tent arrangement on the first driving 
gear so that only one set of circles is 
registering at one time. This type of 
train may be applied with a meter in 
circuit where the reversals of current 


are not at frequent intervals; that is, 
where there are long periods of dis- 
charge succeeded' by complete cycles 
of charge, but cannot be employed with 
meters on floating batteries or in other 
cases where there are short cycles of 
discharge and charge, such as axle 
generator service. 

Commercial Applications of 

Amperehour Meters I" order 
to oper- 
ate a battery efficiently and get good 
service from it, it is necessary to con- 
trol the charge and discharge as ac- 
curately and intelligently as possible. 
With the lead battery the state of 
charge may be accurately determined 
by measuring the specific gravity of 
the electrolyte. There is also a change 
in voltage with the state of charge that 
indicates when the battery is fully 
charged and also when it is fully dis- 
charged. However, the voltmeter 
method of determining the state of 
charge of a battery is not reliable since 
the voltage depends upon a number 
of variable factors. The ordmary user of 
a battery is unable to use a voltmeter 
with any degree' of assurance. 

Fig. 6 


cannot be written to fill them, sometimes an illustration or a 
trade-mark can be inserted. 

7. Estimating- Copy for Illustrated Pages, — The 

size of the cuts should be decided on first in order to learn 
approximately how much space they will take up and how 
much room will be left for text, because printers will charge 
extra if they must set additional matter after the first proof 
is submitted. However, it is usually necessary to cut out or 
add a line or two on some pages of a first proof, no matter 
how careful the writer may be. It will simplify the work for 
both the writer and the printer if the exact shape and size of 
the cut is drawn on the page of the dummy on which the cut 
is to be used. If the cut is not rectangular, but is of irregular 
shape, it is advisable to show the irregular shape. This can 
be done easily by placing the cut on the page in its proper 
position and drawing a line around it. 

8. Handling- of Illustrated Features. — It is in illus- 
trated catalogs, booklets, and folders that the writer will have 
opportunity to use his best judgment about good effects in 
printing. Fig. 6 shows a difficult problem. The balancing of 
both a light line cut and a half-tone with its heavier weight 
of color along with the copy is something that requires con- 
siderable practice in planning. This problem comes up often 
in catalogs that are highly technical, where both the machine 
and a diagram of its workings require a showing on the same 
page. Fig. 6 would have been improved if the half-tone had 
been reduced in size a little and surrounded with more white 



9. The ability to lay out a dummy neatly will often make 
it possible for the advertisement writer to get an order that he 
would otherwise lose. If he will use a dummy showing the 
cover stock and inside paper, and then paste in clipped illus- 
trations of a character something like those to be prepared, 


letter in the headings of the various sections of text, and draw 
the borders in the colors that will be used in printing, the adver- 
tiser can form a good idea of how attractive the finished work 
will be. 

If the writer goes to the printer first, the printer can have 
dummies (blank paper bound in style of the finished book) 
made up of one or more qualities of paper and cover and in a 
size that will cut without undue waste. The printer can also 
lay out a page showing the best effect that he can produce. 
An experienced writer may have the best ideas and may be 
able to suggest a better style of page, type, cover, and inside 
paper than can a printer without a good knowledge of the kind 
of work wanted, but it is always best to give the printer a chance 
to recommend and make up a dummy of the paper that is 
readily available. The dummies that the printers make up are 
very convenient for planning copy and for showing the adver- 
tiser the style contemplated. Where printers receive work 
regularly from an advertisement writer, they are willing to 
keep him supplied with dummies, free of charge. 

10. Outfit for Preparing Dummies. — It is an excel- 
lent idea for the advertisement writer to have a box of water 
colors, bottles of red ink and black India ink, and a few brushes 
to assist him in getting up color effects. He should take care 
of all the pieces of attractive cover and other papers that he 
gets. A great many covers of catalogs are printed on one side 
only, and by reversing such covers they can be used in making 
up dummies for advertisers. It is also an admirable plan to 
keep a scrap book in which to paste pieces of printed matter 
that show good color combinations, typographical styles, etc. ; 
such a book will prove a valuable guide and will perhaps save 
much costly experimenting. The sample books that paper con- 
cerns send out afford many fine examples of good color effects. 


11. In order that the writer may make his ideas clear to 
the printer, he should perfect himself in the making of lay- 
outs, for by means of these he can determine very closely 


what the finished work will look like and also insure securing 
the reproduction of his ideas in type. Great care should be 
exercised in the preparation of layouts, as a very slight mis- 
take, such as writing the size of the body type wrong, might 
necessitate the resetting of the whole job. 

Before making a layout, it is necessary to determine the size 
of both the cover and the inside pages. If a dummy has been 
made, these details will have been fixed. 

Sometimes it is advisable to have the cover lap the inside 
pages J inch or more ; this style is widely used for high-grade 
booklets. This is a little more costly than when same dimen- 
sions are used. 

12. Layout for a Catalog. — The various steps in 
making a layout will be made clear by illustrating the plan of 
a layout for a 5^"X7", 16-page catalog advertising carpets 
and rugs, the cover of which is to be printed from type on 
anti(|ue cover stock, in bright-brown and green-black inks, 
whik' the inside pages are to be white antique book stock, 
])rinted in the same colors as the cover. 

13. Cover. — The first step is to lay out the cover design 
carefully on a layout sheet cut to the proper size and then 
paste this on the dummy, taking care to allow generous 
margins. In Fig. 7 is shown a layout that could be used for 
the cover of this catalog. This production is only half as 
wide and half as high as the original, and the outside lines are 
merely to show the size of the page. Note the simplicity of 
the design and the fact that only the name of the article is in 
color. Another good color scheme for the design would be 
to put only the rules or the ornament in color, with the remain- 
der — that is, the type lines — in the green-black. Note that in 
Fig. 7 the design occupies only a small portion of the page. 

14. Title Page. — In Fig. 8 is shown a layout for a title 
page of this same catalog. Note the simplicity of design, the 
generous use of white space, and that the setting is entirely 
in upper and lower case. Fig. 8 is only half the length and 
width of the original layout. The outside lines ari' nuMfly to 











J Ql 







\ \ %. ■ 

^- %. 


^. : ^ 







o3 1 

-7 U 

CO h" 


z 2 





Carpets and Rugs 






-a ficas - O. S. Rom. leaded 



I Carpet 
1 Harmonv 


308 § 19 

Fig. 9 


show the boundaries of the page. The same is also true of 
Figs. 9, 10, 11, and 12. 

15. Body Pag-es. — In Fig. 9 is shown the layout of the 
first page of body matter with the head "sunk" 4 picas ; that 
is, placed 4 picas lower than the beginning of the other pages 
of body matter. The first paragraph is started with an orna- 
mental initial in two colors, the letter being in bright brown 
and the ornamental portions in green-black. This is to be 
page 3 of the catalog, the idea being to leave page 2 blank. 

Fig. 10 shows the layout of two facing pages of the regular 
body matter of the catalog properly margined and laid out for 
the printer. As the booklet is to be printed on white antique 
stock, Old-Style Roman type will be appropriate for the body 
matter and Old-Style Antique for the headings and subhead- 
ings. To make the body pages easy to read, they will be set 
21 picas wide, allowing ample margins all around, and espe- 
cially wide margins at the outside and bottom. 

It will be seen by referring to Fig. 10 that the subheadings 
of this catalog are to be set in the margins. These are placed 
outside the first line of the paragraph dealing with the subject 
mentioned in the subheading, with about 12 points of space 
between the side of the body matter and the subheading. The 
headings are to be squared on the body-matter side ; that is, 
on the left-hand page, the subheading will be flush on the 
right-hand side and irregular on the left-hand side, while on 
the right-hand pages the subheading will be squared on the 
left-hand side and irregular on the right-hand side. 

All text pages of this catalog are to have a running head set 
in 8-point caps. This head is to be centered in the measure, 
and underscored by a light rule, as shown in Fig. 10. This 
style gives uniformity to pages without page headings. The 
layout shows the method of marking the size of type and 
measure, and will be easily understood by the printer. 

Figs. 11 and 12 show how the cover page and the title page 
of this catalog job look when set up. 

16. Remarks on Layouts. — These layouts, one for the 
cover, one for the title page, one for the introductory page, 


and one showing the desired arrangement for the regular body 
pages, are ordinarily enough to convey the writer's ideas to 
the printer. Piut if some special arrangements are desired for 
other pages, additional layouts should be made. 

If the laid-out work is to be submitted to an advertiser for 
critical inspection, it is well to wait until he has passed on it 
before writing in the directions about type, etc. In such a 
case, it would be advisable to make the cover layout on the 
cover page of the dummy, so that the advertiser can see how 
the colors of the inks harmonize with the cover stock. The 
other layouts could be made on layout sheets first and then 
pasted in the dunimy. If the dummy is not to be shown to any 
one for critical inspection, directions about type, etc. may as 
well be written on the sheets at once. 


17. General Plan. — The general plan outlined for cata- 
logs and booklets applies in part to folders, because many 
folders are simply brief catalogs or booklets. 

For instance : a folder of two, four, six, or eight pages may 
be used to describe one or two articles in the same way as a 
catalog would be used to describe a large number of the same 
kind of articles. A short essay of a few pages can be put on 
a folder or a longer essay put into a booklet with more illus- 
trations and perhaps some testimonials. 

The first thing to do when planning a folder is to decide 
how, when, and where it is to be used. 

The answers to these three questions will determine the 
size, how many colors are necessary, and whether special 
illustrations, special shapes, or special folds can be used. 

18. Size of Folders. — Package folders are usually of a 
size that will fit the package either flat or folded. Folders for 
use with correspondence (known as inserts) or hand-out 
folders for distribution by dealers are made in multiples of 
pages which are 3'i in.X6 in. in size, in order to fit, either flat 
or with one or more folds, a No. 6J envelope. 









o >< 



r1 ^ -^ 



o cy « jl 



e-Q fr 



*- j: u 



" M 2 




O w 










o ► 

CO s 
2 • 


O 9 


Eolders that sell direct by mail or folders sent through the 
mails to precede or follow salesmen are made to a size that 
will best fit the subject and cut without waste from standard- 
size papers or cardboards. 

19. Small mailing- folders often have a post card as 
a part of the folder, to be torn off and returned by the recipi- 
ent. In that case it is necessary that the folder itself be made 
of cardboard that has at least the thickness of the regulation 
government postal card. 

Where half-tones are used it is imperative that the card- 
board have a coated surface. 

It is also necessary to have a coated cardboard that folds 
without breaking. 

One paper that meets these three necessary requirements of 
the stock to be used on small mailing folders is specified as 22^" 
X28^" — 160-pound Folding Translucent. Instead of 160 
pounds to the ream, this stock is sometimes known as 3i-ply. 
It is made in white and many colors. Samples can be obtained 
from most paper dealers. 

As the size of the full sheet is 22| in.X28^ in., the most 
widely used sizes of small mailing folders are 5^ in.X14 in. 
and 7 in.Xll in. (which cut eight out of a full sheet), and 
8| in.Xll in. and 7j in.X14 in. (which cut six out of a full 

Mailing cards that are not intended to fold should be on 
a heavier cardboard either of a coated or uncoated surface, 
depending on the kind of cuts used. 

This heavy cardboard is known as Printers' Blank, and is 
made from 4-ply up. 6-, 8-, and 10-ply are the thicknesses 
most used. 

This stock can be had uncoated, coated on one side, or 
coated on both sides. Colors in heavy-weight cardboard are 
very difficult to obtain, and when obtained are not very satis- 
factory. It is better to use white stock and print a tint block 
of the color desired on the white stock. Of course, on large 
orders the paper mills will make the stock of the color desired 
if the advertiser can wait from 3 to 6 weeks for delivery. 

I L T 102C-14 


20. Large mailing- folders should be made of a size 
that cuts to good advantage from standard enameled or S. & 
S. C. book papers, because practically all of these folders use 
half-tones to show the goods, and these require a smooth 

The most generally used sizes are 19 in.X24 in. (which cuts 
two out of a sheet 25 in.X38 in.) and 16 in.X22 in. (which 
cuts four out of a sheet 32 in.X44 in).. Of course the full 
25"X38" sheet can also be used if the space is desired to tell 
the story or the idea behind the plan is to suggest bigness. 

21. Extra Colors. — To get attention, mailing folders 
should ususally be in two colors at least, one dark color and 
one bright (or light) color. Black alone, or any one color, is, 
as a rule, too commonplace in present-day advertising. Usually 
two colors are sufficient, except where a good showing of the 
product or article requires the use of more. 

Fig. 13 shows various forms and designs of folders. 
Fig. 14 (a) shows an attractive folder as folded to mail; 
Fig. 14 (&) shows the same with one fold open, and view (c) 
shows the folder entirely unfolded. The size of this folder 
was 8^ in.Xll in. when flat. 

22. Special illustrations should be used wherever* 
possible for the front of mailing folders. The illustration 
should be in keeping with and reinforce the message in the 
headlines on the front of the folder. 

Stock cuts, which illustrate general phrases, and are sold by 
concerns that make a specialty of preparing them for small 
advertisers, are very good when it is a question of keeping 
down the expense. 

It is much better, however, to have special drawings made. 
A folder has more character when the headlines are not 
strained to meet a general cut. Compare Fig. 13 (a) with 
Fig. 14(a). 

Sometimes it is better not to use any picture whatever on 
the outside of the folder. The message in Fig. 13 (b) would 
not be improved by the use of either a special cut or a stock cut. 

A Saving of ^20^ 
on Every Barrel 
of Shellac 

308 § 19 


Fig. 13 

Every Architect Should Have 

This Book of Reference 

Sent FREE on Application 



Some Of The Things That 
It Contains 

Battfry and calile SjiecifRations. 

Wiring Diagrams anrl complete dcsciiptlons of 
iiitPrii)!' trli'phorie systems for factories, public build- 
ings, apartinonl houses, residences, etc. 

A complete and separate boftk of wiring specifications. 

Valuable information about eiectric reset annunciators, 
pusli button and other electrical specialties, break-glass lire 
alarm stations, etc. 

Not Merely A Catalog But A Book Full of 
Valuable Dacta and Information 

In this new Connecticut Cataloc No. 24. 

One of 
Our Regular 

just off the press, we have incorfwrated a large amount of 

Check and Mail This Post Card 

.VnJ m- 

308 § 19 

Fig. 14 


23. Special Shapes. — Advertising men are often called 
upon to get up circulars and folders in odd shapes. The adver- 
tiser will want something the shape of his package or trade- 
mark, or something not built at right angles. 

Circles, octagons, diamonds, ovals, etc. are very attractive, 
but they are very difficult to produce even by the best of print- 
ers, and almost impossible to secure except in metropolitan 

Some advertisers have used round booklets and folders 
printed by high-grade printers, with the result that only a very 
few copies were really properly cut out. 

Fig. 13 (c) shows a mailing card cut to the shape of the 
product. This card was produced in New York City, where 
there are several companies that make a specialty of making 
any kind of die for cutting out such work. This die is made 
from brass, molded to the proper shape and then sharpened 
on the edges. 

Steel rule is sometimes curved and cut for special shapes 
by the printer and then the cards are cut out by the steel rule 
design. But where sharp corners are desired a brass die must 
usually be made. 

In the original of Fig. 13 (d) the young lady's picture is a 
part of the second page, and an opening is cut in the first page 
to make the reader more curious to see the rest of the picture, 
which shows the young lady using a typewriter — the product 

Such square designs can readily be produced by using steel 
rules, which will be found in the equipment of nearly all 

Any irregular design should not be planned until the adver- 
tising man has taken up the matter with either his local printer 
or some printer in one of the larger cities, and is sure that he 
can obtain the die for cutting the design. It is well, too, to 
consider whether the cost is justified. 

When planning cut-out designs the advertising man must 
make the size smaller than the size which cuts to advantage 
from the stock, because the printer must have room beyond 
the design to handle the cutting. 


24. Special Folds.— Fii,^. 14 ((/) and (b) and Ing. 14 (r) 
show a mailing folder which folds so that the name which 
carries the entire circular is sure to be on the post card when it 
is returned. Fig. 13 (a) also shows this same idea but on a 
smaller folder. 

This kind of fold does not require any special or slower 
work on the part of people who do the folding or the printing. 

Fig. 13 (c) shows a lock fold with self-addressed postal. 
This flap end is die cut with steel rule, and in the folding the 
point is run through the slot, which is also cut with steel rule. 

This style fold will usually hold the entire folder intact 
while going through the mails. 

Fig. 13 (/) shows another method of folding. It is the 
same as Fig? 14 (c) with the exception that the post card is 
separate and inserted between two straight slits so that only 
the name and address on the post card show on the front 
of the mail piece. As the cutting is straight lines with steel 
rules, it can be done by almost any printer. The folds shown 
in Fig. 13 (c) and (/) are used where a strong appeal is made 
to return the card. 


25. The methods followed for laying out booklets and 
catalogs can also be used for folders to be used in packages, 
for counter distribution, or for correspondence inserts. 

Li making layouts for mailing folders, the advertising man 
must be careful in estimating the amount of copy for each 
section of the folder, because the size and position of the dis- 
play lines and pictures is important and they must be logically 
arranged for the best selling force. Also, the colors nuist be 
chosen and placed with the idea of strength as well as good 

Fig. 15 (a) shows the layout for the front fold of the mail- 
ing folder shown completed in b^ig. 14. which was issued 
primarily to interest architects to the extent of making them 
ask for a new catalog. 

Note in the second fold [Fig. 15 (/')] it will be seen that the 
address used to carr\- the folder is the same one that shows 

Some Of The Things That 
It Contains 

H.iltiTv ^md (■al)lp spi-cificitions. 

Wiling Diiigrams antJ complt'le descriptions ol 
mtcnor trlcpliont- syslcms for fiiclorios, public build- 
push bi-.tton and otlicr cic-ctrical specwiucs. break-glass fire 

Not Merely A Catalog But A Book Full of 
Valuable Data and Information 

In this new Connci li. ul ( ntnlou Nii. .'-t. jn-l nfl the |,i.--is, wo have incorporalcd a large amount o( 
inlorniati<m of sped,.! value k. ar< hile> l»---in iirtfei k. make i! a b<>i>k of reference. Il is more than a mere 
catalog of C'onneclicul ii\lerioi telephones and elcitiicil produc t», wincli are fully deserilx-d and illustrated 
in the book. Write for this book, ll will be mailed free to nnv archilcel who checks, signs and mails to us 
the p.)sl card alia, bed |„.K,w, Do this now. lesl you 
oveilook ihc M.alU , l.,i. , 


Cordless Vestibule Sets 

1 lere'saveslibulesel thnl'san innovation -nolhini; 

'11... ..• ■ , 

designed I.., ai,... 

Patent Applied Fo 

"Push Button-Then Talk" 

ll,al\s.,ilvo»,l..edd., I'ushlhebullon. nil vou hear the answer-dien talk 
k>w'ard the perfoiateti sound ojx-ning. You 
need not stand close— vou can even stand 
ten feet away and yr.ur' voice will 1« heard 
|K-if<-ctly at the other end. 

Tlll> rul.iiess vesulmlr »et .r. I>nl one ..f n...nv 
CVinncxtK 111 fe.iturcs winch wc Ii.ivc put ..n tfie 
iM.trkrl iilirml of iKe limes in mir lwent>- yeftrs ..( 
iii.tiiiilarluring experience. 

Connr. kriil Roocl?. nre qu,-ifi!v T>rorlin-(». spc 
..f.e.ll.v l.-.„li,„- Mf. .vcvwhrir C. t 
.,<<l<i.„„i,.,l S,.,„i l,„ il„.„,.w ( .,i..l.„: l,„^.,^ 

Connecticut I'utZT. Company, Inc. 

Meriden. Conn. 

Post Card 

(^oiinectictit ^KucrKK Lompan\', Inc. 

mi;ridi::.\. conn. 

308 § 19 

Fig. 14 



^/#^^ Every Arc W»tect Should Have 
///^ This Book ci Reference 
g) ^ Sent FREE on Application 

(^■^r ^ ^ ^ 


^ lfir«£>»».v«-fcuA» 


% Some oi ihe Things 1 hai 
Ait i t Contains 


Not r^eret^ A Catalog But A Book Full oi 
Vdludble Data 4nd ln^oirmati( 

One of 




Check iLud Mail Thh Post Card 

I \ ^<r*-'£VKA*^<' 

Tk-d-^^^ I j 

308 § 19 

Fig. 15 

lu Some oi the ThingsThai: 

f t Cohtains 

k .i^j^ ' ' 

Not Nerelv3 A Catalog But A Book Full of 
Valuable Data and Information 


Corel lesb VestrbuleSets 

I" csJf ^C 


PsAen+- Aff1i<-4 fov 

" Push Button -ThenTal k" 

Post Card 

Conneci- (cut 2*'^^^,%"^ Gmp4in\^,lnc. 

Menacn, C«nn. 

Connecticut 1^e!e1Vic Companvj.lnc. 

308 § 19 

Fig. 15 

§ l!l CATALU(,S, nouKLETS, AND RjL1)1<:RS 10 

the manufacturer who returned the card. This is a feature of 
folding that makes impossible the return of cards without 
being signed. It also makes it easier for the prospect to return, 
as the card is already signed. 

The headlines of the inside spread of this folder [Fig. 15 
(c)] tell the entire story in such a manner as to create a 
desire for further reading. 

The principal idea in laying out mailing folders is to use 
heavy display lines, and medium or light type faces for the 
reading. matter. This gives contrast; and if the headings con- 
tain a real message the contrast will force a reading and get 

Do not be too explicit in giving instructions to printers on 
mailing folders. Pick out a bold type and a light type and 
give blanket instructions such as "Use Cheltenham Wide for 
body and Cheltenham Bold for display." This avoids arbitrary 
sizes that are difficult to estimate correctly. 


20. With a general idea of what he requires in the way of 
printed matter to accomplish a given purpose, the writer of a 
catalog, booklet, or folder should seek a first-class printer and 
enlist his aid in deciding the details of paper, typography, 
color scheme, etc. For high-grade work a high-grade printer 
should be consulted, even if it means having the work done in 
some other city than that in which the writer is located. 

If the writer undertakes unaided to decide about the size 
of the catalog or booklet he wants, the kind of paper, etc., he 
may find when his copy has been written and he is ready to 
have the job printed that his plans will have to be changed 
entirely. There are a great many details connected with the 
printing of the various grades, sizes, and weights of paper 
with which no one can possibly become conversant without 
years of practical experience. For instance, there are many 
grades of enameled stock, supercalendered stock, antique stock, 
plate-finish stock, and wove and laid antique stocks, each one 


of which is available for distinctive classes of work. It may 
be that the writer would select an enameled stock for a certain 
folder that, while it would look very attractive, would not have 
the durability or the printing qualities essential for that par- 
ticular piece of printed matter. The high-grade printer will, 
in many instances, be able to save money for the writer by 
suggesting a grade of paper that is cheaper than the one 
originally suggested, and yet almost exactly similar in looks 
and printing qualities. He may be able to suggest a paper that 
will cut to greater advantage. It may be that the paper called 
for by the writer could not be obtained in that particular city 
or town and that the printer would have to send away for it, 
thus delaying the work ; whereas, if the printer were consulted 
in the matter, he could suggest some paper that is carried in 
stock, and thus save a week or 10 days in the time of delivery. 

27. The advertising writer may want delivered in a day 
or two a job that is to be printed on both sides of enameled 
stock, and in which large type and a number of line cuts are 
to be used. As the ink dries very slowly on enameled paper, 
the sheets usually have to lie 2 or 3 days after being printed 
on one side before they can be "backed up" (printed on the 
other side). If this is not done, the ink on the first side will 
adhere to the platen of the press and come off on the opposite 
side of the sheet, making a slur that would spoil the work. 
The printer in a case like this could perhaps suggest another 
stock that would serve the purpose of the writer, and that by 
reason of its absorbent qualities could be printed on both sides 
without any delay, thus saving days of waiting. 

The printer should also be consulted as to the harmony of 
the cover and inside stocks of booklets, catalogs, etc., as he 
may save the writer from making a blunder in choosing inhar- 
monious combinations. 

Unless an advertiser is sure that the price quoted by a 
printer on a job is fair, he should get estimates from two or 
more printers. It is usually a good plan to get competitive 
bids, but it is not always advisable to give the work to the 
lowest bidder. The lowest bidder may be a ])rintcr that is 


careless about presswork and other fine points of printing, and 
the better work of the higher-priced printer may be worth 
more than the difference between the bids. There are a very 
few high-grade printers that will not submit competitive bids, 
but will take fine catalog work only on the condition that the 
exact price be determined after the job has been completed. 
The subject of cost is a complex one and requires compre- 
hensive knowledge of the cost of composition, make-up, press- 
work, stock, and general expense. The inexperienced person 
need not expect to be able to figure such items accurately, 
but should depend largely on a reliable printer. One who 
must have a catalog at a cost of 6, 8, or 10 cents a copy can 
get it, but of course it will not be the kind of catalog that 
could be furnished for 25, 30, or 40 cents a copy. The differ- 
ence in quality of both workmanship and material should be 
kept in mind. 



28. Amount of Copy Required for Catalogs, Etc. 

Copy for catalogs, booklets, folders, etc. differs from copy for 
advertisements principally in the matter of extent. Some of 
the chief selling points of the advertiser's goods or his service 
are exploited concisely in his advertisements. They attract 
attention and develop interest; in other words, open the way. 
The remainder of the story is told by the advertiser's printed 
matter, which necessarily goes more into details than does the 
advertisement. Intelligent study and research must usually 
be carried further when preparing the catalog and the booklet 
than when preparing the advertisement, because the printed 
matter designed to close a sale must give all the information 
necessary to close it. 

29. Of course there is a wide difference in the matter of 
detail information between the 8-page booklet that treats of 
only a simple subject, or some characteristic features of a 

22 CATALUC.S, B(JOKLl-:rS, AM) FuLDl'lRS § I'J 

broad subject, and the 48- or 96-page catalog giving full infor- 
mation about the many divisions of a broad subject. The 
National Cash Register Company, for example, might print 
an 8-page booklet with the title of National Registers versus 
Cheap Registers, devoted solely to some general points of 
superiority of the National Registers over those of other 
manufacturers, that would be very different from the complete 
catalog that it would send out in response to inquiries about 
registers. Therefore, it does not follow that every piece of 
printed matter should deal with all the features of a business. 
If the advertising office may be compared to a battleship, then 
it may be said that there is need for the 3-inch rapid-fire 
gun and the "six-pounders" as well as for the 12-inch rifle. 
Each fills a certain need. The advertiser must use his judg- 
ment and not try to make a booklet or folder answer if a large 
catalog is needed, nor should he use a large catalog if a brief 
booklet w^ould better meet the need. 

30. Securing- the Necessary Data for Booklets, 
Etc. — There is nothing mysterious about the way in which 
skilled copy-writers secure the material that enables them to 
turn out ten or twelve different booklets on as many dift"erent 
subjects in a month. 

The study of an advertiser's old printed matter often shows 
strong points about the business or its products that have never 
been \vritten up as they should be. lUit the copy-writer cannot 
depend for his information on the old printed matter of the 
advertiser, lie must get at the root of the problem by examin- 
ing the article to be sold and by asking questions, just as if 
he were a prospective buyer. If it is a manufactured article, 
he should visit the factory and look into the process of making 
and talk with the inventor or designer. He should go direct 
to the manufacturer for an exhaustive interview, not only to 
find out about the product itself but also about the manu- 
facturer's previous experience with booklets and catalogs, if 
any ; and he should find out what advertising literature has 
seemed to pay and what has not. what the manufacturer has 
found to be the best selling points of the article, what com- 

" Thatcher- 


''Crescent" Warm Air Furnaces 

For Wood or Coal 

The " Crescent" Furnace is made to meet the growing demand for a furnace 
in which either coal or wood may be used as desired. Until recently furnaces 
were built for one kind of fuel only Antici- 
pating the need for a coal and wood burning 
furnace, we have perfected one which amply 
fills these requirements. This is important 
in sections of the country where wood is 
largely used. The base and grates — as 
shown in the accompanying cut are the 
regular "Meteor" type — being triangular in 
form and so arranged that any bar can be 
easily removed without disturbing the others. 

_ - _ The especially large feed neck is provided with double feed doors — =■ 

and when burning coal only the lower door need be used, while 
with wood burning the large chunks necessitate the use of both doors. 

_, ^ , .. The "Crescent" Furnace has a very high combustion 

The Combustion , , i i- * u- j • ' t,, . . 

chamber and radiator combmed m one. The top and 

bottom east iron plates, of this radiator, are fastened to the steel sides by means 
of wrought iron turnbuckles. This feature prevents the breaking off of the 
lugs due to expansion, which would occur if long rods were used. A division 
plate is so arranged that the gases and smoke pass entirely around the radiator, 
instead of only half way, as in many other furnaces of this particular type. This 
division plate may be placed on either the right or left hand side of radiator, ac- 
cording to the location of the chimney. 

_, _ The division plate causes the smoke and gases to travel in one 

direction around the entire circumference thus evenly heating 
all the three heating walls of the radiator, thereby producing the greatest 
amount of cflficicncy for the smallest consumption of fuel. 

r» 1 With the "Crescent" as well as otlier furnaces shown in 

this catalogue, a complete damper regulator is sent.' 
This consists of a sufficiently strong brass safety chain to connect with a hand- 
some nickel plated regulator which is placed at any convenient point on the 
upper floor — thus allowing the furnace draughts to be controlled either from 
the basement or upstairs. 

Fig. 16 



petitors are offering and what literature they are using, the 
condition of the market, and various other points. The ques- 
tions that inquirers ask and their reasons for not purchasing 
should be suggestive of what is required. 

31. The writer need not imagine that with a superficial 
examination of an article or a brief inquiry into the needs he 
can go to his desk and write a catalog or a booklet that will 
sell the goods to every prospective purchaser. Plans and 
argument that sell goods are founded on salient facts, and 
such facts cannot be ascertained except by a close study of 
the commodity to be advertised. No amount of skilful writing 
will compensate for a scarcity of vital information. For 
example, to write a catalog containing such details as are con- 
tained in the page shown in Fig. 16 requires a close study of 
the article and collaboration with those possessing technical 
knowledge of the subject. 

32. There is a great opportunity for the capable catalog 
and booklet writer. Rarely does a pamphlet exploit the funda- 
mental selling points of an article as it should. Points that 
the good salesman uses every day are often overlooked when 
the catalog is prepared. It is advisable to interview the best 
salesmen of the advertiser's goods when possible. They will 
be able to give much valuable information. 

Just as in a news article, where the items of information 
command interest, so in the catalog or booklet, the interesting 
facts are the most important features. Especially in catalogs 
directed to people possessing technical training, such as engi- 
neers, should the writer deal with details; such readers have 
little patience with a catalog that is full of flowery phrases, 
popular descriptions, and imaginative language but does not 
give definite information. 

33. Libraries, Textbooks, Etc. as Aids to Copy- 
Writers. — Reference books are of great service to writers 
of advertising literature. If it is desired, for instance, to get 
up an attractive booklet regarding the value of real-estate- 
investments around New York City, a good plan would be to 
study the history and development of New York, from the 


investment point of view and to get the figures of some of the 
sales of real estate that occurred in and around that city many 
years ago, and then compare them with recent sales in order 
that the increase in values may be shown. This does not mean 
that the writer shall fill pages with uninteresting, immaterial 
facts about the history of New York, but that he shall pick 
out strong, pertinent items. 

If he is writing about a tobacco, a cofifee, a breed of cattle, 
etc., he will find much information of value and interest in the 
best encyclopedias. Most of the large libraries have bound 
volumes of the leading magazines extending over many years, 
and have at hand indexes in which one may readily look up 
all articles on a given topic that have appeared during many 
years. From these articles the writer will usually be able to 
get many good points. He need not use the exact language of 
other writers, but may use the fact, or point, and express it in 
his own language. 

34, Keeping- a File of Material. — The writer that 
prepares and keeps up to date the forty or more dififerent 
circulars of information of the International Correspondence 
Schools (from 32 to 96 pages each) has a large file envelope 
for each subject on which the Schools issue a circular. Every 
article that he sees in a newspaper, magazine, or technical 
journal that he thinks will be of use at some time in preparing 
a new circular, he clips out and files in an envelope devoted 
to that subject. He keeps competitors' catalogs, booklets, 
and folders in these envelopes in order that he may be pre- 
pared to meet the arguments that they use. When a good 
letter from a successful student comes in, permission to print 
it is asked of the student, and the letter is filed in the proper 
envelope. The result is that when a circular is to be prepared, 
the writer usually has a great deal of material at hand to study 
and modify to his use. Many circular writers and advertisers 
follow this plan of keeping an extensive file of articles and 

35. Published Items as Aid to Copy- Writers. 

Articles that constitute the very best possible material for 



catalogs and booklets frequently appear in newspapers and 
magazines. Often, it is advisable to get a publisher's permis- 
sion to print all or part of some copyrighted article. Strong 
expressions from an unbiased point of view lend plausibility 
and strength to an advertiser's claims. Frequently, such a 
clipping may be reproduced facsimile or made into a display 
page. If, in a booklet about real-estate investments around 



Big Reservoir Crashes Through Three- 
Story Building at Pittsburgh —Warning 
Causes Many to Escape 

Pittsburgh, Ta., June 8. —A 10,000-gal- 
lon water tank crashed down through 
the three-story brick building at 537-i45 
Liberty avenue this afternoon, causing 
the rear wall to fall out and injuring 
seven persons so that they had to be 
taken to hospitals. 

The building is occupied by John Fita, 
a wholesale butter and c^g merchant; 
the S. M. Petty Wail Paper company, 
and T. .S. Mercer & Co., wholesale boots 
and shoes. Thomas S. Mercer, his son 
(Icorge, three women, and James Rob- 
inson, a teamster, were injured. All 
will recover, although their injuries 
consist of broken limbs, scalp wounds, 
and lacerations. 

The crash came with a few moments' 
accounts for the small 


Huge Steel Water Holder Falls Clear from 
the Roof to the Basement 

Brooklyn, N Y., Aug. 28.— A huge 
steel tank, containing 20,000 gallons of 
water, which was recently erected on 
the roof of J. & T. Cousin's shoe fac- 
tory, at Grand and De Kalb avenues, 
toppled from its brick foundation, 
crashed through the roof and five fioors, 
wrecking the building and stock to the 
extent of $40,000. 

The building wa'. more damaged than 
the stock. .About 300 men and girls are 
employed in the factory. If the acci- 
dent had happened an hour sooner, just 
before the employes quit work, many 
would undoubtedly have been injured 
and killed 

The various floors were deltigcd with 
water. Nearly the entire stock of the 
shoe manufacturers was ruined and 
much of the machinery in the building 
was wrecked. In the basement, where 
the tank landed, the engines which sup- 
ply power to the factory were destroyed 

It is not known just what caused the 
accident, but the manufacturers belie\e 
that the brick foundation, eight feet 
high, which was only recently built and 
i-tn which the tank rested, was not firmly 


The only person in the factory when 
the tank fell was Adam T.ydecker the 
watchman, who was on the first floor 
Fortunately he was in another part of 
the building on a round of inspection 
when the crash occurred. 

Tig. 17 

Xew York, several strong paragraphs can be quoted from 
influential journals or from prominent men, it cannot help but 
give weight. Complimentary items in newspapers and trade 
magazines regarding the advertiser's product also prove useful. 
Fig. 17 shows how two news items about disasters caused by 
the falling of water tanks were made up into a page illustra- 
tion by a manufacturer of an improved water system — one 

I The Future of the Telephone | 

ONLY a few years ago the telephone was considered in much the 
same light as the automobile is today. Its cost was prohibitive 
for any but the well-to-do, and its utility was questioned by most 
of those who could afford it. For the residence, it was looked 
upon as a luxury or a rather costly plaything; and in business, 
while recognized as a valuable aid, perhaps, it was by no means considered 
necessary. Contrast this with the pre';ent condition. Its reduced cost 
has now brought it within the reach of people with only moderate means, 
and its usefulness and convenience in social affairs, and its indispensability 
to the business world have been demonstrated beyond doubt. The question 
of the up-to-date business man is not "Shall I have a telephone?" but 
"How many telephones must I have?" and in the residence where it has 
once been adopted, it is considered as indispensable as a sewing machine. 
Eleven years ago there was one telephone to every 22,5 people in this 
country ; now there is one to every 16. Although the iniiependent companies 
are not furnishing all of these additional telephones, the increase is directly 
due to their entering the telephone field. 

While the growth of the future, taking the number of telephones installed 
in proportion to the people in the country, may not be as great as that of 
the past, numerically considered, I think it will be much greater and far 
in excess of the increase in population. Along what lines will this growth 
take place? In my opinion, it will be in residences and small retail estab- 
lishments in our cities and towns, and among dwellers of the rural districts 
that it will be most noticeable. 

The Probable Increase 

I have estimated that a little less than .50 per cent, of the people of 
this country appreciate the advantages of the telephone; yet my estimate 
is considered too high by many who say that not more than one-third 
of the inhabitants of this country really know about the telephone, and 
that a large percentage ot these are not at all familiar with its advantages. 
In defense of their argurrient, they call attention to the fact that the ratio 
of telephones in use to the number of people in the country is only one 
to sixteen, while, they assert, the country will easily support one telephone 
to every five people. In some localities this is the ratio at present, and 
in my opinion the country could stand as great a general development. 

I think I am not oversanguine in saying that at the end of the next 
decade, the comfortable home that is not equipped with the telephone 
will be an exception to the rule. People of moderate means, Iwth in the 
cities and in the country, will have them installed in their homes, and 
landlords will equip the places that they have to rent with telephones, 
just as the modern flats and terraces of today have refrigerators and steam- 
heating plants installed, and are equipped with gas stoves and electric light. 

So far, we have considered only the increase in local use. The long- 
distance development, to my mind, will be just as great. The service 
between neighboring towns and villages will be brought to a very high 
order, and the interstate and transcontinental business will be developed 
to an extent scarcely dreamed of today. Independent through lines will 
connect all the large centers of population, and the congested condition 
now so prevalent in many places on short hauls will be relieved by increased 
ci-cuits and better facilities for handling the service between local points, 
and forwarding it to the large centers for delivery to the through lines. 
The long-distance telephone is destined to cover a much larger field than 
at present. It will not take the place of the telegraph, but will continue 
to develop new business for itself that does not today exist. It is now being 
quite generally adopted by the railroads in conjunction with their present 
telegraph systems, and is being used almost exclusively by the interurban 
traction systems of the country. 

James B. Hoge, in an address before the West Virginia Independent Tele- 
phone Convention, published in TELEPHONY. 

27 Fig. IS 


that dispenses with the dangerous elevated tani<. These items 
supported the manufacturer's argument strongly. 

In Fig. 18 is sliown how an extract from a telephone engi- 
neer's address was used to advantage in a telephone-engineer- 
ing circular of the Litcrnational Correspondence Schools. This 
address was copyrighted, but the magazine owning the copy- 
right willingly permitted the extract to be reproduced. 

It will be observed that many of the examples shown in 
these pages measure 5 J in.XSJ in. or thereabouts. This is 
made necessary by the difficulty that would be encountered in 
trying to show larger pages in a textbook the size of this one. 
It should be understood that in practical work the writer is 
not confined to catalogs of this size of page. The ideas and 
principles set forth here can be applied to circulars of all 
sizes. In fact, many of the illustrations are reductions from 
larger pages. 

3G. Procuring- of Technical Descriptions. — ^\Vhen 

matter that is extremely technical nmst appear in a catalog 
or a booklet, and it is a subject with which the copy-writer is 
not familiar, he may find it necessary either to refer to some 
standard textbook for the information or to have some person 
familiar with the subject w-rite up part of the circular for him. 
Sometimes, the extremely technical part of a catalog (see 
Fig. 16) will be written by an engineer or a designer in the 
employ of the manufacturer, the advertising man going over 
the matter and strengthening it from the sales point of view. 
It would be impossible, for instance, for the writer with only 
a general knowledge to prepare a booklet describing with 
perfect accuracy the workings and advantages of the Bundy 
steam trap system unless he consulted a modern work on 
steam machinery or had the assistance of the manufacturer or 
of some engineer. Nevertheless, the description of the advan- 
tages of a machine or other article should never be left entirely 
to the maker or designer of it, for, as has been suggested, he 
will sometimes fail to bring out a very important point that 
a trained advertising writer would. He is too close to his sub- 
ject and may take too much for granted. 



Graphite crucibles are used in the man- 
ufacture of crucible steel, phosphor-bronze, 
and other metal alloys that must be subjected 
to very high temperatures. For most of this 
work graphite crucibles only are practical, 
because they will stand a very high temper- 
ature without melting and do not crack 
readily when exposed to sudden and violent 
changes of temperature. Only the best qual- 
ity of flake graphite is suitable for the man- 
ufacture of crucibles, and it sells for from 
$150 to $200 a ton. 


Graphite is used alone or with oil or grease 
as a very efficient lubricant. It is partic- 
ularly valuable in places where it is exposed 
to extremes of temperature, as it is affected 
neither by heat nor cold. It is the only 
lubricant that can be used between wood 
surfaces, hence its adoption by piano makers. 
High-grade flake graphite makes the best 


The ordinary "lead" pencil is really filled 
with a mixture of graphite and clay, the 
amount and quality of graphite depending on 
the grade of pencil. If graphite was of no 
other use than for the manufacture of pencils, 
it would be a most valuable mineral. 

Paint and Polish 

Graphite is much used as a preservative 
coating for steel bridges, and outside metal 
work, as it does not crack or peel with the 
contractions and expansions of the metal, 
and is practically unaffected by weather or 
atmosphere. Stove polish is mostly graphite, 
and some shoe polishes and leather dressings 
are based on graphite. 


The advertising man should ask questions until he knows 
that all the important points have been brought out. "Why 
is this article better than others of its class?" said an adver- 
tising man to the manufacturer of a dental article. The manu- 
facturer began to explain the shortcomings of the other articles 
then on the market and went on to demonstrate how his prepa- 
ration did its work perfectly. This was the chief selling point, 
yet in the descriptive matter that the manufacturer had pre- 
pared for the advertising man to use, he had failed to mention 
this feature. It remained for the investigating spirit of the 
advertising man to bring out this point. 

In Fig. 19 is shown a reproduction of one of the first pages 
of a graphite company's prospectus. The man that wrote the 
circular had no intimate knowledge of the commercial uses of 
graphite when he undertook the work, but he made a careful 
research and study of the subject, with the result that he found 
many interesting facts to set forth. The display of Fig. 19 
is in Powell ; the body, in Old-Style Roman. 


37. If a man goes out to sell something by personal can- 
vassing, he must be tactful in his approach, take up the points 
of his canvass in their proper order, treat them convincingly, 
so as to command and hold interest, and bring his canvass 
skilfully to a strong climax at the close ; and the writer of 
catalogs, booklets, and folders must keep in mind that because 
his canvass is to be printed is no reason why he should not 
make a careful study to have the best arrangement as to order 
of subjects or items. Indeed, logical arrangement is more 
necessary in printed matter than in an oral canvass, because 
if the reader is once repelled, wearied, or confused, his atten- 
tion may be lost for all time. As advertising is only salesman- 
ship in print, it is here that the writer's ability as a salesman 
should be brought into play. He should never forget that he 
is to do the work of the salesman. 

38. Catalog's of Staple Goods. — In a catalog of staples, 
for which there is a universal demand, no space need be taken 


THE man who reads this book 
either shaves himself or goes to 
the barber. In the latter case he 
knows the bondage of the barber shop 
as well as we can tell him — the 
annoying wait, the lost time, the nerv- 
ous twenty minutes in the chair, the 
general inconvenience of not having 
a shop at hand where or when he 
wants it, the ruthless scrape of the 
strange barber, the danger of towels 
and tools that reek of other faces, the 
•expense — which at a low estimate is 
$ 1 5 a year for shaving alone, to say 
nothing of the expected tip — and 
above all, the fact that about a third 
of the time the man who depends on 
the barber shop isn't shaved when 
he ought to be. 

Fig. :0 
Set in Cliultenliam Old Style throujfhout 



up in an argument for the use of the goods. For example, in 
a catalog of wagons, it would be folly to devote three or four 
pages to an argument about the use of wagons, because the 
use of the article is well established. All the space of such a 
catalog should be filled with attractive illustrations and descrip- 
tions of the advertiser's wagons and strong arguments about 
their excellence. 

39. Catalogs of Luxuries or New Devices. — When, 
however, the article is one that is more of a luxury than a 
recognized necessity, such as a piano, a concise argument about 
what a piano means in the home in the way of pleasure and 
attractiveness would be advisable, and this properly should go 
in the front of the catalog, for the catalog may be read by many 
who have not fully decided that they must have a piano. 

Note, in Fig. 20, how the first part of a booklet about a 
safety razor begins. The first step here is to prejudice a man 
against the barber shop. Fig. 21, the opening page of a 
booklet about a science library, shows the right way of opening 
such a subject. (The light rule around these pages is used 
merely to show the size of the page.) 

In a business-school booklet, the first subject treated should 
be the value of a good business training — what it means to a 
young person, the opportunities open for employment, advance- 
ment, etc. Then should follow a description of the service 
that the advertiser has to ofifer. 

In a booklet intended to rent boxes in a safe-deposit vault, 
the writer should first show the importance of keeping valu- 
able papers, etc. where they will be safe. Many persons do 
not realize the value of a safe-deposit box, and it is best to 
"drive the fact home" before describing the service that the 
advertiser offers.-^ 

40. Determining- the Character and Position of 
Matter.— In determining the character of the matter and the 
position it should occupy, the following general principle may 
be followed: Does desire or demand already exist? If so, 
proceed at once to a description of the goods, bringing out all 
the selling points. In the section devoted to selling points — • 

I LT 1II2C— 15 

The Way To Be a Thinker 

IS to get in touch with thinkers. All the 
world's prizes are captured by those who 
have seasoned their energy with the spice of 
originality — and originality means the habit ol: 
clear and fresh thinking. Originality can be 
developed — and is developed — by contact with 
original minds. 

Even the best of us have a tendency to fall 
into mental ruts, to go plodding on, year after 
year, in the same track, to do things without 
knowing precisely why. 

The way to keep mentally alive, the way to 
be original, the way to be a success, is to talk 
with brainy people and to read books that make 
you think. That's the reason the New Science 
Library is a cure for mental paralysis. It will 
lift you out of the dull circle of commonplace 
things; it will give you new thinking power 
and new ambition to know more. 

It will tell you what the famous Darwinian 
theory is; how the planets are weighed and 
their motions charted; what radium is; what 
ideas Herbert Spencer brought into the world; 
how liquid air is made and used; how elec- 
tricity makes the trolley car go — and a thousand 

Fig. 21 
Set in Cheltenham Old Style throughout 


Needed by Everybody 

Every sportsman, automobilist, bicyclist, and ball player needs one of our 
Emergency Cases. The farther you get away from physicians, the more 
valuable the Case becomes. You jeopardize your life when you fail to 
take it with you. The Case is light and handy. It may be carried in the 
pocket. It should be in your grip or your trunk wherever you go on your 
vacation or your camping trip. 

Every cook and housekeeper needs an Emergency Case, for it affords 
an immediate and safe remedy for the scalds, burns, and cut fingers that are 
of frequent occurrence. It relieves pain and saves annoyance. 

Every mother needs one. Children will get scratched by the cat, bitten by 
the pet dog, and stung by insects. It is extremely important that these hurts 
be given prompt, sanitary treatment. An Emergency Case will pay for 
itself many times over in the saving of doctor's bills, because it prevents 
serious complications. 

Every school teacher has almost daily need for an Emergency Case. 
With it at hand she will have no difficulty in caring for pupils that suffer 
injuries in play or otherwise. Such service will raise a teacher in the esteem 
of both pupils and parents. 

Out on the farm miles away from the doctor, the U. S. Emergency Case 
becomes an absolute necessity. A farmer could buy nothing for several 
times one dollar that would be of as much value to him, for he is likely to 
find a good use for it in the home or in the field every week. 

Machinists, engineers, carpenters, and all persons handling tools or 
engaged in work where they are constantly liable to injury should never be 
without U S. Emergency Cases. One should be a part of every kit of 

Manufacturers, mill owners, etc., should have one of our $3.50 Cases 
at hand all the time for the use of their workmen; it saves time and expense 
and possible suits on account of injuries. The $3.50 Case contains many 
times as large a supply of materials and remedies as the dollar size. This 
is also sent to any address on receipt of price. 

U. S. Emergency Cases 

Fig. 22 
Set in Chtltcnham Old Style throughout 



before the description of the goods or along with it — would 
properly come the argument for the advertiser's superior 
methods of manufacturing and his plan of selling. Then 
should come the cost and any strong closing argument, such 
as free trial, guarantee, etc., that the advertiser can bring 
to bear. 

If no distinct desire or demand exists, an effort to develop 
and create one should come first. Referring again to real- 
estate advertising, if a booklet is to be prepared to sell lots in a 
suburb of New York or Chicago, it is not enough to describe 
the lots. The writer must first show the great profits made 
in real-estate investments like those he is offering, the security, 
the circumstances that make increased value certain, etc. 

Note in Fig. 22 how skilfully the needs of various persons 
for an "emergency case" are brought out. On reading an 
argument like this, a prospective purchaser can hardly fail to 
say in his mind, "That's so, and I believe I need one." 

In the example shown in Fig. 23 the writer very logically 
shows the need of something more than soap for the kitchen, 
and a careful housekeeper will be influenced by the suggestive 

41. Place for the Admonition to Reader. — In Fig. 24 
is shown a reproduction of one of the final pages of a booklet, 
the first page of which is shown in Fig. 19. The information 
has been given, and on the final page of the book the adver- 
tiser brings his argument to a climax by showing the desir- 
ability of the investment and by urging the reader to subscribe 
for some stock. 

It is usually best not to mention the matter of cost until 
desire has been created for the article, unless, of course, the 
article is one in the line of staples, where the desire or demand 
already exists, or one on which the price is so low that it is 
properly a leading argument. Suppose, for instance, that a 
typewriter concern made a practice of buying used typewriters 
and building them up into machines that were almost as good 
as new, and then offering to sell them for $35 each. Here, 
the idea of getting practically a $100 machine for $35 is so 

A Handmaid of Health 

CLEANLINESS is not the only thing that 
comes with the use of MILLER'S POWER- 
INE, but heahh as well. Ammonia is one 
of nature's greatest disinfectants. When in the 
pure, unadulterated state, as in MILLER'S POW- 
ERINE, it will grapple with and readily overcome 
any of the myriads of disease germs that lie so 
thickly within the doors of our homes. 

Pour a little of it in and around all sinks, drains, 
and closets. It not only cleans and purifies the air, 
but annihilates and carries off all sources of corrup- 
tion from which disease might spring. It induces a 
healthful cleanliness that banishes roaches, bugs, 
and other vermin, and makes the whole house 
redolent with a wholesome sweetness. 

What is the use of having pure foods, for which 
such a popular outcry is being made these days, if 
the vessels in which they are cooked and the dishes 
in which they are served are but half washed? If 
we had microscopic eyes we would be appalled at 
the amount of grease and dirt that clings to the 
apparently clean dishes after they have been 
through their bath of common soap and water. 

No suc'n unpleasant thought need come to the 
housewife who is a user of MILLER'S POWER- 
INE. The mixture of pure, honestly made soap 
and full-strength ammonia added to the hot water 
in which the pots, pans, and dishes are plunged, will, 
without any extra labor, cut all the grease and dirt 
as clean as a whistle, and they will emerge bright, 
shining, beautiful, and, above all, thoroughly clean. 

MILLER'S POWERINE is known everywhere, 
and is sold only in packages. If you have never 
met it, now is the time to be introduced. 

Fig. 23 
Set in Old-Style Antique throughout 


strong that price may be brought out as a first argument. 
In any event, the admonition to the reader, the summing up 
of the argument, the directions for ordering, etc. come logically 
in the final pages of the book. 


42. Study of Prospective Customers. — While guard- 
ing against flippancy or extravagance, the writer should strive 
to make his catalogs, booklets, and folders read as interestingly 
as magazine articles. To do this, he must study thoroughly 
the persons that the catalog or booklet is intended for. If the 
article to be sold is a new heating plant and the booklet is one 
that is to be sent to the trade, it should give technical informa- 
tion about the heater and its features, for the trade will look 
into this more than the average house owner. If, on the other 
hand, the booklet is to go to the house owner, its treatment of 
the technical features must be more popular ; in other words, 
it must not be presumed that the average house owner is a 
heating engineer. 

43. Emphasizins: the Strong Selling: Points. — In 

all advertising campaigns there are some particular features of 
an article that are stronger than any others. These should be 
emphasized in the catalogs, booklets, or folders. 

The owner of a Western dairy farm that sells his products 
— hams, shoulders, lard, sausages, and maple sugar — direct 
to customers, lays stress on the purity and the careful handling 
of his products, and uses everything in the way of description 
or illustration that will help create and strengthen the impres- 
sion of quality (see Fig. 25). This advertising policy is a wise 
one, because retail stores sell products of this kind at prices 
much lower than those of this advertiser. It will be observed 
that the Old-Style Antique type used in Fig. 25 makes an 
attractive page when printed in brown on the tinted paper. If 
this page were printed in black on white paper the efi'cct would 
be rather strong and not so harmonious as thai shown. Com- 
pare Figs. 23 and 25. 


THOSE wlio have read the preceding- state- 
ments as to the varied and increasing 
uses of graphite, its growing scarcity, and 
the expert's report as to the quality and 
quantity of ore in sight on tlie Calumet prop- 
erty can hardly fail to appreciate what an 
investment opportunity is offered. 

This is no mere prospect — no hidden or 
suspected wealth ; the property is partly 
developed and the money is in plain sight. 
Fully $70,000 worth of ore has already been 
mined and stands on the property, ready to 
be run through the mill as soon as it is 

Conservative investors are confident that 
the stock will be worth considerably more 
than par as soon as the first lot of ore has 
been refined. 

Judging from the work already accom- 
plished, the cost of mining, milling, and 
marketing the product will not exceed $35 
a ton for the first year. Thereafter the cost 
will decrease materially. 

The selling prices vary with the grade. 

High-grade crucible flake sells at $130 to 
$200 a ton. Other grades sell at $50 to $150 
a ton. 

At the present low price of this stock it 
constitutes a rare opportunity, which no one 
that has any amount of money to in\'est can 
afford to overlook. 

Order for reservation of stock should be 
sent, together with check or draft for 25 per 
cent, of the purchase price, to Calumet (Graph- 
ite Company, Saint Paul Building. New York. 

308 § 19 Fig. 24 

for seasoning, it is easy to see why the 
result is a most deliciously tender and 
wholesome sausage. 

Hams and Bacon 

The hams and bacon are allowed plenty 
of time for curing, which is merely the 
absorbing of sugar, salt, and spices under 
proper conditions of temperature. These 
are finally finished by smoking with green 
hickory, which gives them the sweet 
flavor peculiar to home-cured meats. 
There is in no stage of the curing any 
forcing or hastening process. No chemicals 
of any kind are used to cheapen the 
products. The simple methods of the farm 
that were first practiced in New England 
a century ago are the only ones used in 
our shop. 


The lard is carefully rendered in open 
kettles. It is cooled as quickly as possible 
and briskly stirred w^hile cooling. This 
simple process produces fine, w^hite lard of 
the best quality. 

3C8 § ly Fig. 25 


44. Disadvantage of Repetition. — Repetition some- 
times emphasizes, but unless there is some strong argument 
that can be repeated with advantage on several pages of a 
circular, the best plan is to treat a point fully in its logical 
place and then leave it. Many circulars are ineffective because 
of a rambling style. 

45. .Value of Conciseness. — In his catalog or booklet, 
the advertiser has opportunity to present his entire canvass as 
convincingly as he knows how. But because he is free to go 
into detail, the mistake is too frequently made of either having 
the circular too long or so uninteresting that no one will read 
it. The writer should study the product, the method of manu- 
facture, and the selling plan very closely; then he can decide 
what are the most interesting features and what can be safely 
left unwritten. 


46. Testimonials constitute the very strongest kind of 
matter for most kinds of advertising literature, because a 
prospective customer is more likely to believe the Statement of 
a user of an article than the claims of the manufacturer. That 
some one has tried an article thoroughly and is well pleased 
with results, carries a great deal of weight; it supports argu- 
ment as nothing else does. Photographs of indorsers, and 
facsimiles of their letterheads and signatures, give authenticity 
to the indorsements. 

47. Value of Strong- Testimonials. — One strong testi- 
monial that rings true is worth a half dozen mediocre ones, 
and it is well sometimes to display an unusually good testi- 
monial in a full page of space, so that the readers of the cir- 
cular cannot fail to see and read it. 

The weakness of most testimonials is due to the fact that 
they are too general. This can be avoided, however, by asking 
users of the advertised goods specific questions about how the 
articles stand wear, what kind of service a machine has given, 
the time it has saved, etc. Such questions will bring out the 
opinions of the user on definite points. 

ciAsk the Tnan rOho ovOns one 

JKobl Alganqum 

I take great pleasure in expressing to you my entire satisfaction with the 
Packard Twin-Six. Everything that you promised with regard to the car 
has been fulfilled. Added to its well known quality as a luxurious vehicle, 
it has exploited the practical and enduring qualities of a truck in the trip 
that I have just finished in it, from Los Angeles to New York. No car made 
could have stood the superlative test of that journey any better than the 

We twice had to dig it out of sand and twice out of adobe mud, and en- 
countered chuck holes, ruts and stones of every description. The Twin-Six 
responded absolutely to every demand. 

In spite of the enforced change of gears because of the holes and ruts 
before mentioned, we averaged ten miles to a gallon of gas, which I deem 
quite wonderful under the circumstances. 

I write this letter without any solicitation on your part, simply because 
the car has absolutely won me. 

Anybody you wish to refer to me as to the mei its of your motor, 1 will 
cheerfully explain in detail all the virtues I know your car to possess. 






















































































































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The exact wording of a testimonial should be followed so 
far as it is possible to do so, though unnecessary statements 
may be omitted, errors and awkward expressions corrected, 
and the sentences arranged so that they will read smoothly. 
It is a good plan, when dealing with indorsers in the ordinary 
walks of life, to get permission to edit their statements. Then 
no complaints are likely to arise from the publication of the 
matter in slightly different form from that in which it was 

48. Testimonials From Various Localities. — It is 

sometimes a good plan to see that the testimonials in a catalog 
are from various parts of the territory that the advertiser 
expects to cover, so that, in correspondence, an inquirer may 
be referred to an indorser that he knows, or at least some one 
in his city or state. Undoubtedly, people are more interested 
in, and influenced by. letters from neighbors and near-by 
people than they would be by letters from distant points. 

49. Proper Place in Catalogs, Etc. for Testi- 
monials. — Where there are many testimonials they are some- 
times printed in a separate book. Fig. 26 is a page from such 
a book published by the Packard Motor Company. A good 
practice is to print some of the best testimonials along with 
the description of the goods, where a reader is almost com- 
pelled to read them. For instance, a page dealing with the 
wearing qualities of an article is a good place for a testimonial 
setting forth the fact that the article did wear well. Also, 
testimonials that are particularly strong in some one feature 
should be inserted in the part of the circular dealing with that 
feature of the advertised goods. A typographical style may 
be adopted that permits a testimonial to be inserted at the 
bottom of each page or at the outside margin of each page, as 
shown in Fig. 27. If the testimonials are good, they should be 
placed near the arguments that they support — not where they 
may be overlooked. 



50. The writer of advertising literature wiU find that it 
pays to prepare his copy completely before sending it to the 
printer ; that is, he should furnish the exact amount of matter 
for the available space as nearly as he can determine it, have 
the headings, illustrations, etc., in the copy where he wishes 
them used, and have everything correct as to capitalization, 
punctuation, compounding, etc. If this is not done, and the 
author wishes to add or cut out some matter or to put in an 
extra illustration after the proof has been received, it may be 
necessary to reset much of the copy or to rearrange all the 
pages. Unless an equivalent amount of. matter can be cut 
out, a few added lines may mean that all the pages will 
have to be rearranged, and this may throw illustrations in 
the wrong pages, make references in the text to certain pages 
erroneous, etc. 

If certain portions are to be set in smaller type or m 
narrower measure than the main text, directions to that effect 
should be written on the copy. The printer should not be 
expected to guess the writer's wishes. His rule is to "follow 
copy," and he will not vary from the regular style of setting 
unless instructed to do so. 

51. It is advisable to do the editing on the original copy 
and to do it before the job is handed to the printer. Of 
course, it is often necessary to make slight changes in word- 
ing after the proof has been received, but as changes are 
expensive and often cause delays, they should be avoided as 
much as possible. 

If the copy, after editing, is full of corrections and inter- 
lineations, it is well to have it rewritten. The printer cannot 
do either rapid or good work if he has to follow puzzling copy. 
Typewrite it wherever possible. 

In Fig. 28 is shown an example of fair copy for a booklet 
page. Although this copy has some corrections on it, they 
are indicated clearly. The number in the right-hand corner 
is the number of this sheet of copy. The writer, as a <^uide 



la there an invalid in *i»«^horae? Let the^Phono- 
graph »ilti 1 a av/ay the.houri f or hor . Perhaps it is 
an old man whose nemories are all in the past. 
Let the Phonograph sing the songs that he loves, 


Are the children hard to amuse? The Phonograph 
never fail/s to keep them out of mischief. 

Do you live in the country; Buy a Bhonog.-aph 

and get at small cost what people in the cities pay one or two 

dollars a night to hear, ^n tVi^n iwnjt. You can, at insignificant 

cost, keep in touch with the world of entertainmentf^ ftnd mani c. 

Are you wondering what you will take with you on your vacation 

or what you will carry along when you go home for the holidays. 

Let i£ be an Edison phonograph and a good assortment of records; 

this outfit never fail/s to please; it will make you a, welcome guest 

everywhere. It is easily carried takes up practically no room. 


Is there a boy in the family in whom you want to create a spirit 
of business enterprise? You could not do better than to buy ^ 
him a Phonograph and let him arrange Phonograph Concerts. In 
this booklet we give suggestions for conducting phonograph enter- 
tainments. It is easy to get people to buy tickets •>■ y 
for an entertainment if you are able to give some- C y 1 
thing to please everybody, and that is always possible ^ 
with a Phonograph. Boys all over the country maVe I / 
money in this way. A brignt youngster can soon earn J , 

the cost of «m outfit. 

Fig. 28 



to the compositor, has indicated by a note that the copy is to 
fill page 3 of the catalog and also shows that two cuts are 
to be used on the page. The number used in referring to a 
cut corresponds to the number on the back of the cut itself; 
this method of marking prevents the wrong cut from being 
used. If proofs are available, it is a still better plan to paste 
proofs of the cuts in the dummy as well as in the copy. 

52. Guide Sheet for Printer. — On complicated jobs, 
some writers prepare a guide sheet . for the printer. The 
purpose of this sheet is to show what is to go on each page 
from the first cover to the fourth. Following is shown how 
such a sheet may be arranged : 

Akuangement of Connor's Catalog 

First cover Two-color cut furnished you 

Second cover Blank 

Page 1 Title page 

Page 2 Copyright notice 

Page 3 Preface 

This arrangement is continued to the end of the book. 
A guide of this sort will enable the printer to page the 
matter properly, when otherwise the complexity of the copy 
mi<i"ht be confusinsj. 

53. Cutting- Down Pages Tliat Overrun. — In cutting 
down proof that shows a page to be too long, the cutting 
should be done, if possible, where the changes can be made 
easily, as shown in Fig. 29. The notation "6 lines of 6-pt. 
long" in this figure was made by the proof-reader when the 
page was measured. Note that in cutting out the superfluous 
lines the writer has selected lines at or near the ends of 
paragraphs, so as to enable the printer to lift the matter out 
without disturbing the remainder of the paragraph. By cut- 
ting out the 8-point words, "The Merchants' Guide, in a late 
issue, says," and setting "Merchants' Guide" in Italic at the 
end of the last line of the 6-point matter, the space of 8 points, 

How to Become a Window Trimmer 

SOME time ago, 500 of tlie leading merchants of tlie l.'nited States were 
asked this question "What plan of ad\ertising would you retain if you 
were forced to chose one method and give up all others?" More than 
95 per cent, of the merchants answered in favor of displaying their goods, in 
preference to all other forms of publicity The store window is today the 
great "silent salesman", often it sells more goods than a force of well-trained 
clerks. It attracts every passcr-hy and draws within the store thousands that 
otherwise would not think of purchasing. 

Window Trimmers in Demand 

Persons unfamiliar with the rapid rise of this new profession scarcely 
realize that there are thousands of stores that employ anywhere from one to 
twelve persons for this highly important work. 

The - Merchants' Guide, in a late isoac. says 

If any of Ihe dei»artment-store proprietors of Philadelphia or New York 
had been told 10 years ago that they would be employing twelve men through- 
out the year to dress thei r store wind ows, they would have been incredulous. 
Nevertheless, this has become a realil^»«d— f^ 

The demand for competent window trimmers is far in excess of the 
supply, consequently salaries are high. The fairly well-equipped window- 
trimmer will average $25 a week, while the men in the front rank of the 
profession — those — who — origina te — &t-F»n^ 
■ p l ay s — receive as much as $75 a week. 

Our method of teaching Window Trimming and Mercantile Decoration 
IS as clear and simple as instruction could be on any subject, in fact, the 
great number of fine illustrations in the Instruction Papers make the subject 
an extremely easy one for us to teach. 

It is not necessary that a student should be employed in a store to carry 
on his practice work successfully. In fact, even if he were so employed, no 
proprietor would allow him in his early work to take down bolts of goods 
and twist and rumple them into puffs, festoons, etc., he must be able to do 
these things skilfully before he will be allowed to use expensive fabrics. 
In Window Trimming and Mercantile Decoration, just as in other lines of 
endeavor, llw student must leant hovi to do his work before altemt>ting to 
secure ctuployiiient at it Hence, this preliminary work is best done by the 
student at his home where he can practice intelligently and without embar- 
rassment. No outfit of any consequence is needed. Tacks, a hammer and 
saw, some pins, scissors, and a few yards of cheese clfth will suffice for 
material with which to practice making plaits, putTs, etc. 

Country Clerk to City Window Trimmer 

Al the time of my enrolment for your Window Trimming Cours e. 1 was 

Employed as a clerk in a small country store. 1 came to the city and by 

howing specimens and photographs of my work I secured a good position as 

.indow trimmer at a large increase in salary My displays are much admired, 

nd I have had offers from several other stores here 

i de f of ijuooess i n a plotc 1 co u ld not I w i v c fcnohcd if 1 hud not la lie n you r 

/ Courae . S. Wilton, Stockton, Cal 

G ui'c/e 

76> w-h^ 

Fig. 29 

How to Become a Window Trimmer 

SOME time ago, 500 of the leading merchants of the United States were 
asked the question "What plan of advertising would you retain if you 
were forced to choose one method and give up all others?" More than 
95 per cent, of the merchants answered in favor of displaying their goods, in 
preference to all other forms of publicity The store window is today the 
great "silent salesman"; often it sells more goods than a force of well-trained 
clerks. It attracts every passer-by and draws within the store thousands that 
otherwise would not think of purchasing. 

Window Trimmers in Demand 

Persons unfamiliar with the rapid rise of this new profession scarcely 
rtealize that there are thousands of stores that employ anywhere from one to 
twelve persons for this highly important work. 

If any of the department-store proprietors of Philadelphia or New York 
had been told 10 years ago that they would be employing twelve men through- 
out the year to dress their store windows, they would have been incredulous. 
Nevertheless, this has become a reality. — Merchant's Cuide. 

The demand for competent window trimmers is far in excess of the 
supply, consequently, salaries are high. The fairly well-equipped window 
trimmer will average $25 a week, while the men in the front rank of the 
profession receive as much as $75 a week. 

Our method of teaching Window Trimming and Mercantile Decoration 
is as clear and simple as instruction could be on any subject, in fact, the 
great number of fine illustrations in the Instruction Papers make the subject 
&n extremely easy one for us to teach. 

It is not necessary that a student should be employed in a store to carry 
on his practice work successfully. In fact, even if he were so employed, no 
proprfetof would allow him in his early work to take down bolts of goods 
and twist and rumple them into puffs, festoons, etc. he must be able to do 
these things skilfully before he will be allowed to use expensive fabrics. 
In Window Trimming and Mercantile Decoration, just as in other lines of 
endeavor, the student must learn how to do his work before attempting to 
secure employment at it. Hence, this preliminary work is best done by the 
Student at his home where he can practice intelligently and without embar- 
rassment. No 'outfit of any consequence is needed. Tacks, a hammer and 
saw, some pins, scissors, and a few yards of cheese cloth will suffice for 
material with which to practice making plaits, puffs, etc. 

Country Clerk to City Wijidow Trimmer 

At the time of my enrolment for your Window Trimming Course, I was 
employed as a clerk in a small country store. I came to the city and by- 
Showing specimens and photographs of my work I secured a good position as 
window trimmer at a large increase in salary. My displays are much admired, 
and I have had offers from several other stores here. S. Wilton, Stocktouj Cal. 

Fig. 30 



or 1?, lines, was taken out. In Fig. 30 is shown a reproduction 
of the page as cut down. It is comparatively easy for the 
printer to take out lines at the ends of paragraphs, but if 
extensive changes are made at other places, it may necessitate 
resetting the entire paragraph or even the entire page, and 
extra charges will be made by printers for changes of this 
kind. Therefore, whenever possible, it is well to avoid making 
changes in the middle of a paragraph. 

54. Proof Dummy to Guide Printer. — In preparing 
catalogs and booklets of more than a few pages, it is customary 
for the author to be furnished with a duplicate copy of the 
proof, with which he makes up a dummy by pasting in the 
pages just as they will come in the finished printed book. This 
is a proof dummy for the guidance of the make-up man and 
should not be confounded with the first dummy made up to 
show the style of the finished book. 

This procedure is not necessary if the circular is a small 
one set in plain text, in which the printer makes up his type 
into pages and submits the first proof in page form with pages 
niunbered, etc. P)Ut if the job has not been laid out carefully and 
the printer does not know what is to go on the various pages, 
the only thing he can do is to submit proofs in galley form 
and let the author make a dummy from the duplicate, showing 
what is to go on the different pages, what is to be left out. if 
anything, and so on. Then the printer can submit the second 
proof in page form. Where there are page illustrations and 
any special arrangement, it is the safer plan, whether proofs 
are in page form or not, to have a duplicate proof and make up 
a dummy. If the first proof is fairly clean and little or no 
matter is added or cut out, the dummy may be made up with 
a duplicate of the first proof, and then the second proof — 
submitted by the printer in page form — will need little or no 
further correction, but may receive the author's O. K. and be 
released. This making up of the dummy with a duplicate of 
the first proof is especially desirable where the printer has 
no page plan to follow and has the type in galleys. The 
dummy enables him to submit the second proof in pages. 


With large jobs, however, even if the copy is laid out as to 
pages, if illustrations are used and there is much changing, 
adding, or cutting down on the first proof, it is better to wait 
until a duplicate of the revised proof can be had before making 
up the dummy. After making up the dummy, new matter 
should not be added to full pages of the proof unless a corre^ 
sponding amount is cut out somewhere. 

55. The object of the proof dummy is, of course, to show 
the printer the exact arrangement of the matter from the first 
to the last page. If the printer goes wrong with a properly 
pasted proof dummy before him as a guide, it will be due only 
to inexcusable carelessness, while without a dummy .it is an 
easy matter for the pages of a large circular to become dis- 

Some old circular of the proper size and number of pages 
may be used for a dummy (a larger circular trimmed down will 
answer the purpose), but the writer should be careful to cover 
up all the old matter with the duplicate proof he is using. If 
some heads or foot-notes of the old pages are left uncovered, 
the printer may take them for new copy and set them up. In 
making .up the proof dummy, if the matter to be used on any 
particular page is too long and some lines are cut out to make 
it fit the space, paste the whole proof of the matter on the 
page, turning up the proof at the bottom to indicate the number 
of lines cut out. These may be cut out anywhere convenient 
on the page, but such changes should be marked on the official 
proof, not on the dummy. 

If a page in a catalog is to be left blank, paste a blank piece 
of paper in the proof dummy and write on it "This page to be 
left blank," or simply "blank." When it is borne in mind that 
a little oversight may spoil a fine catalog or booklet, the writer 
cannot be too careful in making directions so plain that the 
printer cannoi misunderstand. A large printing house will 
have many jobs on hand at one time, and it is never wise to 
trust anything to memory or to give oral directions. Write 
all directions, and write plainly. If, on the original proof, a 
paragraph of matter or an illustration was ordered trans- 

JC6C— 16 


ferred from one page to another, paste the dupHcate proof of 
such transferred matter on the page of the dummy that it 
should occupy finally. Sometimes, cover pages are set up and 
approved before inside pages are. In such cases, the cover of 
the proof dummy should be marked, "Proof for this page 
already O. K'd." 

Never cut up an official or an original proof to make a 
dummy. This is an important rule to observe. Cutting up 
an original galley proof makes it harder for the printer to find 
the matter and make corrections. Always call for a duplicate 
proof for making up a dummy. The superfluous margins on 
the duplicate proof may be trimmed ofif. 

56. Corrections on Official Proofs. — No corrections 
should ever be noted on the duplicate proof that is used to 
make up the dummy. All changes, additions, etc. should go 
on the original, or official, proof. The proof dummy is used 
merely to show the position of the matter — order of pages, 
not corrections or additions. It would be very confusing to 
the printers if some corrections were made on the official proof 
and others made on the dummy. 

It is often the case with circulars, as with advertisements, 
that a few words added to a short final line of a paragraph 
improve the appearance. Sometimes the proof shows that a 
head should be shortened or lengthened. Such changes add 
a little extra expense. 

Ordinarily, it should not be necessary to sec a third proof 
on a catalog or booklet job. In fact, the first proof should be 
handled so well that the revised, or second, proof will be read 
merely to be sure that all corrections and changes have been 


57. Where it is impossible for the writer in making up his 
copy to determine on what pages certain items will go, an index 
may be made up after the proof is received and the matter 
paged. It is better, and saves time, however, to make up the 
index as a part of the original copy, if such a thing is possible. 


Likewise, it is better to put page numbers in the original copy 
where references are made in the text to other pages ; but when 
it is not possible to do this, the copy may read "Page " a 

blank space being left for the page number, which may be 
inserted the first time that the proof shows on which page the 
item is to appear. 




1. The method of advertising by which various forms of 
printed matter or samples are distributed, by mail or other- 
wise, direct from the advertiser to the prospect is called direct 

There are at least fifteen different methods or means of 
direct advertising; namely, letters, blotters, circulars, catalogs, 
booklets, folders, mailing cards, broadsides, sales letterheads, 
envelope enclosures, novelties, portfolios, poster stamps, house 
organs, and sampling. 

Though this form of advertising has been used with good 
effect, its importance is not so generally recognized as is that 
of some other forms of business getting. It is, however, 
estimated that in the United States over one hundred million 
dollars is invested yearly in this form of advertising and a 
large part of this amount is spent for printed matter. 

2. Advantages of Direct Advertising. — Direct adver- 
tising may be said to have the following eight advantages : ( 1 ) 
The personal appeal, the appeal being made direct to the pos- 
sible prospect; (2) it can be used to supplement all other forms 
of advertising, and, by reason of the personal appeal, with tell- 
ing effect; (3) to a large degree, waste circulation may be 
eliminated by the use of picked lists ; (4) quick action may be 




taken on any direct campaign because it is possible to sub- 
divide the mailings or distribution, to get the offers to the 
prospects at a set time; (5) keyed results can be secured, 
because there is complete control of the distribution ; (6) the 
campaign succeeds or fails promptly, because direct advertis- 
ing tells the tale quickly ; the complete order blank, etc., may 
be sent along and the prospect must decide very soon; (7) the 
campaign will be secret to a large extent and competitors can- 
not easily find out what the sales plan is ; (8) as a rule, the 
expense of a direct campaign is less than by other means. 

The tendency of the times is toward cutting out lost motion, 
reducing the number of operations, etc., and the importance of 
direct advertising as one means of doing this is being recog- 
nized. Several organizations doing millions of dollars of busi- 
ness each year have been built up almost entirely by direct 
advertising through the mails, although in some cases new 
names have been secured through magazine campaigns. One 
mail-order house conducted an extensive magazine advertising 
campaign to sell an encyclopedia, but that campaign was backed 
up with direct advertising. 

3. Not All Direct AdvertLsins' is Done by Mail. 

Though much direct advertising is done by mail, there is, per- 
haps, as much done by other means. For example, the Inter- 
national Correspondence Schools, of Scranton, Pa., conduct an 
effective direct advertising campaign by distributing pieces of 
advertising literature in factories and offices, and by means of 

Nearly all of the prominently advertised packaged articles 
contain in each package one or more circulars advertising 
some other brand of the line or a kindred line put out by the 
same manufacturer, and hundreds of thousands of catalogs, 
booklets, etc. are delivered personally every year by salesmen 
and dealers calling on prospective customers. 

Many a piece of direct advertising that is classed under the 
term "envelope enclosure" never is enclosed in an envelope, 
but is used as a bundle enclosure, or handed out over the retail- 
er's counter. This is true also oi blotters, folders, etc. 


4. Place of Direct Advertising- in a General Cam- 
paign. — It is seldom that a complete campaign is made up of 
direct advertising. Usually this form is supplemental to other 
forms. An agency that has specialized in direct advertising 
for forty years recently made this statement : "We never try 
to tell people that they should use the direct advertising method 
to the exclusion of every other form of advertising, but always 
urge them to dovetail direct advertising in with other forms. 
We know that in many cases firms have received better results 
from the use of our mailing folders than from the trade papers, 
but we have felt that the very fact that they had an announce- 
ment in the trade papers helped because that advertisement 
made it seem that the direct-advertising literature did not come 
from an altogether strange concern." 

There are many ways in which direct advertising can be 
dovetailed into different campaigns, and how this may be done 
will be explained further on. 

5. Various Channels for Direct Advertising- 
Appeal. — The same advertising appeal may be made by 
means of a piece of direct advertising in any one of the fifteen 
dififerent channels mentioned in Art. 1. 

For instance, the problem^ may be to increase the sale of jugs. 
The advertiser may secure a list of firms using jugs in quanti- 
ties, and send to them either form letters, or personal letters 
offering the jugs. If the form letter is chosen, after having 
decided whether or not the prospect's name should be filled in, 
the next problem would be to decide whether the letter should 
go under 1-cent or 3-cent postage, and what sort of signature 
it should have. A pen-and-ink signature may be used or a 
mechanical signature, or none other than the printed signa- 
ture, as was explained in the section on Advertising Letters. 

Then could be used any or all of the other fourteen methods 
of selling jugs if it seemed advisable and funds permitted. 
This would be conducting the entire campaign by direct adver- 
tising, which, however, is not the usual method. 




0. The construction of business-getting letters and the 
investigations that must be made before such letters can be 
written have been treated in the Section on Advertising Let- 
ters, and mention was there made of the facsimile, form, or 
printed, letter. Because the form letter is such an important 
means of direct advertising, a further treatment of its use and 
a fuller consideration of what arc called follow-up systems 
will be given. 

7. Use of Form Letters Alone. — JMany sales arc made 
directly by the use of form letters alone ; Fig. 1 is an example 
of such a letter. Some retailers send out to their customers 
form letters calling attention to special offerings. Paper 
makers and printers, advertisers of specialties, and solicitors, 
such as those selling advertising space, insurance, or service of 
some other kind, rely on the form letter to a great extent. 

8. Form Letters as Supplementary Advertising. 

The greatest use of the form letter is probably in connection 
with other advertising matter, such, for instance, as catalogs, 
booklets, etc. Usually a form letter is sent out with a catalog 
or booklet, especially when such are sent in response to inquir- 
ies resulting from advertisements, and often a series of letters 
is used in following up. No matter how attractively a catalog 
or a booklet is prepared, or how thoroughly it covers all the 
selling points of the article advertised, its canvassing power is 
strengthened by sending a good form letter along with it. The 
letter has a power that no catalog possesses, and it may be used 
not only to give a directness to the canvass, but also to 
emphasize particular features of the advertised articles or of 
thfe selling plan. 

The cost of getting replies to advertisements is too great for 
inquiries to be handled carelessly. It sometiiues happens that 
where the cost of securing orders by other methods is prohibi- 


The Bus'ness Sense Company 


Wouldn't you spend 6 cents a day to increase your busineaa or 
vour salary? 

Even on the slightest conceivable chance that you could get only 
one idea of real business-building or salary-raising value, wouldn't 
you spend a mere nickel--the cost of one ordinary, cheap cigar--to 
secure it? 

Think, then, of securing not only one idea but 1,200 pages of 
them! Not ideas that MAY help to increase your income, but ideas that 
already have built up the greatest businesses in America; ideas that 
have transformed tiny stores into giant corporations; ideas that have 
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tising ideas; management ideas; ideas for the factory, office, or 
store. And given you in worked-out, detailed form, mind you, entire 
systems and methods of getting and holding business, analyzed, 
explained, and made ready for immediate use in your own business. 

In all the world of business, not even an attempt has ever 
before been made to give such aid to business men as is embodied in 
the "Business Sense Library." In its 1,200 pages is practically con- 
densed the life-time experience of nearly a hundred successful men. 
Their brains, their ideas, their very working methods are given you 
in Buch simple, attractive, even fascinating form that to read them 
is like the perusal of an absorbing story; and to study them is not 
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And 6 cents a day will bring these six handsome volumes to your 
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employe, who will let such a sum deprive him of such aid--experience 
that other business men have spent thousands and worked for years 
to obtain. 

Yet even this is not all. This same Identical, trivial 6 cents 
a day also brings you BUSINESS SENSE, the famous business magazine! 
BUSINESS SENSE, the source of inspiration and help to 300 000 busi- 
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the lid with the kind of ideas that make both businesses and men. 
Practical, tangible, money-making ideas for you. 

Merely pin a $2 bill to the coupon in the circular attached. 
Tear out. slip in an envelope, and mail to us at our risk. The bal- 
ance can be paid in monthly instalments, so small you will not notice 
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single chapter alone will repay a hundredfold when applied to your 
business. But the time to begin to increase profits or win promotion 
is always at once. Sign and mail the coupon today. 
Yours very truly 

Fig. 1 


tivc, the use oi letters in addition to those methods will increase 
the sales sufficiently to bring the cost within the limit fixed by 

Chicaero Cleveland Philadelphia San Francisco London 

Engineering Record 

239 West aO'."? Street 

New York 

August 23, 

Art Metal Construction Co.f 
Jones & Gifford Avs,, 
JaneBtovm, 1!» Y» 

Dear Sir 

"How the Parsons Company gets orders by wire" — 
The enclosed circular tells. 

They have no patent on the method. You can us© 
it tco. 

If you want to know exactly how to fit their 
method to your needs, just to tell us to analyze 
your sales problems in the light of our knowledge 
of the civil engineering and contracting field. 
We'll do it without charge, without an even im- 
plied promise from you to accept our suggestions. 
May we serve you in this way! 
Very trulj 


Fic. 2 

the advertiser. Too often, however, advertisers spend thou- 
sands of dollars to get inquiries about their goods, and then 
allow ineffective form letters to be sent out, thus throwing 


away or greatly lessening the chance for sales. The importance 
of the personally dictated answer to incjiiiries has been treated 
in the section on Advertising Letters. 

9. Cost of Form Letters. — Where printed letterheads 
are, furnished by the customer, a 1-page letter of about the 
character of that shown in Fig. 2 will cost from $3 to $4 for 
a single thousand. For larger orders, the cost per thousand 
will be materially reduced ; that is, for 2,000 lots the rate 
would probably be from $2.00 to $2.25 a thousand, and for 
10,000 lots the rate would likely be in the neighborhood of 
$1.45 a thousand. These prices do not include the cost of let- 
terheads. If the printer is to furnish the letterheads, that cost 
will be extra. As in other classes of printing, prices are by no 
means uniform among printers; therefore, the foregoing 
estimates should be considered merely as a general guide in 
determining the cost of producing form letters. 

In furnishing the printer with letterheads for form-letter 
jobs, it is always advisable to send some extra copies, say about 
15 or 20 on an order for 1,000, and 50 or 75 on an order for 
5,000. In getting the job ready for printing and in the press- 
work, a number of letterheads are always spoiled, and it is 
necessary for the printer to have some extra copies if he is to 
furnish the full count of perfect letters on the finished job. 

10. Number of Letters in a Follow-Up System. 

The number of follow-up letters that it is profitable to send 
depends nuich on the article advertised, the margin of profit, 
and the class of people to whom the letters are sent. Where 
the article is something that most persons deliberate over for 
a long time, such as purchasing a piano, or selecting a school 
for a daughter's education, a longer series of letters would 
be advisable than in other cases — perhaps as many as six or 
eight, or even more, would be advisable. AMiere the adver- 
tiser hopes to make a permanent customer of the in([uirer, it 
is obvious that he can afi'ord to spend more time and money 
on a follow-ui) system than would be advisable where only 
one sale of a low-priced article could be made. Ordinary fol- 
low-up systems stop with three or four letters. If an inquiry is 


referred to a local agent, as in the letter shown in Fig. 3, usually 
only one letter is sent. The local dealer is then expected to 
look up the inquirer and to try to get the order. However, 
as local dealers and agents cannot always be depended on to 
do this, some advertisers write a second letter for the express 
purj.ose of learning whether the inquirer has had his need 
supplied. If the local dealer does not supply the demand, 
some advertisers offer to sell direct. 

One mail-order house in the United States uses just one 
form letter, which is sent at the time that the large catalog of 






Mr. S. R. Hall: 


April 21. 

We are pleased to have your request to send the American 
Phonograph Booklet and the New Catalog of Electric Records, 
which will reach you with this letter or very soon after. 

Readers say the booklet is mighty interesting with its new 
ideas about phonograph music. We believe you'll find it so. 

The American Phonograph is a new-idea phonograph because 
its scientifically modeled tone box is made of silver-grained 
spruce (the wood used for fine violins), and its correctly 
designed reproducer which, used on new-process Electric 
Records, gives phonograph music without a trace of 

The phonograph as it is in the American has proved a 
delightful home entertainer. And with all its superiority the 
American can be hid at a surprisingly low cost. 

To save delay and transportation charges, we have referred 
your inquiry to your nearest dealers. Smith & Brown, 417 Wyoming 
Avenue, Scranton, Pa., who will write to you or call on you 
soon, or they will show you every courtesy if you find it con- 
venient to call. Yours respectfully, 

l"iG. 3 

the house is mailed. The catalog is complete in all details, the 
prices are very low, and the lowest price is quoted in the first 
and only letter. If, at the same time, the inquirer receives 
catalogs and letters from competitive concerns that quote 
prices a little high with the expectation of offering lower ones 
in follow-up letters, the house quoting the low price at the out- 
set has the best chance to get the order. Under such circum- 
stances, this large mail-order lir^use believes that if the first 
solicitation does not make the sale, follow-up letters would be 

§20 i)iRi:rr ADViarnsiNCi 9 

11. Planning a Follow-Up System.— Not every 
advertiser can judiciously follow tlYc example of the large 
mail-order house just mentioned, because the merchandise 
handled by that house is chiefly staple goods, the price and the 
quality of which are the main selling points, and no prolonged 
argument is needed to convince inquirers of the utility of such 
articles or of the low price. Therefore, in planning a sales 
letter for any line of business, it is advisable to consider care- 
fully what is to be the nature of the follow-up methods and 
whether or not it is advisable to make the most favorable offer 
in the first letter. 

Various follow-up methods have been described in the Sec- 
tion on Advertising Letters, and the advisability of varying the 
appeal in successive letters has been explained. The actual 
cutting of price below that quoted in the first letter is a pro- 
ceeding that has possibilities of trouble. 

The difficulty in cutting prices, even if competitors need not 
be considered, is that, after one lower quotation, some inquir- 
ers may wait to see if a still lower one is to be made. If the 
price is cut several times, the inquirer may lose confidence in 
the advertiser, or during the long delay in waiting to see how 
low the price will be cut, the inquirer may lose interest and 
conclude that he does not need the article anyhow. While all 
inquirers may not be affected in this way, there are usually 
enough of them that are affected to make the policy of price 
cutting in follow-up work always one of doubtful value. How- 
ever, there are ways to get around a difficulty of this kind. If 
practicable, a smaller quantity of the goods may be offered at 
a special price when the first canvass of the inquirer fails to 
bring a regular order. In such a case, the advertiser's argu- 
ment could be that he is offering the smaller quantity as a trial 
order, believing that when the customer has used it he will 
order more. This is logical and will allay any suspicion that 
the inquirer may have of the cut in price. 

There is one advertiser who starts out with an offer of a 
$10 supply of goods. About 15 days later, when he thinks 
there is no chance of securing a $10 order from the prospec- 
tive, he makes an offer of a smaller supply at $5, and 15 days 


later, if no order is received, he makes a special offer of a still 
smaller supply for $2.5Cl If this advertiser were to make all 
three offers at the outset, many inquirers would likely take the 
$2.50 offer, whereas if they knew of only the $10 offer, the 
advertiser would be able to sell them a $10 supply of the goods. 
There is an enormous amount of waste in some follow-up 
systems. For instance, many advertisers get up a series of 
five or six letters and send them out at intervals in the belief 
that bringing the matter to the attention of the inquirer every 
week or so is sure to land an order eventually. While persis- 
tence is a valuable factor in advertising campaigns, the method 
as carried out is often faulty. Results have shown that a great 
many follow-up systems are not profitable after three or. four 
letters have been sent. The interest of an inquirer in nine 
cases out of ten will wane, and, as a general rule, the letter 
that reaches him two months after his inquiry has not more 
than one-fourth the chance of landing an order that the first 
letter had. The writer should determine by tests whether his 
system is profitable or not. 

12. of Follow-Up Systems. — In order to 
market an article successfully, it is always important to figure 
the inquiry and follow-up expenses closely so that they may be 
kept within bounds. Suppose, for example, that an article 
costing $11 is to bp sold by the mail-order plan at $25, thus 
leaving a gross profit of $14. If inquiries cost 75 cents each, 
and experience shows that on an average only one sale can be 
made for every four inquiries, there will be an inquiry expense 
of $3 for each sale ; also, if the cost of printed matter, postage, 
clerical help, etc. rc«iuired in the follow-up system is 90 cents 
for each in([uiry, there will be a follow-up expense of $3.60 to 
be charged against each sale. These two expenses will make a 
total expense of $6.60 to be dedueted from the gross profit, 
leaving the net profit only $7.40. This expense would not be 
too great for an advertiser doing a large business, but if 
imiuirics were of such poor ([uality that a sale could be made 
to only one out of each ten inquiries, it is plain that the adver- 
tiser could not alTord the inquiry expense of $7.50 and the fol- 


low-up expense of $9 on each sale. In this case, the expense 
of either the inquiries or the follow-up would have to be 

If, however, the inquiries cost $1.50 each, and a follow-up 
system can be devised that is effective enough to make sales 
to half of the inquirers, this advertiser could afford to spend 
several dollars on his follow-up matter. As already suggested, 
the expense of the first sale may be equal to the entire profit or 
even exceed it if experience shows that subsequent sales can 
be made at little expense to a large proportion of the pur- 

13. The expense of following up inquiries, as well as the 
success, depends largely on the quality of the inquiries. If 
they are from persons that have been deceived by the advertise- 
ment into believing that they will get something for nothing, 
there will be few sales in proportion to the number of inquiries^ 
and the expense will be large. Even when the advertisement 
is properly prepared, the inquiries may be of poor quality 
because of the use of the wrong medium. For instance, an 
advertisement of expensive motor boats inserted in a jlivenile 
paper might bring many requests for the handsome catalog 
offered, but the best follow-up letters would fail to bring proper 

14. Leng:th of Time Between Letters. — No letters of 
any follow-up system should be sent so frequently or in such 
numbers that they will annoy those who receive them. On 
the other hand, letters should not be sent so far apart that the 
prospect will forget about the subject. The actual length of 
time depends on the article, the method of selling, the distance, 
and other conditions. Most advertisers send letters from 
10 days to 2 weeks apart. 


15. Advertising- blotters are so generally distributed 
that blotters are bought by very few people — not even by 
large business concerns. Blotters, then, offer one of the best 

Fig. 4 


forms of direct advertising for those who can relevantly use 
them, and nearly all lines can be given general publicity 
through the use of blotters. 

If the advertising appropriation is small the advertiser will 
probably find blotters worth consideration. When made 
attractive by striking displays, colors, unique typography, and 
attention-getting illustrations, blotters can be made to give sev- 
eral days' circulation. In many homes blotters are kept for a 
long period of time, though naturally they are not used so 

The blotter can be made not only to give reminder value but 
to produce actual sales if copy is prepared accordingly. 
Poorly printed, poorly illustrated blotters filled with spineless 
copy will not pay their cost. 

Fig. 4 shows several blotter samples. One series of three is 
shown, headed "The Paper Situation," "It Sometimes Hap- 
pens," and "Assuming Responsibility." These were published 
by a firm of printers and engravers and sent out in a neatly 
wrapped bundle with another advertisement on the wrapper. 
It is not likely that blotters of this type are read to any extent, 
at least not when filled with copy and printed in gray on a 
lighter gray as these were originally. The striking blotter 
advertising pen points was run in two colors. The single- 
color blotter "Count Off on Your Fingers" has produced 
actual sales. The one advertising vault trucks was in two' 
colors and was distributed to banks and large business offices 
especially. The one headed "Suppose These Had Been Your 
Papers" (also originally in two colors) is of the general 
publicity type, featuring a steel safe that had successfully gone 
through a lire. 

If blotters are to be distributed as envelope enclosures, it 
will be well to have them of smaller size, so as to slip con- 
veniently into a No. 6f envelope. 

Products that are used by school children can be well adver- 
tised by blotters and almost any product can get valuable gen- 
eral publicity distribution through school children, where such 
distribution is permitted. 

Many salesmen distribute blotters to advantage. 

I L T 102C— 17 


The Post Office Department lias ruled that blotters are third- 
class matter and therefore may he enclosed with catalogs, cir- 
culars, and booklets. 

16. Circulars, as classed here, are those various sized 
sheets of advertising literature, not mailable under their own 
cover, and not made of cardboard. These include dodgers, 
package inserts, bulletins, and pieces of printed matter that are 
not properly classified under any of the other forms. 

The uses of circulars vary. They are not intended primarily 
as envelope enclosures though they are often mailed in envel- 
opes. Some circulars, for instance, may be intended for scat- 
tering broadcast to workmen as they leave the factory. They 
may announce a new motion-picture play at the local playhouse, 
a new grocery store, or solicit votes for a certain candidate. 

Circulars are also used to insert in packages of goods to help 
extend the line. For instance, in a package of crackers will 
be foimd a circular advertising a brand of cakes ; in a package 
of cakes, a circular advertising still another kind of cakes, or a 
chewing gum, or other article manufactured by the same firm. 

Fig. 5 shows a circular, printed on both sides, sent out by a 
publisher of business books. Circulars are used by manufac- 
turers to keep the dealer informed of advertising plans and 
other items of mutual benefit to dealer and maker. Some cir- 
culars even are aimed to produce orders entirely from the 
solicitation of the circular. 


17. The most important factor in direct advertising is the 
catalog. Originally the term catalog as used in business meant 
little more than a price list with illustrations of goods. Today 
many catalogs do not have any prices at all, prices being pub- 
lished in a separate price list. 

Along with the development of direct advertising has come 
the development of catalogs, and from the brief dry-as-dust 
descriptions and prices of the old catalog there has develcjped 


TniM Comp«oy AdverTula« 

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NESS." docrit 

S«le Dtfoll AJverUii,., 




THE purpose of this book is -to provide a handy 
compendium of ideas and phrases suitable for 
use in the preparation of financial advertising 
matter — whether newspaper or magazine advertise- 
ments, booklets, circulars or *'form'* letters. It is 
meant to be a companion book to the author's 
'* Pushing Your Business/' which is more of a text- 
book on this subject. 

The points brought out in the various chapters 
are largely such as have been used by the author 
in his long experience as a writer of financial ad- 

Opinions On This Book 

A bandy compendium of ideas and phrases. The "points'* 
are clear cut, with a tendency to go straight to the mark. — 
Chicago News. 

The two thousand points are sharp ones. — Moody's 
Magazine, New York. 

There is no question at all that Mr. MacGrogor is the 
leading authority in the country on the subject of Hnancial 
advertising. — 'ilie San Francisco Call. 


This is a handy volume for use in the preparation of 
financial advertising "matter, giving pithy observations upon 
the value of thrift, and upon such topics aa n\ay appropriately 
receive publicity in the advertisements of investment houses, 
commercia) banks and trust companies. — Springjield {Mass.) 


Mr. MacQregor has had long and successful experience 
in this particular field and knows just what kind of matter is 
effective in gottint< pe<^ple interested in financial euterpriseB 
or iavestmenta. — The Editor and Fablisher, New VorK. 

Fio. 5 


the real service catalog that is a highly successful piece of sell- 
ing literature. 

The catalog is now used, as a rule, to create a desire for the 
goods illustrated and described therein ; in many instances it is 
illustrated in colors, and is really an advertising booklet with 
the various styles of the line catalogued therein. 

A catalog differs from a booklet in that it lists or describes a 
number of styles or varieties of goods ; for example, a line of 
groceries would require a catalog; a special brand of coffee 
might be described in a booklet. 

Some firms publish catalogs in loose-leaf form, though this 
practice has not become general by any means. The problem 
of the loose-leaf catalog is to keep it up to date, as many of 
those who have it will not file the new sheets as they are 

Catalogs of advertising matter are often published by large 
firms doing business through dealers, though these are usually 
termed portfolios. The use of portfolios will be described later 
in this Section. 

In general, the purpose of the catalog is to bear the brunt of 
the selling effort. It gives the complete list of articles to be 
sold, what«they will do, and, with the price list, what they cost. 

Fig. 6 shows four catalogs on four widely different lines of 
goods and a short description of them will give an idea of how 
the catalog is used. 

The glazed-ware catalog is that of a firm making many kinds 
of jugs, bottles, mugs, jars, pitchers, bowls, teapots, etc. of 
glazed material. Sizes and prices of the styles are shown in 
connection with the illustrations. 

In the drawing-table catalog, which has an appropriate blue 
cover, little space is taken up with anything other than direct 
descriptions. The catalog of spices, on the other hand, has a 
complete story of each different spice listed. No prices are 
given, as the goods are sold by wagon men direct to the con- 

The motor-car catalog illustrates styles, with prices, and a 
part of the catalog is given over to technical descriptions and 



18. Any campaign for a line composed of more than one 
style or model will be likely to need a catalog. If there is no 
such catalog and an attempt is made to have a special booklet on 
each model, many inquiries will probably be received for "your 
catalog," and it will be difficult to know what to send. To send 

Fig. 6 

the complete set of booklets would be quite expensive, as a rule, 
for the points of all the line will be the same in many cases, and 
repetition would result. 

Some firms issue a series of pamphlets or separate sheets of 
uniform style, sometimes called bulletins, in each of which one 


or more varieties or styles of goods or apparatus arc described. 
Then, in response to inquiries, the set or any part of it may be 
sent in place of a catalog. 

19, Number of Catalogs. — Large mail-order houses 
find it necessajry to issue special department catalogs, as furni- 
ture catalogs, grocery catalogs, etc., as well as very large gen- 
eral catalogs. The International Correspondence Schools, with 
over two hundred courses of instruction to describe, find it a 
wise policy to use a general catalog that merely outlines each 
course, for inquirers who do not specify the course desired, 
and a special-subject catalog for each course to send to those 
who indicate the study wanted. Recipients of the general 
catalog often write again, specifying the subject that interests 
them, thus giving an opportunity for the more concentrated 
sales message of the special catalog. 


20. Booklets are next in importance to catalogs in direct 
advertising campaigns. They are almost universally used for 
sending in response to inquiries received from advertising in 
publications. With the booklet stories may be woven around 
the product, the plant, the advertiser's problems, the prospect's 
problems, plrm, or product. In fact, there are more ways of 
using booklets than any other form of advertising, for anything 
from a tiny four-page sheet with a cover to a book bound in 
boards or even leather, is known as a booklet. 

21. The following brief descriptions of booklets that have 
been used by advertisers will make plain the variety of uses 
to which the booklet may be put. 

One booklet describes a portable projector used by dealers in 
demonstrating certain classes of goods for sale. It tells of the 
mission of the projector, its simplicity, efficiency, and portabil- 
ity ; explains how it is more convenient to carry than a travel- 
ing bag ; tells what films may be used in it ; quotes some indorse- 
ments; describes its versatility and wide scope. The technical 




details are then recited, and if one is interested in sales-making 
by this plan he is interested in this brand of projector. 

Another little booklet carries the rather long title "My Dad 
Wears 'Hipress' With the Red Line 'Round the Top." Two 
youngsters are pictured looking at a pair of dad's rubber boots. 
Many styles are illustrated on the inside, and the booklet is 
almost a catalog in effect. 

A small booklet bears the title "A Few Facts." Thirty 
facts in all are given. The illustrations are war pictures, such 

Fig. 7 

as "A Motor Machine-Gun Section," "The Track of the Tank," 
etc., and each fact pertains directly to the life insurance com- 
pany that issued it. 

"What Happened on Section 11" is the curiosity-exciting 
title of another booklet with a railroad bridge for the cover 
decoration. It tells the story of a paint test on Section 11 of 
the Pennsylvania Railroad. The last page gives a short sales 
talk for the brand of red lead that was so tested and proved 
satis factorv. 


"A Twenty Million Dollar Opportunity" tells the story of a 
metal-ware sign company. 

"One Way to Burn a Hole in the World" recites the success- 
ful efforts of an advertising agency — rather an unusual agency 
advertisement, by the way — and in the booklet several pieces 
of copy that had been prepared in a certain campaign are 

"The Telegraph in Selling" is the means of making more 
users of the telegraph for the purpose of order-soliciting. 

"Illustrating Fine Merchandise," Fig. 7, is a booklet to adver- 
tise a certain brand of paper, while the same illustration also 
shows "My Home — why not yours?" a board-bound booklet 
advertising varnish. In the varnish book the first 19 pages are 
almost exclusively on decorating the home interior, only slight 
references being made to the manufacturer's product. 

A 96-page booklet, "My trip through the Larkin Factories," 
is written by a woman of wide reputation, Marion Harland, 
and serves as an indirect advertisement for the entire Larkin 

Booklets are educational in their nature, or should be. Even 
an old customer might read the Larkin booklet with benefit to 
herself and the company because she would learn the wide 
range of products sold which she could use to advantage. 

Many manufacturers furnish booklets for distribution with 
or without the imprint of their local representatives. 

Special products, new lines, and new services may well be 
treated in booklets. 


22. Folders are, as a rule, used to alternate with letters, 
booklets, broadsides, mailing cards, etc., in a direct-advertising 

The term folder, as here used, means any form of direct 
advertising that folds and yet is not correctly classified as cir- 
cular, or envelope enclosure, or broadside. The folder at its 
best is a piece of direct advertising that by reason of its fold 
leads the reader on. A virtue has been made of the fold, in 
other words, and the mere folding is not used to get the piece 

NOW! — 

Becauj'e — Water Heater (oii- 
neileJ to the kitchen 
tarik),^supply.nv;a h,.t 
".Iter senile keeps ever\ 
memher .,f the famMy salkfieJ 
Just a toiioh ..I a ..latcli l" the 
huriier then, in a few innu.les. 
Father ean shave. S,,„,u eai. 
Iiave a hot hath. Cook e.,n ilr.iw 
hot «at,r from the kilil>en 
fuiect. rhe L.iundre.s can haie 
plent\ of hot Mater at the tlihs. 

G.ti heateJ water, with all the 
speed, ease of operation and 
cleanliness, costs less than coal 
heated water, 

.Ainone who n,es a u^as range 
shouU have the aifdeii comfort 
of a gas water heater, anj the 
cost IS uithin evcrv one's re.ich. 


Fig. a 



to a certain size. Snch folders are mailed at third-class post- 
age. The folders offer great possibilities for stunts and the 

"stiinty" folder is al- 
most sure to attract 
attention — whether or 
not it will sell goods. 
One of the princi- 
pal uses for the folder 
is to illustrate me- 
chanical features of 
a product. For 
instance, one folder 
shows the complete 
operation of a patent 
c g g - c a r r i e r . The 
reader keeps on un- 
folding until in the 
end he has twelve 
eggs on the table, 
whereas he started 
with a package of 
eggs in a market bas- 

As a rule, the fold- 
er is mailed under its 
own cover. 

Fig. 8 illustrates a 
folder unfolded, ad- 
vertising a hot-water 
heater and showing 
the progressing idea 
by a series of pic- 

In using folders it 
is usually the custom to have a return postal card either as a 
])art of the folder itself, or a separate postal card attached to 
the folder with a small paster or clip. When attached to the 
folder, perforations make tearing otT easy. 

The 20c Cosmopolitan 

The February Cosmopolitan v.ill impress more than 
a million purchasers with the conviction that it sur- 
passes anything heretofore attempted in magazine 

The difference in price will only serve to cmphasi 
its outstanding preeminence 

The million circulation mark is bound soon to be 
led fai behind. 

More people than ever bclorc will buy Cosmopolitan 
at 20c. 

More advertisers will use it loo — because it repre- 
sents the only large unit ot circulation in the qualitv 

And also, because it is iht only rinss circulation that 
can be purchased at the standard rate ol 50c a line 
per hundred thousand 

Old iilfrDlifrt, 1 
lilt Fthiuif) Ol I 
ev'ioj Iht $4.S(» I 
tl'lO p*gr tllf I 
ing lilt AuguH n 

in the Annual Spring Sp« 
Number of TH^ BILLBOARD 
will .olve the problem. 

Fig. 9 



2o. As considered in this text, mailing cards are different 
from folders in that they do not fold. The term is used to 
designate any size of cardboard, not folded, that may be mailed 
under its own cover as a single piece. 

Mailing cards are the bulletin-board style of direct adver- 
tising. As a rule, they are used to make announcements, to 
introduce new salesmen or new dealers, new styles, etc. 

Fig, 9 illustrates two mailing cards. One is printed on a 
regular government postal card and announces the closing date 
of a magazine, the other is on very heavy cardboard reprint- 
ing a magazine advertisement that originally appeared in 
Printer's Ink. 

Mailing cards are generally used where something less 
expensive than a folder is desired. They should not be con- 
fused with postal cards. A mailing card is subject to third- 
class postage rates, while a postal card is first-class and subject 
to the restrictions of that class. 

Securing actual sales from the use of a mailing card is rather 
difficult, and any mailing card must be strongly illustrated, 
w-ell displayed, and carry good copy, to product results, but as 
a part of a reminder campaign its usefulness is not questioned. 


24. The usual purpose of the broadside is to make an 
impression of bigness. Frequently, therefore, the manufac- 
turer uses it to impress the dealer with his advertising campaign. 

Broadsides require a big sheet of paper and therefore are 
expensive for a large list. 

Fig. 10 shows a broadside that, when opened, measured 
36 inches wide by 24 inches high, and folded down to 
6JX9 inches for mailing. It was issued by a lighting com- 
pany to sell their dealers on the manufacturer's advertising 
campaign. It was designed, too, for window-display purposes, 
for the back fold bears this message : "Open this up and hang 
it in your window where every one can see it." 


sale:s i.ktterheads 

25. Sales letterheads, or pictorial letterheads, as some call 
them, are usually twice the size of the ordinary letterhead, or 
about 11X16 inches, folding down to 8X11 inches for the 
front page. 

Their use is principally to bridge the gap between a letter 
and a booklet at less cost than the booklet. They are valuable, 
too, where the product is so technical or the line of goods so 
varied that it is well to show illustrations in connection with 
the sales letter. 

Some few sales letterheads are regular size only, and the 
illustrated portion is printed on the back of the regular letter- 
head. This gives an inartistic appearance and the effect 
produced on the prospect is not favorable. The advantage of 
the two-sheet or four-page letterhead is that while enclosures 
may be dropped or discarded before the letter reaches the per- 
son of real authority, this extra sheet ties a small amount of 
advertising permanently to the letter. It is an effective way 
of presenting a few selected indorsements or similar matter. 
It follows that the advertising matter used in this way should 
be carefully selected and probably changed at frequent inter- 

Fig. 11 shows a series of four sales letterheads used by a 
steel-furniture concern for circularizing lists of prospects fur- 
nished them by their dealers. The one headed "An Announce- 
ment" shows the front where space is left for the letter. All 
sales letterheads have this space for the typewritten or printed 


26. Some call envelope enclosures "stuff ers." Many of 
them are in truth merely stuffers. Real sales-making argu- 
ments, however, can be set forth in a strong envelope 

Envelope enclosures are largely used by advertisers selling 
through dealers. They furnish the dealer with reasonable 
quantities, usually without charge, imprinting the dealer's 





name and address somewhere on the enclosure. In that way 
they pass on to possihle prosi)ects miUions of pieces of adver- 
tising about their product. I'he effect on sales ultimately is 
certain to be noticed. 

One of the fountain-pen companies that is a frequent user of 
direct advertising furnishes enclosures referring to the differ- 
ent gift seasons, like Christmas, graduation time, and so on. 

Envelope enclosures are used by many concerns to supple- 
ment their sales letters. Their correspondents can then write 


"^Hicm |! 





'p-HlILt u .1.... i«w> « Ih- 1 

n iinople Ot A 



Fig. 12 

a short, snappy letter that is almost sure to be read, which 
refers to the details on the envelope enclosure. Moreover, 
many propositions can be made more attractive by pictures ai < 
printing than by trying to tell everything in typewriting. 

The cost of advertising by envelope enclosures is very small. 
Enclosures printed in two colors have been obtained at $10 
to $15 per thousand, exclusive of engravings, and for less in 




large lots. The cost of getting enclosures distributed is almost 
nothing. IMost of the first-class mail that is sent out is under 
weight enough to carry a small mailing enclosure at no added 

One cordage firm includes with the invoice on a coil of their 

rope a little envelope enclosure 
giving specific instructions how 
to uncoil rope. 

Eig. 12 illustrates several en- 
velope enclosures. The foun- 
tain-pen enclosure is imprinted 
on the back fold. It gives 'actual 
prices on a number of dififerent 
kinds of pens. "Taking the sting 
out of it" is designed to produce 
direct advertising business for a 
firm of printers. It could be 
imprinted, if it Avere a dealer en- 
closure, on the inside lower fold, 
for the lower fold extends an 
inch or so below the upper fold. 
"The Pee-pul's Voice" is an 
enclosure for another firm of 
I)rinters. The chair enclosure is 
a manufacturer's enclosure im- 
])rintcd on the front page with 
the dealer's name and address. 

Keystone Emery mills 



6 7 8 O 10 11 12 
13 14 15 lO 17 IB 10 
20 21 22 23 24 2S 20 
27 28 20 30 31 "rS ' s:' 


27. Novelties are in effect 
direct advertising. Enthusiastic 
novelty men would probably deny 
this, but their effect is similar to 
direct advertising, and their distribution the same. 

Fig. 13 illustrates an eraser and a calendar — two forms of 
novelty direct-advertising pieces; the calendar is, of course, 
greatly reduced in size. The eraser has on the reverse side an 

Tio. 13 


advertisement of the line of furniture, and the calendar like- 
wise carries an advertisement on the reverse side. 

The forms of novelties are innumerable (that is why they 
are novelties), but their use is merely to create good- will. 


28. Portfolios are mammoth booklets and their purpose is 
about the same as that of broadsides — that is, to be used where 
an impression is to be created. Portfolios are used by adver- 
tisers to impress representatives ; they sometimes are big 
enough so that full-size advertisements from various publica- 
tions, booklets, folders, and all other forms of advertising that 
may be used may be pasted in them. 

Another frequent use of portfolios is to sell advertising to 
the advertiser. A portfolio of envelope enclosures, or one con- 
taining booklets, advertising copy, layouts, or art work is quite 
impressive and makes good selling literature for the printing 
house that prepared it 


29. Poster stamps may be classified as a part of direct 
advertising. They were quite the craze in Europe at one time, 
but never achieved the popularity in the United States that 
their sponsors suggested they would. They are used on letters 
and envelopes, or are distributed through dealers who place 
them on packages, and so on. They might be called miniature 
billboards and they belong to the purely publicity type of adver- 


30. One of the chief forms of direct advertising is the 
house organ, which will be treated fully in the Section on 
House Publications. It is sufficient here to say that the house 
organ, or house publication, is a form of direct advertising that 
is continuous in its appeal, and can be used in many lines of 
business. Results produced by house publications show that 

2C6C— 18 

30 DIRFXT A1)\I:KT1SIX(; §20 

they are a most excellent method of advertising when properly 
handled. There seems to be a tendency in house organs 
intended for consumers to outgrow themselves ; that is, they 
grow costly as circulation mounts into big figures. When this 
point is reached the concern has usually grown to a size and 
importance that makes the house organ less necessary and per- 
haps too great an expense. 


31. Sampling is, as a rule, practiced througn the dealer, 
and so has been treated in the Sections on Retail Advertising. 
Part 1, and Management of General Campaigns, Part 2, but 
sampling is really a part of direct advertising. A certain gum 
manufacturer some years ago backed up his billboard, publica- 
tion, and street-car advertising in many cities by a direct-by- 
mail campaign of sampling, sending a full package of a new 
brand of gum to every one listed in the telephone book. 

Samples themselves are usually accompanied by some piece 
of direct advertising. 



32. One of the principal uses of direct advertising is to 
supplement general publicity, or publication advertising. It 
can be used in this way to supplement not only advertising in 
magazines, but also in newspapers, street-car cards, or bill- 
boards, etc. 

Having appropriated a certain sum for advertising in vari- 
ous publications, the wise firm immediately appropriates a cer- 
tain percentage for direct advertising to advertise such 
advertising and to supplement it by methods of answering 
inquiries and following up the advertising in other ways. 

Proofs of advertisements that have been or are to be used 
in the publications can ])e sent to dealers and their cooperation 
secured. Jobbers can be shown the advertising campaign in a 

8 20 . DTRKCT Al)\"FK'nSING 31 

broadside, and jobbers' salesmen can Ir- entlnist'*! l)y mailing 
cards, folders, and portfolios. 

A circular letter, folder, or mailing card may be sent to 
choice prospects calling their attention to a certain publication 
advertisement, thus increasing its value. 


33. Another use for direct advertising in its many forms 
is in paving the way for salesmen. The experience of manu- 
facturers shows that where a series of letters, folders, mailing 
cards, etc. has preceded the salesman's call he finds the pur- 
chasers in a more receptive mood and it takes less time and 
effort to complete his sales. The Section on Advertising Let- 
ters tells how letters are used to assist the salesman. 

According to one publication, one of the large manufacturers 
made a test as follows : An investigation showed that it cost 
$11.23 for each salesman's call. A personal letter from the 
sales manager cost 35 cents. 

With a series of three letters to retailers this company 
greatly reduced its cost of salesman's calls. The first letter 
announced that the salesman (name given) would call on the 
retailer, and. gave the approximate date ; the second stated that 
the salesman was in a near-by town and told the exact date on 
which he would arrive. The third was a good-will letter, writ- 
ten after the salesman had called, either thanking the retailer 
for the order, when given, or thanking him for the courtesy 
extended the salesman in allowing him to show the goods. 

Two .years previously, when no letters were written, the 
salesman averaged one order in seven calls. During the year 
in which letters have been written, the average was one order 
in five calls. Thus at the cost of $1.05 (35 cents per letter") 
this concern saved $22.46 in non-productive calls (two calls at 
$11.23 each), a return of 2,200 per cent, on its investment. 



34, A direct-advertising campaign can often be made to 
produce large and quick business results. A firm of tobacco 
manufacturers in Chicago secured 5,200 dealers in two weeks 
(fourteen days) by a direct-advertising campaign. 

By means of a direct-advertising campaign one manufac- 
turer selling through dealers was able to get nearly 40 per cent, 
of his dealers to put in a special window display. 

In ten years one life insurance company, by the aid of direct 
advertising, has built up a business with 7,956 persons for a 
total insured amount of $14,199,284. Selling insurance by mail 
is perhaps the hardest of all things to do. Of course, inquiries 
were secured through magazine publicity. 

The problem in planning a direct-advertising campaign, 
however, is not always directly to make the direct advertising 
sell goods. Sometimes good-will is to be built up ; sometimes 
it is designed merely to impart information. 


35. Follow-up work necessarily is done by direct advertis- 
ing and the words follow-up have come to mean direct adver- 
tising. An inquiry resulting from a publication advertisement 
is usually answered by a letter, or a sales letterhead. Then 
the prospect receives an assortment of direct-advertising pieces 
according to tlie plan of the campaign. 


30. Matter Under 1-Cent Stamp.s. — Where form 
letters are sent to a class of people that do not receive much 
mail, it has been demonstrated that letters mailed under 
1-cent postage receive about as much attention as those sent 
under 2 -cent postage. l\Iany high-grade concerns send out 
form letters to incjuirers under 1-cent postage. They take it 
for granted thai a person malting an inquiry is interested 


enougii to read what is sent in response and does not care what 
postage stamps are used. 

37. Matter Under 2-Cent Stamps.— Form letters that 
are sent to persons accustomed to receiving a great deal of 
mail, or that relate to some very personal matter, should be sent 
under 2-cent postage. The busy business man is not likely to 
pay much attention to a letter bearing a 1-cent stamp unless 
there is some unusual reason for doing so. A letter, for 
instance, endeavoring to interest business men in some kind of 
investment should by all means be sent under 2-cent postage. 


38. It should not be thought that follow-up systems con- 
sist entirely of letters. A great many sales have been made, 
and just as many lost, through the printed matter enclosed with 
correspondence. The enclosure is a greatly abused thing. It 
is a frequent discovery to find as many as six enclosures in a 
sino-le letter, and it is a still more frequent occurrence to find 
75 per cent, of all enclosures wide of the mark, poorly gotten 
up, and totally lacking in sales value. Clever enclosures or 
vccessary ones like testimonials, folders, samples of cloth, 
paint-film, color schemes, color prints, photographs, etc. can be 
enclosed to advantage in letters. Also certificates, imitation 
stock coupons, novelties, memorandum books and the like, are 
often used effectively, but it must be borne in mind that they 
must be as good as the letter and as definite in purpose or they 
may as well not be enclosed at all. It is often necessary to 
use a folder in connection with the letter in order to give full 
details of the article or the service that is to be sold. In such 
cases, the letter and the folder strengthen each other, and no 
more postage is required to carry both than is required to carry 
one. A four-page folder full of new and convincing testi- 
monials or other equally strong matter, sent along with the 
third letter of a follow-up system, may prove to be just what 
is needed to convince the prospect and to bring the order. 
A folder also may relieve the letter of many technical details. 


Many large advertisers have various envelope slips that thcv 
send out with form letters, and it is not unusual lor these slips 
to bring in enough business to meet the cost of the entire 
follow-up matter. Publishing houses, for instance, send out 
such slips to announce their newest books ; mail-order dealers 
vise them for exploiting some specialty that they have just 
begun to handle ; and so on. 

Sometimes it is advisable to continue a series of alternating 
letters, folders, and cards for many months, striving to have a 
pleasing variety, so that the recipients of the matter will not 
become bored. In such cases, the various pieces of the fol- 
low-up matter should not be sent out in haphazard style. The 
entire schedule should be carefully planned in advance, and a 
careful record kept of the results of each piece so far as is 


39. \\'hcn a concern disposes of its products through the 
dealer, its problem is not only to get the consumer to ask for 
the product but to get the dealer to supply the demand, to 
learn the selling points of the product, to stock it, push it, and 
continue to increase its sales. 

Direct advertising is an efificient means of doing this. By 
means of a direct-advertising campaign, including a house 
organ, the dealer can be taught to sell the product. An effort 
can be made to supply him with all the dealer helps he will use 
and to see that he uses them. These helps will, in most cases, 
have to be imprinted before being sent to the dealer to insure 
his using them and to keep him from marring them with a rub- 
ber stamp imprint. From a legal standpoint it must be remem- 
bered not to imprint the dealer's name as agent. Such word- 
ing as Sold by is safe. This point is considered in the Section 
on Laii/ an Advertising Man Should Knotc. 

By means of direct advertising, contests may be staged 
between the dealers or between salesmen and sales largclv 
increased. One firm increased its sales nearly $250,000 in an 
off season by a direct campaign. 

§-0 DIRJ-:CT ADXERTlSlNc; 35 

Hon THi; wiioi,KS\i,|.;u r\\ vsk fiiniorT \nvKRTisi\r; 

40. The case of tin.' lohacco wliolcsalci- nn'iitioiiefl in 
Art. ,'{4 is a concrete instance of how the wholesaler can use 
direct advertising. 

41. Wholesalers frequently buy in large quantities and 
their profits often depend on their abihty to sell their pur- 
chases while still on the road. A feed wholesaler built up a 
considerable business solely by means of inexpensive mailing 
cards giving the prices per ton of various cars of feeds that had 
been shipped him. The nearer they were to their destination, 
the more he shaded the price, because he had to move them, 
having no storage capacity to amount to anything. By this 
means he used the railroad cars for his storage houses. 

42. Another use of direct advertising for the wholesaler 
is to alternate it with the salesman's calls. In the case of a 
wholesale grocery firm, the margin of profit is not large and 
the salesman cannot afford to call at all of the smaller and • 
out-of-the-way places every week, so a series of mailing cards, 
price lists, etc. will keep the house in touch with these smaller 

A salesman for a wholesale house, who had a capital of less 
than a thousand dollars, rented a warehouse, 20 ft.X40 ft., and 
stocked it with goods, going into the wholesale business for 
himself. His first move was to prepare a modest circular, and 
this he mailed to retailers whose trade he was after. It brought 
some immediate returns. A catalog was issued and the mail- 
ing list increased, with a consequent increase in business. 

This same concern today wholesales nearly fifteen million 
dollars worth of goods to thirty thousand or more retail mer- 
chants in America. It occupies twenty acres of floor space and 
is rated at more than a million dollars. 



43. The retailer can well use direct advertising because he 
is in all likelihood handling any number of different lines 
already advertised in the magazines, in newspapers, on the bill- 
boards, etc. By the use of carefully planned direct advertising 
of his own and that furnished by the wholesaler or manufac- 
turer he can tie up his store with the general campaign. 

Even where a dealer handles goods under his own brand he 
can make use of direct advertising. Well-thought-out letters 
to a select list of customers have proved effective in retail 
work. A series of mailing folders along the lines of the book- 
let used by the mail-order advertiser can be used. If the 
retailer is handling a style or seasonal product he can issue let- 
ters or folders at the height of the style season. In clothing, 
for instance, this would be spring and fall. In many cases the 
retailer can use folders or letters, or both, to advantage every 
month or oftener. 

Such a campaign will accomplish three things: (1) It will 
continually remind regular customers that the advertiser wants 
to retain their trade; (2) those who are not already customers 
will have the advertiser's name kept before them, and later 
when ready to purchase they will probably patronize the adver- 
tiser; (3) those who do not read newspaper advertisements or 
who have been interested by magazine or other advertising of 
the manufacturer or wholesaler, will learn that the retailer is 
the local outlet for such products. 

The retailer has one means of distributing his direct adver- 
tising that is not practicable for many other dealers; he can 
make use of house-to-house distribution, often at a consider- 
able saving over the use of the mails and in some cases with 
better results. 

Some cities forbid house-to-house distribution, so it is well 
to look into the local laws before trying such a plan. 

44. A Portland, Me., firm of clothiers and men's and boys' 
outfitters divides its mailing list of about 3,000 well-selected 
names into two parts, one for the men's department and the 

§i>o DiRiXT ai)\"i<:rtisinc; 37 

other for the boys', and these parts in turn are divided to indi- 
cate those in town and those out of town. This classifying 
saves waste ; for instance, a catalog is prepared for mail-order 
purchasers that they may use for future reference and as a 
guide to the diti'erent stocks. This catalog would be of prac- 
tically no interest to the city mailing list. 

Suitable matter is mailed to this list four to six times a year. 
'J'hree of these mailings are never deviated from. These are a 
spring fashion booklet, a fall fashion booket, and the regular 
New Year's greeting. Letters and booklets form the major 
part of this firm's campaign, though they have added to their 
popularity and incidentally to their list of profitable names by 
the use of a novelty gift, a key ring with a little plate so worded 
and numbered that should the bunch of keys to which the plate 
is attached be lost, the finder will bring them to the store for 

45. Direct advertising ofifers great opportunity to the 
retailers in the smaller cities and towns for the extension of 
their territory. It is especially true in these days of improved 
roads and the automobile that the retailer may draw from a 
wider surrounding ■territory by skilfully planned direct-by-mail 


46. Bank patrons are usually easily located. Therefore, 
the use of direct advertising by the banker is quite logical. A 
bank can watch the birth column in the daily paper and address 
a letter to the new arrival in the home, offering a free savings 
bank, for instance, and inviting "him" or "her" to use this bank 
when the time arrives. This will produce a good-will effect 
even though the parents are already banking elsewhere. 

Those moving into the community may be welcomed by a 
letter, and an indirect suggestion that they call at the bank will 
probably result in several accounts. 

One bank in the West increased its deposits by more than 
$200,000 in four years by a small hou^e organ sent regularly 
to prospective and actual depositors. 

38 D1RJ-:CT .\L)\l-:kl ISI.\(, §20 

111 tlic South, at the time the cotton crop is sold, the local 
planters may be circularized and new banking connections 
opened u]). In other sections the time when the biggest local 
crop is harvested is a good titne to circularize. A consistent 
campaign at all seasons is well worth while. 


47. One manufacturer who had used with poor results 
something over $10,000 in publication advertising to sell dealers 
on a certain cooperative campaign, then took up a series of 
direct mail advertisements to the same prospects and produced 
more than enough direct returns to pay for the campaign. 

Direct advertising brings results quickly, or not at all, as a 
rule, and this is the reason why the manufacturer has found 
it so much to his advantage. No campaign is really complete 
^vithout some direct advertising. 

Some manufacturers produce a highly specialized product — 
as a mammoth turbine, for instance. The possible users of 
these tiu-bines are limited and usually well known in advance. 
General campaigns would not interest a sufificient number to 
pay their way. A direct-advertising caiupaign permits the 
manufacturer to go direct after the business of those whom he 
knows are possible prospects. 

A manufacturer of an of^ce api)liance by means of a direct 
advertising campaign doubled the number of dealers in little 
more than two years with a proportionate increase in volume 
of business. 


48. The distributing of samples from door to door is a 
form of direct advertising that often is effective. 

Samples are also distributed by, mail. The chewing gum 
manufacturer mentioned in Art. 31, sampled the complete list 
published in the telephone directory of a large city, sending 
sample packages of his new brand of gum and a short letter. 
It was one of the means used to introduce this new brand in 
an alreadv crowded market. 



aiAtf.llVG I/ISTS 

49. Aside fro., H,e «•.,,, and means of direct advertising 
tliere are several MKcl.anieal ddails that mttst be given eare rd' 
consideration. ^ t-dreiui 

list'^anVr ^"^^"'"^"^^•^^ P'-^bleni is how to secure a mailing 

bast,;:' ' '':'' '' '''''■ ^''' "^'-^'^-^ ^-^ "--^^-^ o' 

bleaks the campaign and ,s a detail that must be given first con 

or a sink hole. Each dead name is a dead loss in postage labor 
and printed matter. Each live name is a live asset in propoi^ 
tion to the wisdom with which it is handled 

No list will be 100 per cent, perfect at any time and tlie 
o der the list is, the more inaccurate it will become by ast 

;!=$, 1^'-' '' '''---'■ ^-^- ^^-- - ^-^-ss 

50. Sources of Mailing Lists.-There are at least ci-ht 
definitely settled ways of securing a mailing list: Answc to 
advertisements, purchase of lists from firms making a business 
of selling lists, reports of salesmen, directories, rating books of 
commercial agencies, press clippings, government records, and 
the advertiser's ledgers. 

51. Any firm that is doing publication advertising will 
receive some answers, whether trade, class, or general mediums 
are used. These answers, naturally, form a first-rate mailinc. 
list. *> 

_ 52 It is possible to buy classified lists from concerns mak- 
ing a business of compiling such lists. If, for instance, a manu- 
facturer makes a style of shelving peculiarly adapted to chain 
shoe stores, he can buy a list of such chain shoe stores and cir- 
cularize them direct. Those having something to sell to libra- 
ries can obtain a list of libraries. A list of the owners of cer- 


tain makes of autoniol)iles may be secured by those selling a 
new accessory for automobiles. 

."53. Salesmen should report regularly the names and 
addresses of those on whom they call, and the reports of these 
calls may be used to form a regular mailing list. The sales- 
man now covering certain territory may leave, and it will be 
well to follow up his efforts, on behalf of the new salesman. 
Moreover, the salesman now covering the territory can be 
helped to increase his sales by a direct-advertising campaign. 

."5-dl:. Directories form a fertile field for lists. There are 
city, telephone, and classified directories ; then there are direc- 
tories of many of the trades, as well as directories of commer- 
cial, advertising, fraternal, labor, and social organizations. 
There is likely to be a large percentage of duplication in using 
several directories, because the same names will be listed by all. 

.55. The rating books of the commercial agencies are used 
by many to make up mailing lists. There arc two points 
against them : no street addresses are given and in certain large 
cities the post offices will not supply tlie missing street 
addresses, also it is hard to compile a list from the rating books 
on any general basis except estimated wealth. Though they 
give the class of trade or manufacture, to compile a' list of 
butchers in a state from a rating book is a tedious job. Rat- 
ing books should be used to check mailing lists for financially 
responsible prospects. 

56. Press clippings are useful sources of information. 
From them one can learn the names of advertisers, secure 
notices that relate to a particular })roposition, whatever it may 
be, as fires, removals, real-estate purchases, business changes, 
new banks and other corporations, etc. A good press clipping 
bureau will furnish information along definite lines. 

.57. There is an almost unending list of governmental 
records that will help the advertiser in planning a direct-adver- 
tising campaign. In the cities he can use the city tax lists, per- 
mits, licenses, marriage records, building permits, etc. In the 


counties and slate there will be the registration lists, county 
tax lists, labor and eoninierce reports, etc. Nationally there 
are income-tax lists, labor and commerce records, etc. 

58. The one obvious, yet most frequently overlooked, 
source of live names for the advertiser is his own ledgers. 
Good buyers may be made into better ones ; accounts that have 
lapsed may be reopened. This source, too, is not likely to be 
used by the competitor, which is an advantage over the use of 
any public lists. 

59. Valueless Lists.— For the use of the advertiser of 
breakfast food, flour, clothing, or any article of common use, 
lists of unselected or unclassified names and addresses, such 
as those copied from a directory, are usually not worth the 
paper on which they are written. There is nearly always some 
good material in such a list, but the cost of covering a large 
number of names to get in touch with a few persons that may 
be interested makes it unprofitable. 

Advertisers are often importuned to buy lists made up of 
names of all persons in certain counties, or of all taxpayers in 
some city. Such lists may be safely left alone, unless the occu- 
pations of the persons covered in the list are so closely related 
to what the advertiser is selling that these persons are likely 
to be interested. Such a general list might be valuable to a 
newspaper canvassing for new subscribers, but this is an excep- 
tion to the general rule. 

Time may entirely destroy the value of a once valuable list, 
and most lists deteriorate rapidly. It is not enough that a mail- 
ing list should be corrected once a year, but great stress should 
be laid upon the fact that it must be kept alive month by month, 
and corrections should not be allowed to pile up but should be 
nride immediately. If the advertiser is in doubt about the 
value of a seemingly good list, he should try a hundred names 
and watch results before going to great expense. 

GO. Method of Determining the Value of a last. 

Following are scvc-ral (|ue'Stions that the advertiser shouKI 
answer satisfactorily before purchasing a mailing list: 




Are the persons on the list likely to be interested in mv 
offers ? 

Have the names and addresses been compiled recently? If 
not, has the list been revised intelligently, addresses brought 
up to date, and all "dead" names cast out? 

^os!t Carb 

tlljc l^epublican ^ublisfjing Co. 

( The Graphic Arts Press ) 

Hamilton, 0f)\o 

W\it i^ublitaii ^bltsijtng Companp, ^omiUon, (@t)io 

Gentlemen: Shall be glad to see your representative on or 
about with regard to 





Fig. 14 

Has the list already been used so much that its value has been 
exhausted or seriously depleted? 

Unless the advertiser is thoroughly satisfied on these points, 
he will do well not to purchase, but to make a conditional pur- 


chase; that is, to purchase tlie right to use a specified part of 
the list, the sale of the whole to he dependent on the residts 
received from his test. 


61. If a campaign of direct advertising is intended to 
produce results in direct returns, a retiu-n post card should he 
included with every piece sent out. Nothing is more likely to 
improve the results than the return post card. 

There are two kinds of post cards, attached and detached. 
As a general rule, it seems that those detached from the mail- 
ing piece produce slightly in excess of those attached as a part 
of it. Fig. 14 shows both sides of a detached card. On either 
kind, if the customer's personal signature is not required, the 
prospect's name and address may be placed on the card as a 
signature before mailing it to him. Then he has only to mail it. 
Many advertisers run the return cards through an addressing 
machine before sending them out with the mailing. Fig. 15 
shows a three-fold folder, the third fold of which is a return 
post card, to be detached. 

62. A convenient use is frequently made of the post card 
to fasten the piece for mailing. Fig. 16 illustrates such a folder 
w^ith the post card on the outside of the piece. This particular 
post card serves two purposes : it not only fastens the piece for 
mailing but is already signed with the prospect's name, and 
that signature by the manner of using is also the address used 
to mail the piece to the prospect. When folded, the outside of 
the folder shows the halftone part, "The Invisible Machinery 
of the Stock Alarket," and the card, folded up over the edge 
and inserted in the slot, locks the folder together. Thus the 
upper part of the card is covered and only the lower part bear- 
ing the prospect's name and address can be seen and this serves 
as the address for the folder. 

The vital question today — in IVar and in Buiineu - 
this ARE YOU FIT'? 

is briefly 

ThU IS an age of "the suivival of the fittest." Big duties; major respon- 
sibihties are ahead of every fighting, working, thinking man in America- The 
world conflict is a test of fitnesi. SO IS BUSINESS. 

You can find out quickly and accurately how you "stand" physically at Bailie 
Creek — where the body is examined and llie efficiency measured wilh scienti.ic 
precision — all guesswork eliminated. 

And more than that — you can build yourself up to high health standards at 
Battle Creek — get quickly in "fighting trim" for big business battles. 

"Physical Prepareclness" is now of equal importance to the man on the firing- 
line of Battle, and to the man on the firing-line of Business. 

; THE MEASURE OF A MAN" is a book that tells the timely tale of 
"physical fitness." Send the card and read the book — free. 

The Battle Creek Sanitarium - - Battle Creek, Michigan 
Health Recruiting Station 


Send the FREE book that tells the timely tale of "physical fitness" 
and its importance to me. 




Li^irn Ix /t|/il Iht /Jjillci 0/ Ouiincii ol Balllc Cit<k 

l-i... i: 

The Invisible Machinery 

of the 

Stock Market 

or lit al»j> . in...i «.cccjv(i.l .11 the buMiir« ..f vihuli ).»i 
li.ivr tlnrgrcaim ktinwIedK*. 

llii: St...k Mj.kcl (ur io.rjncr d<. v..ii kn..« .1. mu.h .i. 
;(i« abiiin il.r itrntr »..rkini;< .'f ihc cvti>..l.iy 

June. It B..kcr. M>.fk «i..Ui%. I.jvc jl»J>> 1"-ld the i.i...< |ii.*l- 
.iblc iv...ll> .uc «c.ure,l «l..ii tin- aialonlci li.u a (Icac ■.i.,ltt%ur.d.iii: 
•>f hi^ l)p>kCT'» bu<i 

"UiiT's (iF.n vcoi'MNiro" 


NEW YORK,; 50 UtoinJ Strwi— SOS Fifth Atcnoe 

ttM««w BulUUM 



ptiujtc jVi.iilms Caro 


j'li IIKD.M) >TKIK1 

NEW 'lOKK. N. V. 

Fig. 16 

I L T 102C— 19 



63. Order blanks may or may not be post cards. Where 
post cards are not used, frequently inexpensively printed order 
blanks are enclosed not only to make it easier for the prospect 
to order but to form a means of checking the returns from a 
particular mailing. 


6-4. In using direct advertising through dealers, an almost 
invariable rule is that it be imprinted with the dealer's name 
and address. Fig. 17 illustrates the methods by which direct 
advertising is imprinted for the dealer. This imprinting is 
sure to arouse more interest in the dealer than if the pieces are 
not imprinted and, moreover, may keep him from marring an 
otherwise good piece of printing with a rubber-stamp imprint. 

For convenience in handling it is usual to imprint direct 
advertising for dealers in one of two places, either on the front, 
as in the case of the pencil advertisement, or on the back as in 
the case of the steel-furniture advertisement. Some, though, are 
imprinted on the inside of the piece by having the lower sheet 
extend below the upper one, as in the case of the refrigerator 
advertisement in Fis;. 17. 


65. Domestic Mail Matter. — Domestic mail matter 
includes matter deposited in the mails for local delivery, or for 
transmission from one place to another within the United 
States, or to or from or between the possessions of the United 
States, and is divided into four classes. 

The following information in regard to classes and rates of 
mail matter is true at the time it is written. It should be 
remembered, however, that postal laws and regulations are sub- 
ject to change, therefore in planning an advertising campaign 
in which any extensive or unusual use is to be made of the 
mails it is always advisable to consult the latest edition of the 
Postal Guide, or the postmaster, to determine what rates or 




regulations may apply to the particular case. A slight differ- 
ence in the form, suhstance, or enclosure of a piece of advertis- 
ing matter may determine whether it is subject to first-, third-, 
or fourth-class rates. 

(>6. First Class. — Included in the first class are : Let- 
ters, all matter sealed against inspection, United States postal 


kuepinf; your foodstuffs in fresh, clean and ap- 

Jpctizing conditicn for the longest possible time 
— is almost entirely a matter of refrigeration. 

cct llie cheaply made " ice box " to do good 

icll at the price it docs, it can't be made 

of the rijjht 


lEluiiituKUi (6tfts fnr 
llrar 'nni«i» Mar 

l>l» K. < llrl.-l 
.1 SI \, MAIM- 


Fig. 17 

cards, post cards (private mailing cards) bearing written mat- 
ter, and all matter wholly or in part in writing, except manu- 


script copy accompanying proof sheets or corrected proof sheets 
of the same, and the writing authorized by law to be placed on 
matter of other classes. Typewriting and carbon and letter- 
press copies thereof are the equivalent of handwriting and are 
classed as such in all cases. 

07. The rate for letters and other first-class matter 
(except drop letters and postal and post cards) is 3 cents for 
each ounce or fraction of an ounce. 

The rate for drop letters is 2 cents per ounce or fraction of 
an ounce. This rate applies to all letters mailed for delivery 
within the postal district of the office where they are deposited, 
including delivery by city, rural, or other carriers of such office, 
and it applies also to offices that have no free-delivery service. 

The rate on all United States postal cards, whether printed 
or bearing writing, is 2 cents each. 

The rate on post cards, or private mailing cards, bearing 
tvritten messages is 2 cents each. Printed post cards not bear- 
ing any written additions unauthorized for third-class matter 
are subject to third-class rates. 

G8. Post cards manufactured by private persons, of an 
unfolded piece of cardboard in quality and weight substantially 
like the Government postal cards, not exceeding in size 
3^"jTX5/g- inches, nor less than 2;54X4 inches, as shown on 
following page, are transmissible without cover in the domestic 
mails at the rate of 2 cents each. Such cards may be of any 
color not interfering with a legible address or postmark. 
Advertisements and illustrations may appear on the back of 
the card and on the left half of the face. The right half 
must be reserved for the address. 

Cards that do not conform to the foregoing conditions are 
chargeable with postage at the letter rate, if wholly or partly 
in writing, or at the third-class rate if entirely in print. 

Folded advertising cards, and other matter entirely in 
print, arranged with a detachable part for use as a post card, 
are mailable as third-class matter. Double, or folded, post 
cards (that is, cards in the form of U. S. reply postal cards) 
are not authorized by law. 




69. Second Class. — Second-class matter includes news- 
papers and periodicals bearing notice of entry as second-class 



llJ O Q- u 

O < 5 IE 

"^ fe < 1^ 
^r' <" H T 
tl- w ^ 

















cT (J 


1 h- 

s 0) 

s O 

s CL 











matter. The rate of postage on newspapers and periodicals 
of the second class when mailed by others than the publisher or 


a news agent and sent unsealed is 1 cent for each 4 ounces or 
fraction thereof, on each separately addressed copy or package 
of unaddressed copies. On matter entered as second class and 
mailed by the publishers and news agents, a special rate is 
granted. Application for entry of a publication as second- 
class matter should be made through the local postmaster. 

70. Third Class. — Third-class matter embraces circu- 
lars, newspapers, house organs and other periodicals not 
admitted to the second class nor embraced in the term "book," 
also miscellaneous printed matter on paper and not having the 
nature of personal correspondence, proof sheets, and manu- 
script copy accompanying the same. (Matter printed on other 
material than paper is fourth class.) Books are included in 
fourth-class, or parcel-post, mail, as also is miscellaneous 
printed matter in parcels weighing more than 4 pounds. 

Third-class matter must be sent unsealed, and the limit of 
weight is 4 pounds. The rate is 1 cent on each 2 ounces or 
fraction thereof on each individually addressed piece or pack- 
age. Parcels of printed matter weighing more than 4 pounds 
are mailable at fourth-class, or parcel-post, rates. 

71. Fourth Class. — Fourth class embraces that known 
as domestic parcel-post mail, and includes merchandise, farm 
and factory products, seeds, cuttings, bulbs, roots, scions, and 
plants, books (including catalogs), miscellaneous printed mat- 
ter weighing more than 4 pounds, and all other mailable mat- 
ter not embraced in the first, second, and third classes. 

The rates of postage on fourth-class matter, which nuist be 
fully prepaid and unsealed, are as follows : 

(a) Parcels weighing 4 ounces or less, except books, 
seeds, plants, etc., 1 cent for each ounce or fraction thereof, 
any distance. 

(b) Parcels weighing 8 ounces or less, containing books, 
seeds, cuttings, bulbs, roots, scions, and plants, 1 cent for each 
2 ounces or fraction thereof, regardless of distance. 

(f) Parcels weighing more than 8 ounces, containing 
books, seeds, plants, etc., parcels of miscellaneous printed mat- 
ter weighing more than 4 pounds, and all other parcels of 


fourth-class matter weighing more than 4 ounces are charge- 
able according to distance or zone at the pound rates, a sched- 
ule of which can be obtained of the local postmaster. They 
are not included here because frequent changes are likely, and 
the latest schedule should always be used. 


72. What Constitutes a Campaign. — Properly 
viewed, a campaign consists of analyzing the problem, finding 
out what it is expected the advertising will accomplish, and 
then working it to accomplish that result. The campaign may 
make use entirely of any one of the various forms, whether 
letters, folders, mailing cards, or envelope enclosures, and still 
be a campaign. The experience of the average business firm, 
however, has proved that, as a rule, a campaign of varied 
appeals will in the long run produce the most business, hence it 
is usual to vary the form of the appeal. 


73. A rubber-heel factory was started in a small Ohio 
city. The stock in trade at the time consisted only of a design 
and shape for a new kind of rubber heel, and the right to mark 
it "patent applied for." 

A direct-advertising campaign was planned for the makers 
by a firm specializing in direct-advertising work, and it is 
understood that within two years the manufacturers were mak- 
ing a net profit each year that rivaled that made by the old 
established rubber-heel companies and that their annual volume 
of business was almost as large. 

Outside of the fact that the new heel is made of a good 
quality of rubber of different colors and of sizes to fit every 
shoe, the principal talking point is the suction shape, which 
permits the rubber heel to be tacked on without the use of 
cement; the tacks are in the center of the heel, wl^iich allows 
more trimming space and the shoemaker is not obliged to carry 


more than half the number of sizes that are required if he uses 
the orcHnary flat rubber heels. 

Having analyzed these facts, the advertising agents decided 
that the selling points were such as would appeal to the cobbler 
and shoe-repairing" man, and it was to this class of trade that 
the entire campaign was directed. 

The complete campaign consisted of a folder, mailing card, 
envelope enclosure, a small booklet about the use of this rub- 
ber heel in hospitals (see Fig. 18), and a fair-sized broad- 
side, not shown in Fig. 18, which featured many advantages of 
the heel to the shoemaker and repair man. 

The broadside was very successful in gaining the interest of 
the shoe-repair man and when the firm's salesman came around 
it was not difficvilt to persuade the cobbler to give a trial order. 

To supplement this direct-advertising campaign the company 
got out one or two window cards, counter signs, etc. No other 
advertising was done. 

The booklet was designed to interest physicians and nurses 
in the hospitals and has been used extensively, its value being 
an incentive to dealers and repairmen and not for any direct 
business obtained from hospital sources. Many people were 
more impressed with the rubber heel when they knew it was 
largely used in hospital work. 

This campaign is quite interesting because one of the old 
established rubber-heel companies has advertised extensively 
in newspapers, magazines, and elsewhere. They do not seem, 
though, to have approached the man who completes the chain 
of sale — the cobbler. At least this campaign of the new heel 
proved that the cobbler was the keystone of the situation and 
that even a modest direct campaign produced excellent and 
rapid results. 


74, A meritorious product ; a carefully thought out plan ; 
good mailing lists ; persistent effort ! These essentials of suc- 
cessful direct advertising are singularly well illustrated in the 
subscription campaign of The Atlantic Monthly. In 5 years, 


with a simple direct-advertising plan, The Atlantic has added 
5o,000 to its circulation, at 4 dollars a year and 35 cents a copy. 
Xo other method of advertising has been employed to secure 
t" remarkable result. And the publisher of The Athintic, 
^lacGregor Jenkins, says : "For our own individual problem, 
I do not believe any other method of advertising would have 
served the purpose." 

Here is a publication that does not hesitate to give frank 
testimony about a form of advertising that too frequently pub- 
lishers regard as strictly competitive. 

Without doubt, selling subscriptions is a most difficult test 
for any method of advertising. Here the advertising is obliged 
to make good on the basis of mail orders with cash enclosed, 
which it produces. It must get immediate action. It must do 
all the work itself. No salesman is employed to close the 
orders. And consequently there is no opportunity to credit a 
portion of the value of the advertising to intangible results — 
to the prestige it may have created, to the educational work it 
has performed, or to the help it has given salesmen in closing 

But there was a still more serious difificulty with the direct 
subscription advertising of The Athvitic Monthly. Tlie public 
generally is oversolicited for magazine subscriptions. Pub- 
lishers must have paid subscribers. Advertising revenues are 
directly dependent on paid circulation. And in the struggle to 
get more circulation, publishers are offering magazines and 
other periodicals at subscription prices below actual production 
costs. They are losing money on circulation in order to increase 
their advertising revenues. These things tended to make sub- 
scription getting an extra hard job even when tried in person 
by solicitors. 

In view of this, it is indeed surprising that the publishers of 
The Atlantic Monthly should have thought in 1912 that they 
could make any appreciable progress with the mild-mannered 
direct-advertising campaign they then decided to put into 

When the present owners purchased the property in 1908, 
the magazine had a subscription circulation of 13,750. In 


1912 at the time that the special campaign was undertaken the 
list had grown to 21,200. 

"Our circulation today," said Mr. Jenkins, "is 81,032, 49,000 
of which is in subscribers. That makes a gain of 27,800 sub- 
scriptions since we started our direct-advertising campaign in 
1912. Where we were gaining about 2,000 a year before we 
began advertising for subscriptions, w^e are now gaining 5,560 
a year, as an average over a five-year period. As a matter of 
fact, however, we are now gaining much faster, for our last 
mailing campaign showed an increased return of 41 per cent, 
over the year before. We soon found that the effect of this 
work was shown in news-stand sales as well as in yearly 
subscriptions. In 1912 we were selling about 4,600 copies on 
the news stands and now are selling something over 28,000. 

"What sort of literature do we send out? We have but one 
standardized piece of literature which we have used since the 
very beginning. Our annual Atlantic Monthly Almanac is the 
sole basis of our direct-advertising campaign. We have never 
used anything else to secure new subscriptions. 

"As a result of several years of turning over this problem, we 
finally decided on an almanac, and the first issue was put out 
in 1912. We mailed 500,000 copies of the 1912 almanac to 
carefully selected lists, and we have been mailing editions as 
large as that and sometimes larger every year since. 

"The Almanac is in no sense a premium. It stands on its own 
legs as a distinct publication. To those of our old subscribers 
who ask for it, we mail free copies. 

"The first two or three years we enclosed a circular letter 
with The Almanac. But the purpose of the letter was not to 
ask for a subscription. The sole object of the letter was to 
explain the purpose of The Almanac. 

"W^hen we became convinced that The Almanac was firmly 
established as an annual publication we gave up the letter 
enclosure. The only other change we have made in our plan 
is that we now enclose an order blank. At first we printed a 
subscription order blank on the last page of The Almanac. 
But we found that people didn't want to tear the page out. So 
now we enclose a blank. 


DIRECT ai)\i-:rtisixg 


"We devote a whole year to the preparation of our lists. For 
the first few years we selected our names from the ranks of 
professional men, doctors, lawyers, architects, professors, and 

8200Q '^P' "^P* r9|09 rsjTo 19111 TsTTJ r9Tii 

oiesl p 




Atlantic Monthly 

19 17 

It loJTj 

Sanuary 1917 
the 'Atlantic" had i 
a circulalion of 
81,032 copies 
showing a gam. 
of ISO < in 
5 year/ through, 
im lue of 

)a /9'2 v.'hen the 
Direct Adtcrtising was 
started thcAllanlic" had 
a circulation of 

-•« 28 000 

■.op'" monthly 


JThen "Vie Atlantic Monthly" began to use Direct-by- 
Mail Advertising to increase its circulation — 

Fig. 19 

teachers. One year we based the lists ainiost entirely on the 
alunmi of the various colleges. 

"But this last year we made a radical change in our mailing 
lists. We prepared for this most carefully by devoting two 
years to the preparation of an entirely new kind of list. We 


selected all our names from the ranks of business men, manu- 
facturers, merchants, and successful retailers. And the result 
has been a gain over last year of 41 per cent." 

Fig. 19 is a graphic illustration of the increases in circula- 
tion due to this direct-advertising campaign. 

By comparing these practical results with the theories that 
have been laid down in this Section, it will be noted how the 
preparation of the list is the important thing, and how the loose 
order blank increased returns. 


75. An Ohio concern manufactured an electric heating 
pad. No continuous efforts were being made to increase the 
sales, and though several competitors made a heating pad none 
of them concentrated on this product. 

After analyzing their market these people decided to con- 
centrate on a single grade of heating pad to be sold at a 
popular price. As their output was limited, at first they concen- 
trated their sales efforts on the states of Ohio, Michigan, and 
Pennsylvania. In going into the matter of marketing the 
device, it was found that while the regular electric shop would 
handle these goods, the average electric supply dealer is first of 
all a contractor, and his interest is more in wiring and fixture 
contracts than in miscellaneous specialties. Further, it was 
found that many did not have retail stores. 

The company therefore decided to make their big appeal to 
the drug stores, and to feature their electric heating pad as a 
superior form of the old-fashioned hot-water bottle. 

The first piece of the campaign was an illustrated sales letter- 
head, the piece forming the background in Fig. 20, which fea- 
tured the Safety electric warming pad as a new discovery 
because it was safe, durable, flexible, and at the same time low 
in price. The pad itself was shown in such a manner as to 
indicate that it was flexible and there w\is reproduced the box 
container, which was distinguished by black stripes and a red- 
circle monogram 5" as shown in Fig. 20. As a means to 



help the sales of the pads the company offered a large counter 
or window cut-out showing a pretty girl holding one of these 
pads to her face. As an additional sales help the dealer was 
provided with a reasonable quantity of the little six-page 
envelope enclosures, about 3j/^ in. X 6^4 in., on which the 
characteristic stripes predominated the front cover design. 
Other pieces in the campaign wxre the large folders and the 
mailing cards also shown in Fig. 20. 

The illustrated sales letterhead, together with a sample of the 
enclosure, was sent out to a selected list of dealers previous to 
the call of the salesman and it proved to be a very effective 
introduction. In addition to this, the illustrated sales letter- 
head brought a number of direct inquiries that proved to be 
paying leads. 

The dealers having placed the pads in stock were supplied 
with cut-outs and enclosures to distribute. During the Christ- 
mas season the company completely sold out their output for 
months to come. 

This campaign is an instance of how a comparatively inex- 
pensive but consistently planned direct-advertising campaign 
increased the sales of a specialty. 


76. The Addressograph is a machine used for the purpose 
of duplicating names and addresses. It prints through a rib- 
bon with typewriter type and its principal use is in direct- 
advertising work ; therefore, one of the firm's own campaigns 
conducted by direct advertising will be particularly interesting 
to users and producers of this form of publicity. 

One of their most interesting circular campaigns was what 
they termed their Midsummer Campaign. This campaign 
consisted of six pieces, designed to "liven up" prospects to a 
buying point during the hot summer months — to arouse their 
interest and make them want to know more about the 

The basis of the campaign was a list of from 50 to 100 
names from each of the salesmen, of prospects they had never 

iff ERE is 
%^I6HT Wavf 

Fig. 21 (o) 


L... H„„C.„,,, I, 1„>,rOrl„. 

J. St«ph«na, 
Adilrossograph Conpan?* 
901 v. Vao E^ron 

H.». you .oc,p..,d th. offer of our ropr.»»., T.. F. H,.to, 
c.rry . •-ypo.rlt.r »i!,' Addro», Into your orflc 

rn«r sl!o- »ddron«ocr«ph Into your o 
«'.r«tion7 If you !iti»« no"., .« bollev 

'111 he worth 

P«rh«pB tho 
holding up 

writir 1« 

. i-ny that ,111 !.„, -h, tlno of yiul^'cl 
Iruiljorjr tron tho shouldom of br»ln 

:* of »rldr«B--lng envftlopfln and clrouUrB - 
:^r eha-fto - Imprlntinp pnv foran, phlonlne 
>.l filling In Ton, ud.f, ,Uh p.n or typl- 
■. Piirh«p, nuol, ,or» U Jono at odd >.i,i, 
.fnotory. But If thoro la a bottor way - 

' It. 


- ^ ind alliElnata 

oalfo monoy for yau 

•111 tall yo 


11 you lot our repr-iantatlvo oa-rv a 
1 aho. you Juat wnat it .ill do? St _ _ 
olncst >i» oaaily Inetalled. flo trouUo or «: 
doBonatrotloi. - h» will call at your conronl, 
dronaoRraph with hie. 

Addroanoeraph Int 

iph Into your off 

than a typawrlla 

connoolod with 

>I11 have the A. 



W, J. St«ph«tiH. 

AddresBOgrHrh Coi»pa"y. 

301 *. Van Bur«n ri-. 

Chlcaf.0, ni. 

This Envelope was • 

jo<7tHDK ed 

Addr«aBo(r«ph Co.. 
Ml V.Van Bui 

Fig. 21 16) 


I L T 102C— 20 


called on, or had not called on since the first of the preceding 
year. This list totaled about 8,000 names and was made up on 
address plates, such as are used in the machine. Proofs of 
each salesman's list were struck off and mailed to each man to 
follow carefully and "cash in" on the campaign. 

The keystone of the whole campaign was a demonstration — 
to bring the typewriter-size Addressograph into the prospect's 
office and show him the actual operation. 

The cost of the entire six pieces in this campaign amounted 
to $3,000, including postage. Over $107,000 worth of sales are 
directly traceable to this campaign, which is certainly very 
good. Attention should be given to the fact that the Addresso- 
graph people are consistent advertisers and frequently have 
advertisements in the publications as well as an almost con- 
tinuous direct-advertising campaign. The publication adver- 
tisements undoubtedly helped to make the midsummer 
campaign a success. 

The six pieces of this campaign, which may be considered 
as points in the campaign are shown in Figs. 21 (a) and 21 (b). 

Points Nos. 1, 2, and 3 were mailing cards 10;)4 inches wide 
by 6y2 inches deep. In each case on the reverse was a 4-inch 
deep red figure denoting the number of the card, or point, 
1, 2, 3, etc. 

Number 1 reads: "Great Scott, Man, let me show you the 
RIGHT WAY ! I'll call in a few days." The picture shows a 
man addressing envelopes with a pen and ink from a typewrit- 
ten list. There is no indication of Addressograph on the card. 

Number 2 reads: "Yes — I agree with YOU — this IS 
DRUDGERY!— that's why I'll soon call and demonstrate the 
RIGHT way 1" The picture shows a typewriter with the pen- 
written card on the top of the machine. 

Number 3 tells in two parallel columns the story of the pen- 
addressed and the addressographed names, though the word 
Addressograph does not appear anywhere. The prospect is 
asked to "Watch for the RIGHT Way!" 

Number 4 is reproduced from a life-size cut-out of the hand 
Addressograph — the model on which the drive was made ; at 
the top was printed in "HERE is the RIGHT Way!" The 


arrow carries the eye to the bottom of the machine where these 
words appear: "I'm bringing one to your office to PROVE 
it." This wording is covered in the illustration. Aside from 
these words and a reproduction of an addressed envelope and 
the words "Life Size" not a word appears on the mailing cut- 
out, w^hich measured 14^/2 inches in width by about 15 inches at 
the widest point. It is, of course, run on extremely heavy 
cardboard to make it stand up in mailing. The number 4 does 
not appear on this piece. 

Number 5 is a two-fold mailing card, which, folded, mea- 
sures about 5j4 inches wide by 6J/2 inches in depth. The 
wording on the cover is "Just say 'When' and — ." Shown 
through the circle is a half-tone cut of the salesman to whom 
the return card, made by tearing off the addressed portion 
of the mailing folder as indicated, is addressed. On the back 
fold the regular 4-inch red letter 5 appears. 

The sixth piece was a letter, filled in, which makes a drive 
for permission to call to demonstrate the hand Addressograph. 
At the bottom in red typewriting is this : 

"Call about o'clock on ." The letter is accompanied 

by a return stamped envelope, also addressographed. This 
last piece brought 14^ per cent, in inquiries. 


77. The Werner G. Smith Co., of Cleveland, Ohio, are 
manufacturers of a specialty oil known as Linoil used in 
foundry work. It is generally understood that pure linseed oil 
gives the best results in foundry practice, but linseed oil is 
rather expensive to use for this purpose. Linoil is claimed 
to be the equal in all properties to the pure linseed oil and sells 
at a price sufficiently low to appeal to every foundry. 

This company's field of possible sale is known and the prob- 
lem is to keep everlastingly pegging away to increase the sale 
of the substitute. For this purpose, illustrated sales letter- 
heads, folders, blotters, and mailing cards are used regularly 
and in succession. These pieces are used to produce not only 


direct inquiries but to make it easy for the salesman calling. 
By means of this campaign, which is a steady one, the com- 
pany has been able to sell a highly satisfactory percentage of 
the prospects. Fig. 22 gives an idea of some of the pieces used. 
No. 1 is a form letter; No. 2, the inside of an illustrated letter- 
head ; No. 3 tabulates six reasons for the use of Linoil ; No. 4 
and 5 are mailing folders, and No. 6 is one of a series of 
blotters sent out. 


(PART 1) 


1. The object of a general campaign is to create a demand 
for goods on the part of the consumer and to see that that 
demand is suppHed through the various channels of trade. 
The methods employed for this purpose, and the reasons for 
them, are inseparably connected with advertising, and there- 
fore they are here treated. 

2, Marketing and Selling. — The ultimate purpose of 
advertising is to sell goods. Selling means the actual trans- 
ferring of goods from the producer or handler to the customer 
or consumer, for a price. In a general selling campaign, before 
reaching the selling point, there are many important activities, 
other than personal salesmanship and advertising, and these 
activities are grouped under the term marketing. The first 
step in marketing is to understand the goods to be sold. The 
next step is to analyze the field, or try to understand the people 
to whom the goods are to be sold. Finally, the methods to be 
used in reaching the people who are to buy must be studied. 
These are the three prime elements in all selling campaigns, 
and dealing with them is called marketing, to distinguish it 
from the actual selling. Advertising is an important means of 
selling, but its full value and effect can be obtained only when 
it is part of a general plan and is employed in proper relation 
to the different branches of marketing. 






3. Analysis of the Article. — The first thing to do is to 
analyze the thing to be sold. Suppose it is a new clock that 
is thought to be better than any other clock in the market, 
because it is simple in construction, handsome in appearance, 
accurate as a timekeeper, and economical in price; it is made 
upon a new plan, with fewer parts, and needs winding but once 
a month. The selling problem must determine how the clocks 
are to be sold. They are to be made to be used in every kind 
of place where people are — in public buildings, offices, cars, 
stores, etc., as well as in homes. To prepare the plans for the 
selling and advertising campaigns it is necessary to know all 
about the clock, from the wood or other material used for the 
cases to the smallest bit of mechanism in it; all about the 
processes of manufacture ; all about the costs of making, hand- 
ling, selling, and installing; all about its time-keeping quality, 
including the scientific tests, and especially the principles upon 
which it operates. 

4. Study of the Field. — Then the field for selling the 
clock must be carefully studied. What are the new uses to 
which it can be put? Why should it be installed in every 
room of big office buildings, of hotels, of schools, of public 
buildings; in every street and steam car; in some conspicuous 
place at every street crossing, etc., as well as in all rooms in 
private houses ? How will the fact that the time may be taken 
by all, wherever they may happen to be, help them? What is 
the money value to the business man of knowing the time at 
any moment? Why are these clocks necessary when most 
persons carry watches? 


5. study of the People. — Having settled these points, 
the next question is, How will the arguments be received? 
What sort of persons will be more likely to think favorably of 
this clock? Who are able to buy them? Where are they? 
How can they be reached? This is a phase of the selling by 
advertising that requires much thought, and much hard work. 
There must be complete answers to all of these questions, and 
many more, before the advertising campaign can be planned. 
Doubtless an expert advertising manager would spend from a 
month to a year on this particular phase of his preparation; 
the more time he spent studying the people to whom he hoped 
to sell, the better it would be for the new clock. The more 
expert he was, in ability to get at the disposition of classes of 
people, and the more definitely he went into the matter, the 
better it would be for the business when the selling actually 
began. This study must be concluded with a definite estimate 
of the number of the clocks that can possibly be sold in the 
field selected, and upon this estimate the advertising and 
selling plans must be built. 

6. The Marketing Plan. — It may be thought that a mar- 
keting plan has no very close relationship to advertising. But 
it has the closest possible relationship. Without a well-con- 
sidered marketing plan, there is no guaranty that either the 
advertising or the selling campaign will succeed; but with a 
marketing plan carefully worked out, as it may be and should 
be, chance becomes a very small factor and results may be pre- 
dicted with accuracy. A careful study of conditions gives the 
manager of any business the data needed to enable him to fix 
closely the minim\im volimie of his business far in advance, 
and especially the character and logical results of the adver- 
tising campaign. Educational work among organizations of 
advertising men, and the investigations of business problems 
by concerns organized for that purpose, are proving that with 
the proper marketing plan, and an advertising and selling 
campaign rigidly carried out in line with that plan, a high rate of 
efficiency is possible. Inefficiency in advertising is often due to 
the fact that no good marketinr^ plan is worked out in advance 


7. Consideration of Investment Required. — The 

investment needed must be considered in the marketing plans. 
If the investment has been already fixed, the marketing plan 
must be adjusted to that amount. If it is yet to be fixed, the 
marketing plan must include estimates of production and oper- 
ating ex])cnsc for the guidance of those who are to finance the 
business. These estimates will be influenced by the knowledge 
of the goods, the field, and the selling methods that the market- 
ing plan brings to the front ; so that it may be possible to deter- 
mine the amount of money needed to accomplish what has been 
foreshadowed. It should be possible for the marketing investi- 
gator to report about what amount of money would be neces- 
sary to produce and sell a fixed number of clocks in a given time. 
It is also important to know the length of time required for the 
turnover of the capital — how soon there will be returns on the 

8. There Must Be Quality. — It is futile to attempt to 
market a product through advertising unless the article is of 
such a character as to back up the advertising. It is not neces- 
sary to invoke sentiment to come to this conclusion. Honesty 
in advertising means .success in advertising; at least in the gen- 
eral campaign. In local and transient advertising there is 
offered the opportunity the faker needs for a quick turn — a 
quick "getaway." In general advertising there is not that 
opportunity. It is a slower process. It does not make a 
quick strike, and offer a chance for a rapid change of policy. 
Its success depends on the quality of the thing advertised. 

9. General advertising does not usually sell goods direct, 
except through mail-order advertising, which is not consid- 
ered now. Its object is to send purchasers to the retailer. It 
suggests; the retailer sells. The bux'cr has plenty of time and 
opportunity to form his judgment. It is the thing itself that 
is bouglit, and bought after it has been seen and tested; and 
the personality and guaranty of the retailer are back of the 
transaction. General advertising is infonnation service to the 
buyer. Therefore, as a business proposition, it is quite use- 
less to tell a ])crson about a tiling, suggest an examination and 


test, offer a guaranty as to its quality, and then try to palm off 
on him something that is inferior to the representations. This 
business principle is what makes general advertising truthful, 
and generally advertised goods of known and stable quality. 

10. Quality of Advertised Goods Must Be Main- 
tained. — The quality of generally advertised goods is, in a 

way, guaranteed to continue as begun, or to become better. 
It is often planned to reduce advertising after there has been 
a thorough introduction of the goods, and to depend on the 
goods themselves to promote their sale. This is not a good 
policy, but it tends to induce the manufacturers to keep quality 
up to the high mark. Otherwise, the continued sale of the 
goods would tend to diminish trade in them, rather than to 
increase it. It is often noticed that, after a lavish policy of 
advertising to introduce a new line of goods, there may be a 
time when there is little, or even no, advertising done. Then 
after a time the advertising may begin again. Sometimes 
manufacturers never do begin again to advertise, after having 
once stopped. There is a long list of extinct goods that have 
disappeared from the market because the advertising was dis- 
continued. Perry Davis' Painkiller, Plymouth Rock Pants, 
to name no more, are now memories, and hardly that. Once 
they were among the most famous and successful of advertised 
goods. Many concerns have dipped into general advertising, 
without having a proper marketing plan, and have been crip- 
pled or ruined by the experience. The good article and the 
right advertising plan have always been successful if worked 
together; and it is quality in the goods that makes success pos- 
sible — along with the right plan of advertising. 

11. Unadvertised Goods. — It is often urged against 
advertising that there are in the market unadvertised brands 
of goods that have always enjoyed large sales and that have 
made their owners much money. This is true, if we mean by 
advertising only such as is printed in newspapers or periodicals. 
There are goods that have never been thus advertised. Treat- 
ing this subject, one of the best known univcrsit}^ professors 
teaching advertising, writes: "There is at least one firm of 


non-advertising wholesalers and manufacturers of men's fur- 
nishings whose name on goods means just as much to buyers in 
general as the name of some advertising manufacturer." If 
the name of this firm means just as much as that of an adver- 
tising manufacturer, how did it come to have such meaning? 
That a concern does not advertise in the newspapers or maga- 
zines does not prove that it does not advertise, and in a very 
effective manner. Probably it cost as much to get the name of 
this firm to mean as much to buyers as it has cost any adver- 
tising firm. Probably it cost a great deal more, in time and the 
patient education of the buying public. In some way people 
have to be told about goods, and about firms that sell goods. 
Whatever method is adopted, it is advertising. It may be by 
the use of large spaces in magazines and newspapers, or it may 
be through devoting years to reputation building. Both are 

12, Advertised Goods Benefit tlie Retailer. — Gen- 
erally advertised goods have been developed to a point where 
they are a real benefit to the retailer as well as to the consumer. 
For the consumer they have standardized qualities and prices. 
For the retailer they have provided commodities that are easily 
handled, do not create waste in handling, do not deteriorate 
in stock, do not require argument to sell, and allow of rapid 
turnover in stock. They offer small profits, but as they are 
turned over and over, and need not be carried in large quan- 
tities, the annual profits are often large. They are standard- 
ized as to quality, and therefore the retailer does not suffer if 
in some instances they are found below grade, as the manu- 
facturers make good such losses. 

13. Manufacturer's Service to the Retailer. — The 

manufacturer of generally advertised goods usually helps the 
retailer with his advertising, gives the services of demon- 
strators, and sometimes sends experts to study the whole ques- 
tion of retailing in the town. One of these manufacturers 
furnishes expert solicitors who make a thorough canvass of the 
region in the general interests of the store handling its goods. 
These canvassers do not work exclusively for the goods of their 


employer, but try to boost the store in every way possible. 
When they have finished- in a town they give the merchant the 
benefit of all they have learned, and advise him how best to 
promote his business. It is argued, with truth, that some of the 
advertising offered by manufacturers to retailers is of little use 
to them. This is not so true now as it was once. The quality 
of the assistance offered to retailers by progressive manufac- 
turers is improving. 

14. Generally advertised goods are better for the retailer 
to handle, because the advertising has sold them in advance for 
him. Not actually made the specific sale, to be sure, but so 
firmly established in the public mind the idea of quality and 
efficiency that the labor of selling is reduced to simply finding out 
the present needs of the buyer. If a person wishes oatmeal, 
for example, there is no argument needed to convince him of 
the quality of H O, or Quaker, or Hecker's, or any of several 
other brands. He will probably merely ask for H 0, or Quaker, 
the trade name having actually taken the place of the more 
strictly descriptive name. 

15, Importance of Good Faitli. — ^In making the market- 
ing plan, the value of good faith should be carefully considered; 
it is one of the business fundamentals of advertising. The best 
advertising any manufacturer can do is to make people sure 
that he means to treat them fairly. So far as the morality of 
advertising is concerned, it is of course incumbent upon all 
business men to be fair, and to refrain from cheating. Adver- 
tising is merely telling people something. If it is the truth 
people will believe it, and will trust the statements of the 
advertiser who has built a reputation for truth-telling, and his 
advertising will have a much larger percentage of efficiency in 
his campaigns. If advertising is believed it is far more effec- 
tive than if it is distrusted. The misleading advertisement is 
believed but once by the reader who responds to it and the 
manufacturer who misrepresents his goods must constantly 
win new customers, because the buyers who have been duped 
work against him all the time. 


1 6. Form of Advert ising Copy. — The matter of the copy 
and form of advertisements is treated in detail in other Sec- 
tions, but it is of great importance that it be given the proper 
attention when the marketing plans arc being considered. The 
goods may be right, the general selling and advertising plans 
may be carefully and properly thought out, there may be plenty 
of money for prosecuting them, there may be skilled and 
talented men to put them into operation, yet the great problem 
is to get the right idea regarding the goods ealsily and favorably 
into the minds of the people who are to buy them. This is the 
test of all — the goods, the marketing plan, the selling and adver- 
tising campaigns. So much depends on the first glance the 
reader gives the advertisement that it behooves us to see to it 
that every single item, large or small, which influences .the mind 
in any degree, is very carefully considered, and so worked into 
the physical appearance of the advertisement as to do its full 
share in getting the attention of the reader. 

17. If the advertisement is attractive as a picture, the mind 
of the reader is opened and softened to receive favorably the 
statements in the text. The principles of art which apply to 
the good advertisement are few and simple, but they are only 
slightly less necessary to produce efficient publicity than any 
other element of the advertisement. This is not a matter of 
esthetics. It is not "art for art's sake." It is the hardest 
kind of common sense. We are not favorably attracted to a 
girl who appears in a skirt of flaming red with a blue waist 
and a purple hat. We are not attracted to an advertisement 
that is poorly proportioned, not harmonious, badly balanced, 
wrong in tone, and printed in antagonistic colors. In the one 
case, the girl docs not interest us, and we turn to something 
more harmonious upon which to rest our shocked eyes. In the 
other case, we turn the leaf of the magazine, or the page of the 
newspaper, without having been interested in the advertise- 
ment. Of course, this is all regulated by the class of busi- 
ness ; what would appear out of all harmony in one class might 
meet the taste and requirements of another. There are people 
for whom the glaring style may have the stronger appeal. 


18. Attitude of Publications Toward Their A<Iver- 
tising-. — An important factor to be taken account of by the 
prospective advertiser is the attitude of the publications toward 
their advertising — whether they protect the interests of their 
readers or not. The advertising medium that guarantees its 
readers against loss through its advertising is, other things being 
equal, a better medium than those that do not do so. The 
newspaper or magazine that strictly censors its advertising, 
and guarantees its readers against loss, stands better with its 
readers, and they are certain to place more dependence on the 
advertising it prints. An advertisement partakes, to som.e 
extent, of the character of the mediiim in which it is printed. 
If a newspaper prints doubtful patent-medicine and promo- 
tion advertisements, and does not assume responsibility for 
them, it is not so good a medium for a staple article. The 
doubt is cast over all the advertisements in the paper. 

19. Those publications that profess to safeguard the inter- 
ests of readers are entitled to a more generous treatment by 
the advertisers, because they promise a greater likelihood of 
returns for good articles. Consumers were mulcted by adver- 
tisers for many years, without much relief from publishers. 
Now that publishers are waking up to the importance of estab- 
lishing a bond of good faith with their readers, it is the part of 
wisdom for the advertisers to encourage the movement as much 
as possible. And they find that they profit by doing so. Many 
large advertisers refuse to make any use of publications that 
do not guarantee goods they advertise, or that continue to 
publish advertisements that are evidently meant to deceive 

20. Review and Test of Plan. — The last thing to do in 
forming the marketing plan, before taking up those elements 
in the general advertising campaign that depend more 
especially on conditions not fully controlled by the manu- 
facturer, is to review the whole situation carefully. First, 
each item shoiild be fully gone over. Everything must be 
tested. The advertiser, or the advertising manager or agent, 
must look upon it as an outsider woiild, or as an expert in 

206B— 16 


marketing would. He must think in terms of money — of earn- 
ings — of profits. When he has the plan as near right as he 
thinks possible, he should consult some seasoned advertising 
man, who has ceased to be chaiTned by fine writing or beauty 
of form, and get his critical opinion. Everything depends upon 
the marketing plan. A wrong move at this point will bring 
loss, and perhaps absolute failure. Mistakes are cumulative. 
Their consequences may entail losses ever>^ year for as long as 
the advertised goods are sold. Also, if the marketing plan is 
right at the start it will continue to work for the profit of the 

21. Permit Xo Personal Bias. — It is very important to 
get all personal bias out of the marketing plan. It must be 
made according to accepted principles of trade and selling and 
advertising. Nothing should be taken for granted because a 
person likes it. The marketing plan must not be made to please 
the owner, the manager, or the advertising man. The article 
advertised is to be sold to thousands of people, among whom 
but a very small proportion are likely to think as the owner 
does. The composite character of people must be taken into 
the account of the person who makes the marketing plan. A 
very large and going business has been recently wrecked because 
its president would not consider a minor point from any other 
light than that in which it appeared to him. He was too close 
to his business to see his mistake. 




22. By general campaigns are meant those advertising 
campaigns planned to attract the attention of consimiers gen- 
erally, and in which the advertiser does not retail the goods he 
advertises. The generally advertised goods are supplied to the 
consimiers through retailers, who get their supplies either from 
the manufacturers direct or through jobbers or wholesalers. 
General advertising is also sometimes done to promote sales 
through special salesmen, or by mail. The latter is classed as 
mail-order advertising, and is not considered here. 

23. The General Advertiser. — The general advertiser is 
often the manufacturer of the article advertised, but not always. 
Jobbers, sales agents, and wholesalers sometimes advertise 
products made for them under their special brands, or under 
brands of which they have exclusive selling control. Onyx 
hosiery, advertised by Lord & Taylor, New York, is an example 
of such general advertising. The Normanna canned products 
is another. The Onyx hosiery is specially made for the adver- 
tisers, and the Normanna goods are labeled for the advertisers. 
Shoes, clothing, textiles, a great variety of small goods, such as 
safety razors, and many patented articles, are so made, adver- 
tised, and sold. As a rule, the general advertiser controls the 
sale of the goods he advertises ; but this is not always the case. 
Sometimes it is the method of sale that forms the basis for 
general advertising. Perhaps it is more accurate to say that 
in general advertising there is always an idea of exclusive and 
controlled selling, sometimes embodied in the goods and some^ 
times in the method of advertising and selling. 

I L T 102C— 21 





Bulletins to keep 
alive interest in ad- 


Regular Letters to 


Record of last year's 
purchases by retailer 



Work on salesmen 

Sample Equipment 
Demonstrating in Job- 
ber's salesrooms 
Advertising in Job- 
ber's Catalog 
Mention in salesman's 


Retail Sales 

Advertising in his 
own city— paid for 
by manufacturer 

Paying half his own 
advertising bill 

By educating his 

Special assortment 
plan to make him 
stock advertised goods 

and Letters 

House Organs 



i- Adv 


r Adv 



Billboard Adv 

Electric Signs 

Street Car Adv. 

Painted SiRns 

Theater PrOErams 

Theater Curtains 

House Distributions 

Moving Picture Slides 

Motion Pictures 


Printed Slips in Package 

Sampling Schemes 
Ready-made Ads. 
Window Trims and 
Mechanical Display 
Cut outs 

Coupon redemption 
Individual marking 
Prize offers 

Merchandising helps 
Special weeks 


Prizes to clerks 

Circulars to clerks 

Personal Demonstration: 

Monthly House Organ 

Mailing to Lists 

Store Cards 

Window Cards 

Window Hangers 

Marking wrapping paper 

Novelty special ideas 

Window Pasters 

Car Cards 


Out-door Signs 

Data Book 

Empty Cartons 

Moving Piaure Slides 

Pruned Twme 

Printed Bags 

Printed Envelopes 

Small Working Models 

Printed Fixtures 

Fig. 1 




24. Purpose of the Chart. — ^The -chart, Fig. 1, was 
worked out by one of the younger of the successful adver- 
tising agencies, and has been received with special favor by 
many high advertising authorities. It will not fit the neces- 
sities of all advertisers. Like all formulas that can be devised 
for the assistance of advertisers, it has to be adapted to the 
needs and circumstances of each individual advertiser; some 
items would need to be omitted for some advertisers, and other 
items would have to be substituted. It is not to be taken as 
a perfect or infallible guide. It will furnish the working basis 
for the ordinary campaign, and the advertising manager who 
has made a study of his product, his field, his appropriation, 
and his special line of appeal, can go over it with his pencil, 
checking items he thinks he can make use of, and erasing those 
he knows are of no use to him, thus getting a framework for 
the schedule he will finally evolve and perfect. 

The schedule will be seen to include most of the work that 
would be required for a campaign designed to interest consimiers 
in an article of universal use, through the dealers. It provides 
also for the education of the selling force and the jobbers. It 
attempts to do that which is not found necessary in many gen- 
eral campaigns — interest and enlist all avenues of trade, and 
at the same time attract consumers. Any of the branches of 
this advertising chart can be cut off and still the suggestions 
for a campaign will be fundamental and constructiveh^ sug- 
gestive and helpful. 


25. Effective Distribution Necessary.— If a certain 
product is generally advertised, the advertising will not be 
profitable unless the article may easily be obtained by those 
who are interested in the advertising. So a thorough plan 
for distribution must be adopted. . Advertising must be 
unusually strong to induce people to make much effort to 
obtain the goods. A new breakfast food must be on sale at 


most grocery stores, if the advertising is to be productive. 
The distribution plans must be perfected and in operation 
before general advertising is begun. The impulse to buy, 
created by an advertisement, is not longlived. If the article 
is not easily available, the interested reader is content to take 
something else. 

It is possible to secure distribution by waiting for general 
advertising to bring so many inquiries as to induce dealers to 
stock the article, but this is a long and costly method, and not 
in favor with careful merchandisers. It is very irritating to 
buyers to find that an advertised article is not available. Failure 
to obtain advertised articles easily, creates a prejudice against 
them, and limits the value of subsequent advertising, even after 
distribution has been gained. 

26. Distribution Methods of General Adv^ertisers. 

Usually the general advertiser does not sell at retail. The line 
between advertisers who may be called general and those who 
advertise to attract the trade of certain restricted areas is not 
clearly drawn. Some general advertisers sell direct to users, 
as the Regal vShoe Company, the makers of Rexall drugs and 
remedies, and some other concerns. The International Corre- 
spondence Schools have their own salesmen in the field, though 
they are general advertisers. They also sell by mail ; and there 
are many concerns that sell by mail in order to supply trade that 
cannot conveniently reach a store carrying the goods. These 
are mail-order advertisers as well as general advertisers. There 
are manufacturers who refer orders received by mail to retailers 
to whom they supply the goods. There are many points of 
contact between general and mail-order advertisers. Manu- 
facturers often begin to sell b>' mail and later supph' the demand 
through retailers — through the trade — by way of jobbers or 
wholesalers. It may be said that ever>^ commodity must be 
handled with reference to itself — that there is no code of pro- 
cedure that a new advertiser of an article designed for general 
use can follow. 



27. Manufacturer to C'onsuuier.— The small store must 
buy in small quantities. The wholesaler, who is willing to 
break original packages, must serve the small store. The 
manufacturer or the jobber cannot do it. The manufacturer 
sells to the commission man or broker, who handles goods in 
large quantities and is content with a small percentage of profit. 
He sells to the jobber or wholesaler, who charges a profit large 
enough to warrant the breaking of packages, the carrying of a 
large number of small accounts, and the services of an army 
of salesmen. The usual courses of goods from manufacturer 
to consumer are as follows : 

1. The manufacturer produces the goods. Sometimes he 
is his own selling agent. Sometimes his whole product goes 
to jobbers, and he is known only by the jobbing trade. He 
loses his identity, and usually his goods lose their identity under 
the marks and brands of the jobbers. This plan is steadily 
falling into disfavor, and manufacturers are endeavoring to 
capitalize their own distinctive goods through trade-marks, etc., 
and are trying to make packages that are available for the small 
as well as the large dealers. The tendency is for the manu- 
facturer to get closer to the consumer. 

2. The commission man, broker, sales agent, and often the 
importer are men who take the product from the producer 
and distribute it to large buyers and distributing concerns, 
and in some cases to the retailers. In the grocery and pro- 
vision trade, for example, the commission men deliver goods 
to the small stores at the producers' prices, charging the buyer 
a commission for acting as his agents. Butter, coffee, tea, 
fruit, vegetables, and many other products are thus handled, 
though not exclusively so handled. The retailer of coffee buys 
through the commission man, and pays him a commission of 
2 per cent., paying the price quoted on the day of the trans- 
action. The retailer buys coffee also of the wholesaler from 
whom he buys other groceries, because his business may be too 
small to permit him to take coffee in the original packages 
and make his own blends, or he may not be able to establish 


a credit with the commission man, or pay as promptly as is 
necessary. Commission men often handle the entire product 
of mills, importers, regions where garden truck is grown, 
creameries, etc., so that to get a certain advertised brand of 
butter, Hke Fox River butter, it is necessary to buy of a cer- 
tain commission man. 

3. The jobber and wholesaler sell in smaller quantities to 
retailers, as explained previously. They buy in large quan- 
tities, often direct from the producers, and often from the com- 
mission men, brokers, sales agents, importers, etc. They 
usually break packages to suit the convenience of the retailers. 
The jobber and the wholesaler are not just the same in all lines 
of business. In some lines they are practically identical, and 
in all are so similar as to allow classing them together here. 
They are close to the retailer, and are willing to accommodate 
their terms and service to the retailer's necessities. 

4. The retailer buys from all large sellers — the original 
producer, the importer, the commission man, the jobber, or 
the wholesaler — according to the article, his trade, his capital, 
his convenience. 

5. The general mail-order house buys from the manufacturer, 
through any of the middlemen; or may manufacture or import 
some of its supplies. It sells direct to the consumer. Usualh', 
it seeks to eliminate references to manufacturers, such as trade- 
marks, and causes itself to be regarded by the consumer as the 
house of origination. 

6. The consumer buys mostly from retailers, though he is 
getting into the habit of buying from those manufacturers 
who cater to consimicr trade, such as the Larkin Soap Com- 
pany, creameries and egg farmers, and from mail-order houses. 

28. Trade Chart. — Fig. 2 shows the different routes that 
products take in going from the manufacturer to the consumer. 
The line from a to ^ shows the route in cases where the manu- 
facturer sells by mail direct to the consumer ; a h k, the route 
where the manufacturer does not sell direct, but sells to a gen- 
eral mail-order house that sells direct to the consumer; and 
ai j k, the route in which there is a middleman between the 




Fic. 2 


mail-order house and the manufacturer. Consideration of 
mail-order channels of trade does not come properly in this 
Section, the routes being shown merely for comparison with the 

The line ab c d k shows the route taken by many products 
handled by commission men (or brokers, sales agents, impor- 
ters, or exporters) and jobbers (or wholesalers). In this case, 
there are three middlemen between the manufacturer and the 
consimier; however, the dealer b is out of the chain in many 
instances, the manufacturer in such cases selling direct to the 
jobber or wholesaler, who in turn supplies the retailer. In 
such a case, the route would he aef k, making two middlemen 
between the manufacturer and the consumer. The remaining 
route a g k is the one by which the manufacturer sells direct 
to the retailer, there being only one stop between the manu- 
facturer and the consumer. 

Unadvertised goods of a staple nature, such as flour, cot- 
ton goods, unbranded shoes, hats, etc., usually pass through 
more hands than do such special and advertised articles as 
a BvuToughs adding machine, a Knox hat, an E. & W. collar, etc. 


29. Advertising an Advantage to the Consumer. 

General advertising tends to the advantage of the consumer 
by cutting out some of the middlemen. The less nimiber of 
hands a product passes through, leaving a profit in each one, 
the less the consumer is likely to pay for it. There is a distinct 
tendency in business to bring the producer and consimier nearer 
together. General advertising tends also to make retailing 
easier. It makey consumers familiar with products, and 
enables them to decide what brands to purchase. It establishes 
for example, the qualities of Gold Medal flour so that the house- 
wives ask for it. Through the sale of advertised goods, the 
retailer is able to keep his stock within narrower lines. He can 
turn over his stock oftener, and he does not have to argue to 
sell. So far as the retailer is concerned, generally advertised 
goods sell themselves. 


30. Older Mclhocls Affected by Advertising. — The 

older method of selling through jobbers made it necessary for 
the manufacturer to cultivate the jobber, and the jobber was 
averse to the handling of new lines. Now that general adver- 
tising creates a constmier demand for products, the necessity 
for the jobber is not so obvious. He becomes an unnecessary 
element of expense to the consiuner, in many lines of goods. 
The general advertising creates the demand, and all distributive ^ 
agencies become less and less salesmanship agencies. The 
advertising causes the consumer to demand the special goods, 
the retailer passes the demand on to his jobber, and the jobber 
to the manufacturer. The manufacturer does the selling, 
through his advertising. 

31. Tlie Middlemen. — While it seems to be the object, 
and the effect, of some general advertising campaigns to elimi- 
nate the middlemen, and especially the jobber, it must not be 
concluded that all jobbers are to be done away with, nor that 
advertising is going to make it possible for consumers to be 
served direct from the manufacturer, or that only the retailer 
will stand between the manufacturer and the consumer. There 
is a pronounced tendency in this direction, as in the case of the 
biscuit makers, the beef packers, makers of specialties like the 
Heinz products, candy makers, etc. But even in these lines 
it is doubtful if the consiimer benefits greatly by reason of the 
distributing schemes adopted by the manufacturers, save as 
to the freshness of the goods. The expense of maintaining great 
systems for distributing their goods, like those of the National 
Biscuit Company, the Loose-Wiles Biscuit Company, the Heinz 
Company, the Swift Company, the Armour Company, etc., is 
immense — perhaps as great as the expense of handling the goods 
through jobbers. The advantages seem to be largely for the 
benefit of the producing companies, enabling them to keep their 
goods fresh in the shops of the retailers, to keep close watch 
on credits, to make collections, and to be ready to fill orders on 
the spot. 

32. The Office of tlie Jobber. — The greater number of 
retailers are not able to dispense with the benefits the jobbers 


can give them, in the way of breaking packages, extending 
credits, nursing trade, and helping out in the many ways the 
modem jobber has fallen into. The jobber makes one organiza- 
tion handle the distribution of hundreds of products, care for 
the credits of thousands of customers; he keeps retailers in 
touch with general trade conditions, helps them with their 
business problems, and acts the part of the trade big brother. 

33. WTiere Jobbers Are a Detriment. — A reason that 
is leading manufacturers to omit jobbers from their selling 
plans, and turn with more confidence to advertising, is their 
desire to resume control of their product. The jobber may get 
his shoes, for example, one year from a certain manufacturer, 
taking the total output of a factory. The next year he may 
buy of another maker, and leave the other one without a mar- 
ket for his output. As a big shoe manufacturer expressed it, 
the manufacturers have come to the conclusion that they may 
as well own their own business for longer than one year. 

34. In another way the jobbers tend to check and limit 
the distribution of advertised goods. For every line of goods 
that advertising has standardized, there are a dozen in the field 
for the same purposes that never are advertised and that are 
usually sold at a slightly lower pric(^. The jobbers furnish the 
distribution for them, and not infrequently push them in prefer- 
ence to the advertised lines, when possible. It is the pursuance 
of this policy that has prompted the big advertisers to consider 
cutting the jobber out. 

35. Partial Use of Jobbers. — The manufacturer need 
not be restricted to selling through a jobber or selling direct 
to retailers. He may sell to large retailers direct, and allow 
the jobbers to supply the small retailers, taking care that his 
prices do not conflict with the jobbers', and that his adver- 
tising does not in any way favor the large retailers. It is 
necessary for the manufacturer, who relics upon advertising 
to build his trade, to see to it that constmiers get the same prices. 
It will net do for him to sell big stores so low as to allow them 
to cut the retail price below the figure for which the small retailer 


can sell. If the goods are trade-marked, and standardized by 
advertising, it is of the first importance that the retail price 
be also standardized. 

36. When Manufacturers May Retail. — Manufacturers 
sometimes, in introducing a new article, find it expedient, both 
to secure distribution and to get thorough publicity, to under- 
take to sell to retailers, or even to consumers, for a time; and 
after the article has become so well known as to have created 
a steady demand, the business is often turned over to the jobbers. 

37. Selling Specialties. — Some general advertisers own 
and operate their own retail stores, or agencies, or distribute 
their goods through their own peculiar organizations. Exam- 
ples are such concerns as the Borroughs Adding Machine Com- 
pany, International Correspondence Schools, most typewriter 
companies, the National Cash Register Company, the Regal 
Shoe Company, makers of safes, machinery, and many other 
products. These advertisers sell direct by mail, in case of 
request or necessity, though they are not to be classed as mail- 
order advertisers. Many shoe manufacturers own, or control, 
retail stores, but not many of them are strictly general adver- 
tisers. W. L. Douglas, the pioneer, is a large advertiser, but 
not a general advertiser. He advertises in the towns and cities 
where he has stores. This is true of many large advertisers, 
as the great "chain" drug and cigar and grocery stores, the 
owners of which make many of the goods sold. 

38. Clioosing the Trade Channel. — Many things are to 
be considered in choosing the proper trade channel by which 
nationally advertised goods are to be sent to the consumers. 
The foregoing descriptions of the several -channels will help 
to decide. The advertiser rnay study the experience of others 
in his line, and he may use his judgment. The matter of his 
capital, his manufacturing facilities, his experience in selling, 
his willingness to install a selling department, and many other 
things are to be thought about. Trade conditions, whether 
jobbers now control like lines, whether shi]jping conditions 
favor the jobber or the manufacturer, whether retailers can 
buy in original packages, etc., must be investigated. 


39. Exclusive Agencies. — Some articles should be 
handled by exclusive agencies, such as the advertised and trade- 
marked clothing, hats, shoes, etc. Agencies for such goods 
are valuable, because the makers have created good-will by 
general advertising. The exclusive agency for an advertised 
article universally used, and subject to intense competition, 
like hosiery, is not usually found advisable. Consimiers will 
not take the trouble to visit stores where they have not been 
accustomed to trade to get, for example, Holeproof hosiery 
or Arrow collars. These must be carried by all haberdashers, 
or a great percentage of the advertising done for them will be 



40. Importance of Suitable Name. — The name of the 
article to be advertised is very important. If it is catchy and 
interesting, as well as descriptive, it is a large element in the 
success of the advertising. If it has no close relation to the 
thing advertised, has to be explained, and the public must be 
educated to remember it and to realize that it belongs to some- 
thing that they need, it is a handicap to the advertising, and 
makes it difficult to show results. A name for an advertised 
article should make readers think of that article in an agree- 
able way, and be easy to remember and to pronounce. No 
reader should be uncertain about its meaning or pronunciation. 
It is costly to make advertising bear the burden of explaining 
these things. 

41. The Sound of a Name. — The selection and arrange- 
ment of certain consonants and the use of vowels are also of 
vital importance in coining a word. Certain letters are more 
pleasing and better adapted than others to begin a word. 
Among these are L, R, K, and T. 

The letter K has been found particularly attractive as an 
initial one; as in the words Kabo, Kalamazoo, Karo, Kodak, 


etc. Possibly it is the faet that this letter is used very little 
to begin common nouns that makes it seem especially popular 
in coining. C, pronounced like K, has been used in a number 
of trade marks; Calox, Co-Arda, and Coca-Cola are examples. 
Long vowels give a more musical sound to the word. Short e 
or short i combined with t, p, or b, tends to give a lighter or 
humorous effect. Alliteration in syllables, as well as in com- 
pound words, pleases the ear and makes the word easier to 
remember, as Pompeian, Dove Dimity, Jap-a-lac, etc. ; or, the 
first and last letters may be the same, as Cadillac. 

42. Name Should Suggest Quality and Utility. — The 

cue to the advertisement shordd be the quality and utility of 
the thing advertised, rather than that it was made by W. L. 
Douglas, John Smith, or Peter Jones. Uneeda has become 
one of the best known of advertised names, but it tells nothing 
about the biscuit whose name it is. It is a clever name, if one 
were to assimie that everybody knows it means a biscuit and that 
everybody is satisfied that it is a good biscuit. Literally, the 
suggestion that it conveys to the reader is that she needs some 
biscuit, not that she needs a particular biscuit. This natural 
inference has been overcome through having the name used as 
a trade-mark and exclusively for one make of biscuit. But 
the fact is that advertising has had to labor a long time, and 
at great cost, to drive this into the consciousnesses of people, 
and fix it there. It is a mooted question if the sale of the cracker 
might not have been better promoted, at a less cost, if a name 
that suggested the particular biscuit and its quality had been 
adopted. That the business has been successful, using this 
name, does not prove that it might not have been more suc- 
cessful at less cost if another name had been adopted. 

Another biscuit name is Sunshine, and much is made of the 
fact that its makers have built factories having many win- 
dows. They furnish light and air for the working people. 
In advertising they suggest cleanliness, and a certain lightness 
to the product. But even with so pleasing a name, it is likely 
that more must be spent to advertise the factory windows than 
should be spent. Probably a less general name and one more 


applicable to the partictilar line could be chosen. Advertising 
has had to build up many names that have nothing to do with 
the quality or economy of the articles advertised. It should 
not be called upon to do it. 


43. The Advertising Value of llie Package. — The 

package in which the advertised goods is offered may be one 
of its most efificient advertisements. Sometimes it is. Some- 
times it is one of the things that kill the article, and make the 
advertising ineffective. The package ought to be good to 
look upon, to suggest the nature and quality of the contents 
and give an idea of its worth. It is a matter for serious and 
expert consideration. 

In planning the package it is necessary to think of many 
things, but first among these should be the idea of the adver- 
tising value of the carton, the bag, the box, or the can. Its 
apparent size must be considered, its shape, material, make, 
color, and [particularly the printed matter to be put on it. 
The buyer's ideas must be kept in mind whether the design 
suits the artistic ideas of the o^^^ler or the advertising manager 
or not. The package is as much a problem in applied psychol- 
ogy^ as is the form of the advertisement that is printed in the 
magazine. The package is seen on the shelves of dealers all 
over the land, and is all the time appealing to all kinds of 

44. Expcrlence.s Witli Good and Bad Packages. — A 

certain article of household use was put on the market and 
failed. It was liberally advertised, and pushed by competent 
p'desmen. It failed because the color of the carton used made 
ii- look smaller than another article for the same use. It had 
to be withdrawn from the market, a new carton devised that 
made it look larger than its rival, though weighing exactly the 
same, and a new start made. All the work and expense of the 
first trial was wasted, because the designer of the carton did not 
think to considt the laws of oi)tics. There is a line of foods, 


the Premier brand, that has packages so simple and attractive 
that the brand is easily recognized on the shelves of any grocer. 
Some of the cereal foods are packaged so attractively that it is 
hard to resist the temptation to buy them. How easy it is to 
bu}^ the Domino sugar packages, and pay more for them than 
bulk prices. 

45. It is to be said that among packages seen in retail stores 
there are but few that appeal to the buyer. Many are dull 
and uninteresting. They might always be attractive. If they 
were, sales would be greatly increased. A certain cheap toilet 
soap, called Briar Rose, which had never been advertised, was 
given a new box, designed by a competent commercial artist, 
and the sales were immediately trebled. The Crofut & Knapp 
hats were put into boxes handsomely designed, and the sales 
jumped at once. The alarm clock called Big Ben is sold in a 
neat box, which is constantly used by jewelers and other dealers 
with the clock in their window displays. The box helps to sell 
a clock that is sold at a price as high as the trade will stand. 
Some apple raisers market the fruit in attractive and con- 
venient cartons and boxes, and get 50 to 100 per cent, above 
market prices. 

46. An Attractive Package Influences Dealers. — Ad- 
vertising of distinctive brands has led to packaging goods in 
so attractive a fashion as to make them desired by buyers and 
to be objects of real decorative value in stores. There is an 
owner of a chain of groceries who has worked out a color and 
decorative scheme for his stores, by arranging package goods. 
H6 makes his store a picture. He has photographs, and all of 
his stores are arranged like them, so that in addition to making 
them pleasing pictures for all visitors they are uniform in 
arrangement and he can shift clerks about without interrupting 
their efficiency a moment. This is of great value to the retailer. 
Such clever use of packaged goods adds materially to profits. 
It is certainly the most effective advertising possible. It is 
much more important that the buyer shall have an agreeable 
sensation as he enters a store than that he shall be filled with a 
catalog of the \drtues of the goods. 

2V, MAXACEMFA'T r)F §21 


47. Trade-marked gocKls have a distinct place in mer- 
chandising, and their treatment has become somewhat different 
from that accorded other goods, in selling and advertising. 
Manufacturers of distinctive goods find it good policy to spend 
much money establishing trade-marks, and have usually adopted 
a plan of distribution, prices, and advertising calculated to 
repay the money. The name of a product is often the trade- 
mark also. 


48. Tlie Trade-Mark. — -The trade-mark is usually wrought 
into some design, and it is the design that is protected by the 

patent laws, though the words, or the form of 
words, used are often thus protected. The design 
is not always suggestive of the goods or the con- 
cern making them. It is often an arbitrary s>'m- 
bol, having no significance other than that given 
it by the use made of it ; though most designs used 
as trade-marks have some suggestive meaning 
that is intended to lead the mind to the article 
advertised, as the marks of Baker's chocolate, 

Fig. .3 ' 

Fig. 3; Sherwin & Williams paints; the American 
Bell Telephone companies; Ostermoor mattress makers, Fig. 4. 

The trade-mark is sometimes the name 
of the maker of the article, as Steinwa>' 
pianos, Chickering pianos, Williams' shav- 
ing soap, Mennen's talcimi powder, Col- 
gate's shaving cream. Crane's Linen Lawn 
writing paper, Welch's grape juice, Gordon 
hosiery', Gillette safety razors, Packard 

automobiles, etc. The trade-mark is some- 
times a personal signature, as the Edison sig- 
nature, the Wanamaker signature, etc. The 
Fig. o initials of a firm name are used for a trade- 

mark, as R. & G. corsets. Fig. 5, and Nabisco for one of the 
products of the National Biscuit Company. 

Fig. 4 


The trade-mark is often a plirasc or word signifying some 
distinctive quality of the thing advertised, as Shuron for a 
cHp for eye glasses, Ivory for a white soap. Keen Kutter for a 
line of eutlcry and edge tools, Rising Sun for a stove polish, 
Shushine for a shoe polish. Rubber set for bioishes the bristles of 
which are set in liquid rubber. 

The mark of the A. B. Kirschbaum Company, makers of 
men's clothing, is a conventionalized cherry tree, because it is 
explained that Kirschbaum means cherry tree in English. 
Cherry-tree brand of clothing means just a name to buyers, and 
the name means what the advertisers make it mean by their 
theor}^ of business. This motive is a good one for a personal 
mark, or for the basis for a personal coat of arms, but it has no 
particular merit for a trade-mark, since its significance has 
always to be explained, and when understood has no connection 
with clothing or quality. 

49. Trade -Mark Sliould Refer to tlie Goods. — As an 

advertising proposition, the trade-mark that has no connec- 
tion with the goods, as descriptive of them 
or as suggestive of their quality or use, is 
expensive. It is pointed out that trade- 
marks like Mennen's, Fig. 6, are very valu- 
able, which is true. It is also true that if 
Mr. Mennen could have brought himself to 
choose a mark that indicated quality in his 
goods, and had spent the same amount of F'^- ^ 

money advertising the goods under the trade-mark, it is likely 
that both the business and the trade-mark might have been 
more valuable now. 

50. The trade-mark should lead true to the vital quality 
of the goods. It is a part of the advertisement. It should not 
be a mere shibboleth, nor should it claim superlative virtue. 
Nonesuch as a name for a prepared mince meat is a super- 
lative, implying that no other mince meat is as good, which 
may be true, but is improbable. The Douglas shoe has the 
portrait of the owner for a trade-mark, and it is now very 
valuable. It has been used in advertising for many years, 

I L T 102C— 22 



and has become so familiar to readers of newspapers as to enable 
them to single out the advertisement without loss of time, to 
read it or to pass it over. This also took 
much advertising. The idealized portrait of 
Mr. Woodbury, Fig. 7, on the package and in 
the advertising of the Woodbur)- facial soap, 
on the other hand, has significance, as it sug- 
gests to men with skin troubles the desirability 
of having a countenance as unclouded and 

Fig 7 

flawless as the trade-mark, and holds out the 
unvoiced hope that this soap may help them. 

51. The Ideal Trade-Mark. — The ideal office of the trade- 
mark is to guarantee the goods — to assure the reader of the 
advertisement that he will be served in the same manner all 
the time, and that he can rest easy on the score of quality. 
Used for this purpose, and to supplement careful advertising, 
the trade-mark is of great value to the maker of standardized 
goods. Discriminating buyers are willing to pay in the vicinity 
of from 10 to 25 per cent, advance for the sake of getting goods 
guaranteed by trade-marks. Men do it for hats, hosier3% 
shirts, ties, and for sporting goods. Women do it for mil- 
linery, hosiery, suits, and for domestic supplies. Beechnut 
bacon sells for about twice the price of ordinary strip bacon. 
Deerjoot sausages and pork products sell well above the market. 
Normanna products sell something like 20 per cent, above the 
market. Certain brands of print butter sell for more than 
double the price of first-class Elgin butter. Htiyler's candies 
sell for more than as good goods without the trade name; as 
do Belle Mead sweets, and other brands with advertised trade- 
mark names. 

52. Trade-Mark Prevents Siib.stitiition. — The con- 
sistent use of trade-marks tends to prevent substitution. It 
would be impossible to substitute another soap for Woodbury's 
or Cuticura or Pears, if the buyer asked for them b>- name, as 
he would. The mark fixes in the mind of the buyer the article 
he wants, and it is not possi])k" for any imitator to use the 
mark on packages intended for substitutes. The trade-mark 


establishes a habit. It helps buyers to decide. Soap is not 
merely soap, but Pears, Colgate's, Cuticura, Resinol, or some 
particular brand of soap. It establishes the habit of thinking of 
a mark or a phrase. The phrase used by Colgate to advertise 
a tooth paste, "A miss is as good as her smile," is a great asset 
to that house, though not exactly a trade-mark. It is of the 
nature of that other less clever phrase, "See that hump?" which 
once did such yeoman's service in building a great business. 
To think of one of these clever and money-making sayings, and 
to apply it in otherwise good advertising, is an evidence of 

53. All Appeal to the Consumer. — The good trade- 
mark, properly used on packages and in advertising, is a bridge 
that connects the manufacturer with the consumer, and obliges 
the jobber, the wholesaler, and the retailer to cooperate with 
the manufacturer in his work of popularizing his product. It 
is one of the most effective consumer appeals available. If a 
jobber begins to handle trade-marked goods, he must con- 
tinue to use them. It is not possible for him to shift to other 
makes. The trade-mark, which has been accepted by the 
buyers, holds him fast. When women demand Fruit of the 
Loom sheeting they are going to have it, and the retailer is 
going to see that it is available for them. No other sheeting 
will do. So of Heinz's pickles and preserves. If people want 
Heinz goods, the retailers are going to keep them in stock — • 
and the trade-mark has helped to fasten the demand for pickles 
to the Heinz brand. It helps the Heinz concern to take care 
of competition, and it makes it impossible for salesmen to leave 
the employ of the concern and take their trade with them. 

54. Trade -Marked Goods and the Retailer. — The 

advertisers of trade-marked goods do the greater part of the 
work of creating the business for the retailer, and so are in a 
position to ask him to maintain prices and to push his goods. 
There is a certain brand of coffee on the market in New York 
City and nearby suburbs, Ytiban, which was at first received 
by the retail trade with much coolness. It is a blend selling 
for about as much as people are willing to pay for coffee; and 


the handlers make the retailer pay a stiff price for it. The 
enterprising retailer likes to blend his own coffee, as he knows 
that he can by that means get a coffee that his trade will buy, 
at a cost several cents lower than the wholesale price of Vtiban, 
or any other trade-marked coffee. But the Arbuckles chose a 
particiilarly good name, made a very attractive package, and 
put on one of the most attractive advertising campaigns the 
country has ever seen. They created the demand, and now all 
the grocers have to carr>^ the coffee. The blenders made of the 
trade-mark a bridge that put the consumers in touch with 
themselves, and they were able to force the retailers to take 
up their goods. 

55. Forcing: Not Best Policy. — Forcing is not the best 
use to make of the trade-mark, however. Retailers that are 
forced to stock an advertised trade-marked article against what 
they believe to be their interests, form a rather frail reed for 
the manufacturer to lean upon. Those manufacturers of trade- 
marked products who are wise see to it that all of the inter- 
ests of the retailers are protected. They go further, and make 
it possible for the retailers to make more money with their 
goods than with goods not trade-marked. 

56. The Creation of Trade-Marks. — The creation of a 
trade-mark for an article that is to be advertised, and is a staple 
that may be expected to have constant sale, is a matter of very 
great importance, and of great delicacy. It is a task that 
demands imagination and business shrewdness. It should be 
intrusted to capable advertising men, with the cooperation of 
a lawyer who has specialized on patent and copyright law. The 
foregoing paragraphs suggest the nature of the task. It has 
sometimes taken years to get the right mark for a business. 
Sometimes manufacturers have enlisted many people in the 
work, in the form of a competition or paying each one for his 
effort. Sometimes an established mark or symbol is used. 
The National Biscuit Company took the so-called "PlimsoU 
mark" that had been used by Lloyds, of London, to mark a 
seaworthy vessel, and before that by one of the old Italian 
printers. The rather far-fetched idea was that the In-cr-seal 


packages of the National Biscuit Company were to be con- 
sidered as impervious to intruding dampness as the good ships 
insured by Lloyds; an explanation that but few users of Uneeda 
biscuits will ever hear of. Many marks have been taken from 
Japanese books of s>Tnbolic drawings, and from the foundation 
books of design made by English, French, Dutch, and German 

The creation of an original trade-mark that will justify itself 
is the work, as has been said, of an inspired genius. Too much 
pains cannot be lavished upon the task. 

57. Trade-Mark Slioulcl Be Utilized.— When a trade- 
mark has been secured, it should be used in all advertising, 
on every article, on all packages, on all stationery, etc. It 
should be made to accompany, or lead, the thought of the 
article, agreeably and persistently, so that it will always be in 
the minds of people when they think of the article to which it 
applies, and, vice versa, that people will always think of the 
trade-mark when they think of the article. It is sufficient to 
say of an Eastman camera, "It is a Kodak." Kodak has come 
to mean camera, and camera has come to mean Kodak. The 
trade-mark of the United Cigar Stores, Fig. 8, 
is as familiar as any symbol in the United States, 
but as it cannot be spoken it is an identification 
mark only. Until recently the Eastman cam- 
eras and supplies were handled by exclusive 
agents, and their stores were Kodak stores. 
The United Cigar Stores trade-mark would have 
been a thousand per cent, more valuable if it 
had been some word as easy to remember and as euphonious 
as Kodak, so that the stores could have been designated by it. 
This word Kodak, is an ideal trade-mark. It is a manufactured 
word. It meant nothing until the Eastman Company made it 
mean camera. Nothing about it had to be unlearned, ignored, 
or forgotten. It is easy to speak, and easy to remember. Its 
enunciation produces a pleasurable sensation. Its associations 
are all with the camera and all of its psychological elements 
tend to pleasurable attitudes toward the camera. 



58. Trade-Mark a Service to Public. — A distinguished 
trade-mark specialist says: A trade-mark should be a guide 
to the public, indicating what is desirable, and enabling pur- 
chasers to avoid what is undesirable. The reason for its being, 
and the basis of its protection, is service to the public. Strictly 
speaking, it is not a property that belongs to a manufacturer, 
jobber, or retailer, except as it is associated with good-will — ■ 
the good-will of the public. 

59. A Constructive and Protective Force. — To be com- 
pletely efficient, a trade-mark should be both a constructive 
and a protective force; it should be, among other things, appro- 
priate, attractive, pleasing, readily understood, generally and 
universally understood among the nationalities and classes 
embraced within one's merchandising i:)lans; also the trade- 
mark should be easily remembered, easily pronounced, referred 
to, or described, and, if possible, be a stimulus to mental 
imagery. Above all, the trade-mark should be distinctive, 
individual. No trade-mark can be too individual, too widely 
differentiated, or separated, from other trade-marks. 

60. Must Be Simple and Individual. — The easiest way 
to make it individual is to make it simple. Needless detail 
tends to confusion. Illustrative of this are the general run of 
coats of arms and crests. To the average person they are, 
like Chinamen, all alike, really different though they. may be. 

One's legal rights depend absolutely upon the trade-mark's 
individuality. Always there should be before the trade-mark 
designer and prospective user this question: "Has the trade- 
mark before me been adopted and used by any one else, either 
in the identical or similar form?" The answer is vital. 

()1. Inventory of Competition. — In order to arrive at 
such aiiswer, it is necessary to have an inventory of competition; 
that is, Lo search the records of trade-marks registered not only 
in the Patent Office, but among the individual states, which 
protect niarks in much the same way as does the Patent Office, 


sometimes gi\'inj; an additional remedy for infrini^cment, by 
way of criminal punisliment of an offender. 

Besides these registered trade-marks whieh, in the Patent 
Office alone, now reach 150,000, two-thirds of which have been 
registered during the past ten years, there are hundreds of 
thousands of unregistered trade-marks which must be taken 
into consideration, which must not be infringed. 

62. Clean Hands. — Courts demand that those who seek 
protection from unfair competition of any kind, infringement, 
substitution, injurious advertising and the like, must approach 
Justice with clean hands. 

Always there are on trial the rights of the two litigants, not 
the rights of the offended alone. Unguided, uninformed, 
ignorantly, one may have chosen a trade-mark that infringes 
upon the rights of a prior trade-mark. Or he may have used 
his trade mark, whether innocently or not, in a way that tends 
to mislead, though it may not actually have misled the public; 
or he may have injured the public by furthering the sale of 
unla^vful commodities, or even lawful commodities sold in an 
unlawful way. 

63. Patent-Office Requirements.— If a trade-mark is 
to be registered in the Patent Office it must be : 

A coined word, a dictionary word or name used in a fanciful, 
fictitious, or suggestive sense, or any one of about one hundred 
varieties of words, letters, numerals, symbols, signatures, por- 
traits, and the like, singly or in combination, provided such 
trade-mark does not belong to one of the following not family; 
that is to say : 

Not obviously descriptive of the nature, character, quality, 
grade, make-up, ingredients, materials, form, size, decoration, 
color, or appearance of the article, or of its label or package. 

Not the mere name of an individual, corporation, or asso- 
ciation, and never the name, portrait, or signature of a living 
person, without written consent. 

Not the name, distinguishing mark, character, emblem, 
colors, flag, or banner of any institution, organization, club, 
or society. 


Not the emblem of the Loyal Legion, the Red Cross Society, 
the Masonic order, or any military or fraternal body. 

Not composed of the flag, coat of arms, or insignia of the 
United States, or of any state, municipality, or foreign nation,- 
or any simulation thereof. 

Not a mere geographical name. 

Not the mere name of a building or business location. 

Not identical with, nor so similar to a trade-mark previously 
used for articles cf the same nature, that it may deceive or 
confuse unsuspecting, unwar>', ordinary purchasers. 

Not a misrepresentation in itself, or used on a label or in 
association with advertising of a commodity that is such. 

Not obscene. 

Not libelous. 

Not a violation of that veneration, love, or respect which is 
generally known to be associated with certain individuals, 
offices, and stations in domestic, religious, and public life. 

Not used in association with a commodity which is injurious 
to the public or in which trading is unlawful. 

A trade-mark intended for registration in the Patent Office 
must also be: Affixed, printed, branded, or othenvisc impressed 
upon or woven into the commodity, or its label or package, as a 
means of identification. Use in advertising only will not suffice. 

Further, the trade-mark must be actually so used in sales 
and shipments to customers in different states, in foreign 
countries, or among Indian tribes, and be owned by an indi- 
vidual or concern domiciled in the United States, or by an 
individ^.al or concern domiciled abroad which is able to meet 
the special condition in the federal statutes under which regis- 
tration in the Patent Office is made possible. 

64. Expert Advice I)esira])le. — To some of the require- 
ments listed above there are exceptions, and these can be learned 
after careful study of the statutes and decisions; but mani- 
festly in no case is it wise to choose or use or register a trade- 
mark without expert advice from men who give their whole 
time to the problems of trade-mark creation, adoption, use, 
registration, and protection. Trade-marks fall witliin one of 


the biggest problems of business, and now more particularly 
because competition is becoming more tense at home. To 
make this ]Droblem still more burdensome, comes the baffling 
mass of trade conditions in the foreign markets. 

Many trade-marks of value in this country arc misunder- 
stood or offensive abroad. One must go into a range of inquiry 
that may take years, certainly several months, if one is deter- 
mined to do without expert help, and find out conditions by 
himself. What folly to pursue such a course when the trade- 
mark is the very basis upon which good-will rests, that good-will 
being, in a large proportion of the great merchandising suc- 
cesses, the one property without price, because it insures sales 
and the stability of the business— being of the substance which 
will outlast buildings, machiner>^ and men, the substance of 
which friendship and reputation are made. 

65. Importance of Registration. — "Is registration 
necessar3^^" the trade-mark specialist is constantly asked. The 
answer is, emphatically, "Yes," if for no other reason than 
that registration acts as a public and accessible guide to those 
among one's competitors who wish to avoid unfair competition. 
Inasmuch as every infringement, no matter how trifling, would 
in some measure interfere with one's profits and good-will, and 
efforts to put an end to the infringement would cause annoy- 
ance and draw upon one's time, efforts, and means, it is econom- 
ical to make this public record of one's claim. The cost of 
registration is comparatively little in either the Patent Ofhce 
or among the several states. In Latin America, and in several 
countries abroad, registration is in the nature of a franchise 
to do business. Without it, the trade-mark owner is not only 
likely to forfeit his property rights, or marketing rights, but also 
is open to serious embarrassment, loss, and penalties. 

66. Preparedness. — Every worth-while trade-mark is 
open to attack and to misappropriation (infringement) at any 
time, and as the means of overcoming difificiilties are the facts 
and law that can be made to support one's claims, it is advisable 
to establish early relations with counsel quaHfied to prepare for 
any and all contingencies. 


With such service engaged in advance of trouble, one need 
not divert time and energy and means into attempting to be 
one's own lawyer, but rather make the services of the lawyer 
the more economical by a profitable utilization of them. Such 
an adviser will tell the advertiser when his own or others' trade- 
marks are infringed; but better still, if the adviser is of the right 
sort, he will work with his client in constructive plans that will 
reduce infringement, not only in volume but in ultimate effect. 


(PART 2) 




1. Placing Advertising Through Agencies. — ^Having 
considered the marketing problems, the preliminary steps in 
the actual advertising campaign demand attention. One of 
the first things to be decided is whether the advertising is to be 
placed through an agency or direct. If an agency is to be 
employed, it should be chosen, and all of the subsequent work 
done in connection with it. If the agency is to attend to all 
of the planning, copy -writing, selection of mediums, etc., the 
work of the general campaign from this point is performed by 
the agency, in consultation with the advertiser. If the agency 
is to be used for the purpose of placing the advertising and 
checking up the accounts, fixing rates, etc., the constructive 
work must be done by the advertiser. If the advertiser is a 
large concern, it is advisable to have an advertising man- 
ager, even if most of the constructive work is done by the 
agency. If the advertiser is a medium-sized concern, or does 
but a relatively small amount of advertising, it is not necessary 
to employ an advertising manager, but it is essential that the 
agency be selected with great care. 


S 90 


2. Functions of an Advertising Agency. — The agency 
and its functions are considered in a later Section, but some 
explanation here will help in the understanding of campaigns. 
Agencies have two distinct varieties of functions: They act 
for advertisers as publicity advisers and constructive adver- 
tising factors, and they act in a strictly accounting way, placing 
the business that the advertiser has prepared in mediimis 
selected by the advertiser, checking up the insertions and 
the bills. 

The accounting for an advertising campaign is different 
from any of the regular work that goes through ordinary busi- 
ness counting rooms, and cannot well be efficiently handled 
by advertisers unless they install separate organizations for 
the work. This is not economical, unless there is a very large 
advertising business. Even large advertisers have found it 
advisable to turn over to agencies all of the operating work of 
their advertising campaigns. The decision by the advertiser 
as to whether the agency is also to act as advertising manager 
for him is quite a different matter. 

3. Expert Analysis by Agencies. — The better adver- 
tising agencies have a corps of men who are very expert in the 
analysis of marketing conditions, and in making advertising 
campaigns that are calculated to give the advertiser good service. 
They undertake to make all the necessar>^ investigations, and 
advise in accordance with conditions. They work in complete 
harmony with the sales manager, as well as the advertising 
manager, and, while they sometimes fail, they are perhaps more 
likely to succeed than are inexperienced advertising managers, 
or advertising managers of the caliber most advertisers can 
afford to employ. 

4. Advertising Manager and the Agency. — The adver- 
tising manager of a concern that i^laccs its advertising business 
in the hands of an agency usually devotes himself to selling and 
marketing investigations, and to the work of coordinating the 
selling and the advertising. He keeps in touch with the sales- 
men, and tries to help them to work along the lines of the 
advertising. Figurativch\ he sells the advertising to them. 


He studies the field from the point of view of the advertiser^ to 
enable him to both advise and check up the agency. He may 
be said to make a continuous study of marketing, to develop 
new fields and new methods. He advises about new lines of 
goods, and the general policies of the advertiser that bear 
directly on the problems of getting the right goods for the con- 
sumers and getting the consumers for the goods. He passes 
on all the work of the agency, consults constantly with it, and 
directs, in a general way, its work. He rarely concerns himself 
with copy, though his 0. K. is necessary on all copy that is used. 

5. Advertising Manager of Firm Handling Its Own 
Publicity. — The advertising manager of a concern that creates 
and handles its own advertising gets his leads, that is, his knowl- 
edge of the goods, and his ideas regarding the general poUcies 
of the firm, from the selling department and the general manager 
of the business, and devotes most of his time to making adver- 
tising campaigns, producing the advertisements and advertising 
matter, selecting mediums, and managing his force of employes. 
He is not so likely to be dealing with marketing conditions, 
though this depends on the nature of his organization. A few 
managers of this class have assistants who attend to most of 
the routine work, including the preparation of copy and dealing 
with mediums, leaving the manager free to study marketing. 

It will be found that every manager is a law unto himself, 
so far as his definite functions are concerned. No two of them 
work along identical lines. 


6. The advertising appropriation is an important matter to 
be decided after the marketing question has been settled. Most 
advertisers fix their appropriation arbitrarily, in accord with 
their capital, their free funds, what they "can afford to spend," 
or by some rule not strictly based on the necessities of the 
case. Many who are able to command any reasonable sum 
appropriate a fixed percentage of the estimated business— as 
2 per cent., or sometimes as much as 5 per cent. The true 
way is, of course, to spend as much for advertising as is found 


necessary to cam' out plans made after having made a thorough 
analysis of the situation. 

7. Analysis for Determining Appropriation Re- 
quired. — One advertising manager, who has long been known 
as an expert, uses the following plan of analysis where the 
advertising appropriation is being considered: 

Class of Commodity: Necessity — Every family must have it. 

Utility — Most families should have it, but can do without. 

Luxury — No one needs it. Few can afford it. 

Market: Necessity — Universal market, small margin, price competition 
or market conditions control market. Example: Sugar. 

Utility — Fair market, usually must be created, good margin, moderate 
competition. Example: Sewing machine. 

Luxury — Limited market, mostly forced, large margin, little direct 
competition. Example: Billiard tables. 

Restrictions of Market: Distance to trade, freight, express, post, or time. 

Portion of trade normally held by competition. 

Limited producing capacity. 

Limited financing ability. 

Sales Costs Factors: Sales force. 

Promotion, as demonstrations and educational work for future sales. 


Consideratiotis Affecting Appropriation: Per cent, of maximum possible 
sales enjoyed. 

Reduction of operating and overhead costs by increasing volume. 

Increasing frequency of capital turnover. 

Out-advertising competition. 

Extent of credit to trade involved. 

Trade outlook. 

8. Another advertising authority, who is actively engaged 
in planning different advertising campaigns, gives the follo\\4ng 
list of factors to be considered, but says that the problem is 
different for each business : 

Quality of the product. 

Cost and marketing price. 

Necessity or luxury. 

Trade conditions affecting the product. 

Existing competition or possible competition. 

The necessity of acquaintance with advertising. 

Possible per capita sale. 

Life of product. 


Rapidity of consumption. 

Change of fashion or condition. 

Seasonable or constant demand. 

Intermittent or regular demand. 

Sales support of the advertising. 

Territory boundaries controlled by shipping expenses or other conditions. 

Whether there is a general line that would derive benefit from the 
advertising of a single specialty, as there is with Keen Kutter pocket 
knives and Heinz ketchup. 

A subsidiary sale to depend upon, as in talking machines and safety 

The necessity of maintaining demand already created as well as creating 
new demand. 

When considering the possible per capita sale, as indicated in 
the above analysis, an investigation should be made to ascertain 
how many people in the territory under consideration can 
possibly be interested in the article. This analysis of pur- 
chasing ability is considered later on in connection with the 
selection of advertising mediums. 

The important thing to have in mind in fixing the appro- 
priation is the immediate necessities of the case, and getting to 
a fixed percentage of advertising earnings for the advertising 
appropriation as soon as possible. 

9. Application of the Analysis. — ^A careful common- 
sense analysis of a business and the market possibilities along 
the lines mentioned, if used with a knowledge of advertising, 
ought to show the way to fixing the proper appropriation. 
Not much can be said in favor of fixing the appropriation on 
the basis of a percentage of sales for a year that has passed, 
unless it can be positively known that conditions are to be the 
same for the coming year. A great many advertising appro- 
priations are fixed for the purpose of using surplus earnings, to 
absorb savings made in various ways, because a certain sum 
can be spared, according to the caprice of directors or managers, 
and for many reasons not connected with the actual necessities 
of the occasion. For example, an advertising manager planned 
a campaign and estimated the cost. The directors cut his 
estimate in half. He told them he would not spend a dollar 
unless he had the full amount, and explained that if but half 

206B— 18 


the appropriation asked for was to be used, the money would 
be wasted. He had to offer his resignation before he got the 
amount he needed. It would be as sensible for a board of 
directors to order a contractor to go on and build a factory- for 
$50,000 when the architect's plans and estimates called for 
$100,000 as for them to ask an expert advertising manager to 
execute a campaign for $10,000, the cost of which he had esti- 
mated at $20,000. 



10. How Shall the Goods Be Distributed ?— Before the 
general campaign is fixed, and work begun on it, the important 
matter of the relations with the trade channels has to be decided. 
Shall the goods be handled by jobbers, sold direct to retailers, 
or sold to consimiers? This question can be settled only by 
each advertiser. All depends on the nature of the goods. 
Some classes of goods may be handled in any of these ways; 
and then the question is as to the capital and plans of the 
manufacturer. It can be seen that if goods are to be sold 
direct to consumers the advertising campaign will probably 
be a mail-order proposition, and therefore not to be discussed 
in this Section. But if the advertising campaign is to be 
general, it will have to be addressed to consumers, though it 
may be planned to work through either jobbers or retailers. 
The chief object of a general campaign is to create a consumer 
demand, and thus induce jobbers and retailers to stock the 
goods. This is about the only argument jobbers and retailers 
will now listen to. When buyers begin to call for certain goods 
the retailers begin to ask jobbers for them, and jobbers begin 
to offer them through their selling organizations. 

11. Almost all food products are thus sold. The adver- 
tising is directed to the consumers, and the distribution jjre- 
cedes the advertising, so far as possible, though many retailers 
will not stock an article until after the advertising has created 


some demand for it. A new brand of coffee, for example, is 
first attractively advertised, some distribution being arranged 
for at the same time. Then when people begin to inquire for 
it, another careful effort is made to complete distribution; but 
complete distribution is not secured tmtil the demand becomes 
very general and insistent, and retailers are forced to buy in 
response to repeated calls. 

12. Selling Througli Two Clianiiels. — Some products 
may be sold to retailers and through jobbers also. This is often 
the case in the grocery trade, and in lines that are handled by 
general and country stores. A jobbing grocery house will usually 
take orders for anything the dealers wish to buy. A grocery 
house that specializes on goods of its own make or packing will 
usually take orders for all the goods the retailer may need at 
the time. Francis H. Leggett & Co., while specializing on its 
own Premier brands of foodstuffs, will take orders for any 
other makes that are handled in the open market. On the 
other hand, Swift & Company will not take orders for meats 
packed by other concerns, nor will the salesmen of H. J. Heinz 
take orders for other brands of pickles and relishes. 

13. Advertiser Should Help Jobber. — If the advertiser 
decides to sell through jobbers, protecting himself by trade- 
marking his product, or by advertising, it is policy for him to 
do all he can to help the jobber create a market and handle 
his goods at a profit. He has not only to sell his goods to the 
jobber, but to help the jobber sell to the retailers. He has to 
create a consiimer demand, w^iatever method of handling his 
product he adopts, and unless this demand is very pronounced 
the jobber will make little special effort to push his goods. 
Many manufacturing advertisers aim either to supply directly 
the retailer and consumer demand, or see that it is supplied 
through jobber or retailer. They find it not economical to 
trust completely either jobber or retailer to respond to incipient 
demand. They make it a part of their advertising campaign 
to nurse consumer demand with great care. It is when the 
jobber is put in this relation with the manufacturer that he is 
more likely to give efficient service. The old custom of making 

I L T I02C— 23 


goods and turning them over to jobbers, without considering 
methods of attracting consumers, is pretty well discredited. 
The advertising policy follows the article aU the wa\' from its 
production to the hands of the consumer, and beyond. It tries 
to discover the use made of the product by the consumer, and 
to show him how to get the most out of it. 

14. Bealing Direct AVith Retailers. — There are many 
retailers who deal with jobbers as little as possible, tr}dng to 
buy in quantities large enough to warrant manufacturers' dealing 
direct with them. More and more lines of goods are packed 
and handled to meet this desire of the retailer, and many 
retailers have goods made to suit their trade, or packed in dis- 
tinctive cartons or holders. Goods that can be handled in 
this way go direct to the retailers. The manufacturer who 
sells to retailers knows where his goods are consumed, and finds 
it easier to modify his customs or processes to suit consumers' 
conditions. His salesmen are able to help the retailers, and 
get them to make special efforts to push sales. He can better 
maintain retail prices if his salesmen go direct to the retailers. 
But, if the maker goes direct to the retailers, he will incur the 
opposition of jobbers, he will have to maintain a large corps 
of salesmen, and he will have to assimie the risks of extensive 
credits and the expense of the warehouse. 

15. Tlie Exclusive Agency. — There is another avenue 
for selling manufactured goods — the exclusive agency. It is 
a question of the kind of goods and the class of people to whom 
they are to be sold. The exclusive agency idea is not so much 
in favor as it once was. Holeproof hosiery was once sold by 
exclusive agents — one store in a town or city. The plan did 
not work. People would not go for socks to stores they were 
not in the habit of visiting. They bought the socks their stores 
had. It is dififerent with other articles. Men's clothing made 
by advertising manufacturers is sold by exclusive agents. 
Pianos and other musical instruments, typewriters, cash regis- 
ters, adding machines, men's hats, shirts, shoes, certain fabrics, 
and many other articles, are sold by exclusive agents, wholly 
or in part. Articles that cost enough to make it worth while 


for the buyer to hunt up exclusive agents may be thus sold, and 
are so sold. Certain specialties, such as typewriters and cash 
registers, require expert salesmen. But if the article is one of 
common use, and can be used without special instruction, it is 
questionable whether the exclusive agency idea is a good one. 
Many other articles, like Holeproof hosiery, that began in the 
exclusive field, have abandoned it. 

It is to be noted here that a mistake of this nature is often 
made by manufacturers that attempt to market their product 
direct to consumers by mail-order methods. Ostermoor 
mattresses and Ingersoll watches are examples. It is not wise 
to attempt to make articles of common use difficult to get. 
All makes of automobiles could not well be sold by one dealer, 
but dollar watches can, and such a necessity as mattresses can. 

16. Modern Manufacturer's Selling Conditions. 

A'lanufacturing has changed radically. Formerly the manu- 
facturer knew that end of the business only. Now the success- 
ful manufacturer must be a salesman, and know his market. 
Manufacturing is secondary to selling. The selling possibilities 
and plans must be understood and settled before a factory is 
built. It is this change in position that has made manufac- 
turing primarily a problem in advertising, and it is this that 
makes it so much more important than it used to be to study 
very thoroughly these channels of trade before deciding the 
extent and character of any advertising campaign. 


17. Price Maintenance. — ^In planning a general adver- 
tising campaign, it is important that the net return on the 
business be carefully figured, and that it may be possible to 
figure it. So the matter of price maintenance is of importance. 
Manufactiirers, especially of patented or trade-marked articles, 
wish to have the retail price they fix observed by retailers, but 
some retailers wish to cut prices. On this question there has 
been much litigation, to determine whether manufacturers or 
jobbers have a right to insist that retail prices shall not be cut. 
One of the best known test cases involved the sale of books at 

10 manac;i<:ment OF §--'2 

less than published prices, and was aimed at a New York 
department store. The store won, and the decision appears to 
make it plain that a retailer has a right to sell an article that he 
owns at whatever price he pleases to fix. 

18. But prices of many articles are substantially main- 
tained, notwithstanding the decisions of the courts. Manu- 
facturers have many w^ays of inducing retailers to maintain 
fixed prices. They resort to various devices. Manufacturers 
of the Victor Talking Machine get around this difficulty by 
not selling their machines or records, but by licensing them on 
a lump-sum royalty basis. This plan has been contested, but 
at the time of writing, the United States Circuit Court of 
Appeals upholds them in the plan. However, many adver- 
tisers have come to the conclusion that the better way is to 
show the retailer how to keep and increase his trade without 
cutting prices. Many of the trade-marked goods are sold to 
retailers at prices that make it impossible to cut retail prices 
without incurring loss. These goods rarely yield the retailers 
moifc than a very small margin of profit above selling expense, 
and they are ready to consider any sensible plan for avoiding 
.cutting. Some department stores and chain stores cut every- 
thing they handle, or profess to; but the truth probably is that 
they actually cut but a small portion of the articles the}^ sell, 
and more than make up that loss by handling goods made for 
or by themselves, on which they can realize all the profits 
usually going to middlemen as well as the usual retailer's profit. 

19. Restricted Selling. — Some manufacturers and job- 
bers have adopted the policy of not selling to price-cutting 
stores, such as chain and department stores. A recent decision 
sustained the Cream of Wheat Company in such a refusal 
to sell. This policy is of some advantage to the retailers, but 
not very much. One of the largest of the manufacturing and 
importing grocery supply houses will not sell to the chain 
stores, but those stores are not thereby embarrassed. They 
prefer to sell their own brands, or articles they can buy in large 
quantities that have no distinguishing brands. And it is to be 
conceded tliat there are chains of stores that sell nothing but 


the best goods obtainable, and realize all of their profits from 
the economies they are able to etJect in buying, organization, 
management, and the reduced general overhead expenses they 
enjoy. They rely on service for their publicity. They are 
scientifically far in advance of the ordinary retailers. While 
they do not advertise extensively in the ordinary way, their 
whole theory is based on the fundamental of advertising that 
the buyer must be satisfied with goods and service. The price- 
cutting department stores have not established so enviable a 
reputation. They use price-cutting as a bait to lure buyers into 
their stores. Their overhead expense is so heavy that it is an 
economic imi^ossibility for them to cut prices all along the line. 
On the contrary, they must get a higher average of profit than 
the ordinary retailer. They effect this partly through Jarge 
buying at low prices, by handling bankrupt and surplus stocks, 
and by putting high prices on some goods. . They make rapid 
turnovers, take all time discounts, and manage in many ways 
that are not available to the ordinary retailers to make their 
net profit sufficient. Their great advantage is their cornpre- 
hensive stocks. Any shopper is certain to see some things he 
did not intend to buy when he entered the store, and a large pro- 
portion of lookers do buy things they had not intended to buy. 



20. Choice in Methods of Adverti.sing. — What method, 
or methods, of advertising shall be adopted for a given line of 
goods depends on the goods and the class of people to whom 
they are to be sold. Other considerations affect the choice of 
methods, but primarily the two mentioned should control. 
All of the facts in any business must be thought of when methods 
are discussed — the location, the size, the amount of the product, 
the amount of the capital, the amount of advertising to be done, 
the general policy of the management, etc. 

21. Many methods can be used for local advertising that 
are not available for general adverti.sing, and methods of 


general advertising may be effective in some localities, and for 
some goods, which cannot be considered for other localities or 
Other goods. As in every other step in the work of shaping an 
advertising campaign, everything in relation to the particular 
problem in hand that is different or distinctive must be taken 
into account when fixing upon methods to be employed. 

22. Available Methods. — In general, the methods that 
are available to general advertisers are: Newspaper and 
magazine advertising, and the use of trade and class papers; 
direct advertising, which includes all kinds of printed matter 
that is delivered to specified persons direct from the advertiser ; 
outdoor advertising; advertising in street cars, subways, etc.; 
special plans to interest and aid retailers; sampling, demon- 
stration, novelties, and the like. 

' 23. Newspapers have not been so extensively used for 
general advertising as they might be if there were organization 
and agreement among them. It is now a great problem to 
arrange a national campaign in newspapers. Their rates are 
fixed for their restricted fields, without much reference to 
standards of value. For the reason that newspapers do not 
have national circiilations, they are more available for local 
advertising. General advertisers use them for local effect, and 
in some cases for general effect also, though that involves very 
large expenditure. 

24. Magazines. — Magazines, meaning periodicals pub- 
lished for general circulation, whether monthly, weekly, fort- 
nightly, or quarterly, are used for general advertising because, 
at least theoretically, their circulation is general — diffused 
over the whole country. As a matter of fact, no magazine 
gives a strictly national circulation to the advertising it pub- 
lishes. One may circulate quite thoroughly in the East, 
another in the West, and anotber on the Pacific Slo])c and 
in the Far West. To get a general circulation through maga- 
zines, the advertiser must make a careful study of the areas 
in which each of the magazines circulates and select those 
whose combined circulations give, the best general circulation. 


25. Outdoor Advertising. — Newspaper and periodical 
advertising is sent broadcast with the hope that some of the 
people who read those publications may also read the adver- 
tising. Outdoor advertising consists of billboards, electric 
signs, and the like. It is used in the hope that people traveling 
the roads and streets will notice and read it, and it has not the 
competition of reading matter to contend with. It has, how- 
ever, the competition of whatever other things there are on the 
roads and streets to attract attention, and the competition of 
the necessity of travelers' looking after their own safety and 
guiding their steps in the direction they wish to go. Street-car 
and subway advertising has to take its chance for attention 
from people who are hurrying to get somewhere, except that 
when they are seated in cars there is little to prevent their 
seeing and reading the advertising cards. 

26. Other Forms of Advertising. — Direct advertising, by 
means of booklets, mailing cards, etc. sent to individuals, has 
no competition, if the booklets, etc. are good enough to attract 
attention at all ; however, they run the risk of being summarily 
dropped into waste baskets unread. Sampling, demonstrations, 
novelties, and the like, have the merit that they actually get 
the attention of people, either as individuals or in small groups. 
They are usually salesmanship devices, as well as advertising. 
The demonstrator either sells goods, or they are for sale at 
the place he operates. Samples are for the purpose of giving 
prospective consumers an opportunity to test the goods. 
Novelties that are given away are meant to lead to sales through 
a certain sense of gratitude, or obligation, the recipient is sup- 
posed to feel toward the donor. The fault with many novelties 
is that they don't suggest the article offered for sale, either as 
to form, utility, or quality. 


27. Methods. — Demonstration and sampling are alike in 
their advertising effect. They show consumers the utility 
and desirability of the goods. Some products, like Kaffee Hag, 
for example, need certain treatment in preparing for use, and 


demonstrators go about explaining and exhibiting those treat- 
ments. In the case of Kaflfee Hag the flavor is brought out by 
a special method of brewing, and clever women are sent to retail 
stores, with the necessary percolators, where they make the 
drink and serve it to visitors. They explain what has been done 
to the coffee bean to extract from it the caffein, and how this 
process changes the nature of the coffee, making a different 
process of brewing desirable. They serve tiny draughts of 
the drink in lovely cups — and they are ready to fill orders for 
the Kaffee Hag, to be credited to the store. These demonstra- 
tions are accompanied by skillfully dressed windows and store 
displays. It is not unusual for the sales during 'a week of 
demonstration to come near to covering the expense, and the 
retailer generally stocks the material and pushes its sale. 

28. Wliat to Sample. — Sampling is undertaken for things 
that do not need special preparation before being used. Shred- 
ded Wheat is systematically samj^led at intervals. House- 
keepers receive two biscuits in a miniature package. The 
Standard Oil Company has sampled a preparation to clean and 
polish woodwork, using neat cans, and delivering the packages 
from handsome auto trucks. There is enough of the material 
to last an ordinary family several months — until other prepara- 
tions have been used up and their containers disposed of — so 
that the strong suggestion is to buy more of the new material. 
This is a very expensive method of advertising, bvit an effective 
one. Samples are often offered in advertisements, but there is 
often some condition attached that limits the effect, such as 
that the reader shall send the name of her dealer, or that she 
shall fill in the names of several neighbors. These sample 
offers with a string on them are not so effective as are those 
that give something without a suggestion of any ser\dce in 
return, except that the sample be tried. 

29. Sampling and Selling. — Some sampling is cleverly 
united to a selling plan, which makes the sampler not only pay 
for the goods he tries, but also causes him to embark on a 
series of buyings that net the advertisers large sales. A break- 
fast food manufacturer conceived a development scheme. He 


asked mothers to enter children in a development contest. A 
chart was furnished and the mother was required to send the 
cover of a package of the goods with her application. She had 
also to feed her child on the food for 3 months, and then turn 
in the chart showing the growth of the child. As the lure, there 
was a prize scheme whereby $500 was to be divided among 
twenty -five contestants. A soap manufacturer asks for 
30 cents for a picture for the nursery wall, with a box of talc 
powder. Another soap maker sends a man with a suit case 
fiill of silverware, who explains to the housewife that he will 

give her any piece she wishes, if . Of course she has to 

buy soap, sell it to her neighbors, and collect coupons. But the 
sight of the shining silver hypnotizes her. A maker of shaving 
soap puts a post card in every package, asking for addresses to 
which to send samples, and asking the buyer to fill in a 
blank telling what he thinks of the soap, thus getting testi- 
monials and addresses for samples at the same time, at the 
expense of the post card. A perfumer got a theater manage- 
ment to tie a sample bottle to every program for a week. All 
of the waiters in a restaurant gave a small bottle of grape juice 
to every person when ordering. A breakfast food manufac- 
ttirer put into each carton of his old product a sample of a new 
product, wTapped in oiled paper. 

The methods of sampling are very numerous, and some of 
them are very ingenious. What must be guarded against is 
that the recipients may feel that too much is asked of them, or 
that they are made to do too many things. A sample should 
usually be a perfectly free gift, accompanied with no implication 
that the recipient is expected to do anything at all except taste 
and enjoy, and if he thinks it worth while, to buy later. 


30. Selling Methods and Advertising. — Methods of 
selling aside from those indicated as the usual channels of 
trade have to be considered in making the advertising campaign. 
Some goods are sold wholly through the advertising, as the 
goods of the National Cloak and Suit Company, who have no 


agents and sell nothing to retailers. The advertising, supported 
by a very definite and wise j^olicy of service, and corresi^ondence 
arising out of the advertising, is relied on for all the business of 
the great concern. It is a mail-order proposition, and one of 
the best illustrations of what can be done by advertising that 
is itself right, combined with a wise policy of sustaining the 
advertising by the entire business policy. 

Some products are sold by a special class of agents, as the 
Larkin products, which are almost all sold by women and girls 
operating in the immediate neighborhood of their homes. The 
Saturday Evening Post is a striking example of what this method 
can do, as since it originated the plan of selling through boys, 
and having subscriptions renewed by personal solicitation by 
boys, girls, men, and women acting as the salaried representa- 
tives of the publishers, its circulation has been trebled or 
quadrupled. The work of these agents is constantly followed 
by a complete system of follow-up in the office, the agents are 
trained for the work, and their efforts always seconded by liberal 
advertising, in the Post and the other Curtis publications, and 
in newspapers and magazines all over the country. Other 
goods are sold by other special methods. 

31. Interesting the Dealers and Salesmen. — The 

advertising campaign must itself be made to appeal to the 
retailers who are to be interested, to the salesmen who are to 
handle the product, and to the directors of the company or 
the owners of the business. It must be made to fit in with the 
plans for distribution — must either follow or force distribution. 
It must fit in with the selling plans- — be a part of them. It is 
better to have the advertising department either frankly under 
the sales manager or upon a very explicit basis of harmony 
with his department. Advertising is a part of selling; nothing 
else. It is better to have this fact recognized at the start, and 
all friction with the selling plans and forces prevented. The sales 
manager ought to be an enthusiastic advertising man, and the 
advertising manager ought to be a very enthusiastic salesman. 

32. The Traveling Salesmen's Place. — Much of the 
success of a general advertising campaign depends on the 


traveling salesman. The efifect of the best advertising will in 
many cases be lost if the salesmen who canvass the jobber, the 
retailer, or the consumer do not perform their work skilfully. 
Some large advertisers, realizing the im]3ortance of a capable 
sales force, go so far as to provide a training school for sales- 
men and to prepare courses on the salesmanship of their par- 
ticular wares. 

While a great variety of articles can be sold by mail with- 
out the assistance of a personal salesman, there are just as 
many that require the salesman's demonstration and persua- 
sion in order to enjoy a large sale. Some insurance policies, 
for instance, are sold merely through correspondence between 
the company and the person wishing the insurance, but a 
capable agency force will treble or quadruple the sales of the 
company's policies. While the employment of the salesman 
increases the selling cost, the capable salesman, in addition 
to rflaking sales to a much larger proportion of the people 
attracted by the advertising, will sell to many that have not 
been attracted, and, taking his work as a whole, he is a profit 
rather than an expense to the advertiser. 

33. Manager Must Prove Advertising. — It is a smart 
advertising manager who can convince his own concern of the 
value of his plan. He has to more than demonstrate the plan; 
he often has to demonstrate advertising itself. But it is of 
greater relative importance that the salesmen of the house be 
convinced. Salesmen have not yet come to the conclusion 
that their art can be learned. They believe it is a gift from the 
gods, or a product of their own extreme cleverness. Not many 
of the older generation of salesmen will acknowledge that they 
are materially helped by advertising. To convince them of it, 
and to get them to work with the advertising plan, is one of the 
hardest duties of the advertising manager, and in fulfilling it 
he needs the active and hearty cooperation of the house. Some 
of the biggest and best of the advertising managers devote more 
than half of their time to linking the advertising to the selling. 
When salesmen realize that the advertising is to help them, not 
to replace them nor to discredit or belittle their skill and abiHtv, 


s — 

they always become hearty advocates of it, and take pleasure 
in seconding the efforts of the advertising manager. 

34. Interesting Dealers in the Plan. — Introducing the 
general advertising plan to dealers is a different matter from the 
foregoing. Dealers are looking out for themselves. Many of 
them are suspicious of propositions from advertisers. They 
have been "done" many times. A traveling salesman was 
asking a retail grocer if he would allow a demonstrator to work 
in his store. "How many cases of the stuff have I got to buy?" 
he asked. "Not a case. Not a package. We do not ask you 
to do a thing except give us space. Our women will go over the 
whole town, telling about this product, besides demonstrating 
in your store, and every order taken will be turned over to you. 
More than this, our solicitors will act as though from your 
store, and will take orders for anything you sell. They will 
talk for your store all the time." This is the spirit of the more 
progressive sampling and demonstration campaigns. This is 
the way the enlightened manufacturers are presenting their 
advertising campaigns to dealers. The day of the electrotyped 
advertisement, with a mortise in it just large enough for the 
dealer's name, if set in small type, is passing. It is now the 
policy to advertise the store, and let the special product take 
the small space. It is the policy of the really wise advertisers 
to help the retailer frame up a policy for his store, and trust to 
his sense of fairness to have the special product included. The 
general advertiser now tries to impress the retailer favorably 
with his advertising by helping the retailer get a demand 
among consiimers. He is chary of offering ready-made cuts 
and advertisements, window displays, store cards, etc. He 
offers special discounts for quantity sales, gives handsome 
packages, makes his cases fit the limited sales of the small 
dealers, puts the imprint of the store on the cartons, makes neat 
window signs in which the store looms large and his product 
small, and in many ways tries to help the store, rather than to 
wheedle the store into some policy of helping him exclusively. 
Advertisers must learn at the ver}' start that dealers are fast 
learning just what is to their advantage. 

Cil-:KM':RAL CAMl'AKiNS lf> 


35. Service to Dealers.— To get the cooperation of 
retailers is half of the battle in general advertising, and in the 
case of many kinds of goods it is much more than half. If the 
local dealers are not friendly, it is exceedingly difficult to get 
specialties into the retail field. It is not hard to gain the 
cooperation of retailers, if they are approached in the right 
way, but the ordinary assumption of the manufacturer is that 
he must in some way secure the aid of the retailer and at the 
same time induce him to pay for the service. This selfish 
policy has bred in retailers a distrust of all so-called dealer helps. 

One manufacturer, the Printz-Biederman Company, of 
Cleveland, who makes women's ready-to-wear garments, took 
a radically opposite course. This company set out to help 
concerns handling its goods to improve the general selling 
power of clerks, by producing for them a scientific course of 
instruction to be given by mail. The course consisted of ten 
lessons, and was furnished to all clerks in garment departments 
without cost to the store or the clerks. It did not deal with the 
Printz-Biederman garments especially, but with all garments. 
It was carefully followed up, all answers to the questions being 
marked, and special letters written when necessary. At the 
end of the course, diplomas were awarded. This was a decided 
success . The sales-people of the stores taking the course became 
better sellers. Of course, the product of the Printz-Biederman 
Company benefited, perhaps more than other makes. But the 
essential thing for the retailers was that the benefit was funda- 
mental, and applied to their whole business in made-up gar- 
ments, and that there was no obligation on them to buy the 
garments of the house that had helped them. 

36. Efficient Service Forestalls Competition. — Ser- 
vice of the character described is of great advertising value to 
manufacturers who are broad enough to see it. It is one of 
the effective methods adopted by manufacturers to so cultivate 
the interests of the retailers as to make it less easy for com- 
petitors to come into the identical field and establish competitive 


conditions that make a profit for anybody almost impossible. 
Without making it too obvious, such methods help the retailers 
to realize that there is more profit for them in restricting their 
lines to a few that, while they adequately supply consumers, 
make it possible to turn stock easily and rapidly, keeping goods 
always fresh and timely, and enabling the sales-people to become 

37. Referring Inquiries to Dealers. — There are many 
other ways of getting the interest and help of dealers. The 
plan of securing direct letters from consumers works well when 
the inquiries so gained are referred to dealers. This, however, 
has been overworked, and worked poorly. It must be very 
well done. There are so many letters being sent to consimiers, 
most of them uninteresting, in substance and form, that it is 
now wise to go very carefully, and be certain that tl|e method 
is planned well aod executed in a manner to attract favorable 
attention. Answers to consumers' inquiries should have the 
character of personal letters. It is of doubtful expediency to 
send printed or multigraphed replies unless the nature of the 
goods lends itself well to such letters, and the vast number of 
replies and great cost preclude personal letters. There may 
be forms prepared, that can be amended or changed by a 
moment's attention of an experienced correspondent, and 
written by low-priced typists. The reference to the dealers 
may be by the use of forms, filled in with the addresses. 

38. Circularizing: Dealers' Customers. — Dealers may 
sometimes be persuaded to furnish mailing lists, but this is a 
particular matter. The retailer does not like to give cut lists 
of his customers, thinking that it may not be to his interests 
with them. But it is well to consider sending direct letters 
to consimiers through the retail dealer, taking advantage of his 
intimate touch with them and the fact that a letter or circular 
from him will be almost certain of a careful reading. 

This also gives an added opportunity to get the dealer 
personally interested, especially if the plan should be made to 
include something of direct and special interest to the store. 
The letter or circular might be made to appear as from the store 


direct, mentioning some new goods or new policy of the store, 
and bringing in the manufacturer's specialty as an incident — 
as a by-the-way — after the mind of the consimier had been 
opened by reference to the new brand of butter or the new 
plan for delivering goods. 

39. Consignments. — Goods are often sent on consign- 
ment, or on approval, but the custom as a policy is not a good 
one. If manufacturers and advertising managers know about 
the ordinary retail store, they know that goods consigned are 
not given much attention. They are likely to stay unopened 
for a long time, and if they are finally put on sale they are put 
in some inconspicuous place, and the sales-people do not grow 
very enthusiastic about them. "Oh, that was sent on con- 
signment. I don't know much about it. Probably you'.d 
better take the same you've had. You know all about that." 
They say something like this. And when the time comes to 
make an accounting the retailer feels as though an additional 
burden had been placed upon him which he did not invite. 
Unless there is some real inducement offered the retailer to 
handle consigned goods, the method is of doubtful utility. The 
same is true of free goods, sometimes sent to the retailers to 
get them interested. It is better to place the matter of intro- 
duction of new lines on a commercial basis at the start, and help 
the retailer to sell the new things in other ways. 

40. Seasonable Advertising. — The advertising should 
be planned to be seasonable. Even if the goods are all-the-year 
goods, it is ten to one that the advertising must be made 
seasonable. It is important to advertise in the West, for 
example, after the harvests have been turned into cash, and in 
the vSouth after the cotton has been sold. Every section of the 
country has some most-favored season for buying, and the 
advertising must be timed to suggest buying at about the time 
when there is likely to be free money to pay the bills. For 
some kinds of goods the weeks before the schools close for the 
summer vacation is the time to advertise, for others the weeks 
before Christmas, and for others special periods and occasions. 


41. Salesmen to Take Consumer Orders. — Among the 
methods to enlist the aid of the retailer is the expensive 
plan of sending salesmen to take orders that are to be filled 
through the retailers or the jobbers. This is practicable in some 
cases, but there are so many things to be considered in relation 
to it that it is not possible to do more here than suggest that it 
be considered. It is open to the objection mentioned else- 
where, that the jobber or retailer will be given something for 
which he is not asked to pay, and will for that reason not be so 
interested as if he had to meet the expense and the move was 
a legitimate selling operation. 

42. Advertising Special Selling Agencies. — It is the 

custom "of some advertisers to print in their advertisements a 
list of agencies that handle the goods. If the advertised article 
is handled exclusively by appointed agents, this is a good thing. 
If it is in the general trade, it is impracticable. The makers of 
Jones sausage devote much of the space of their ad\^ertisements 
to a list of selling agencies printed in fine type, and this adver- 
tising has been exceptionally successful. We arc therefore 
bound to believe that the idea of using the names of agents in it 
has been carefully thought out, and tested. It is certain that 
ever}' advertisement ought to give a definite idea of where and 
how the advertised article can be obtained. It is ver\' irri- 
tating to be left in the dark, as it is especially irritating for an 
interested consumer to go shopping about trying to find an 
article advertised as for sale "at all drug stores" or "at all 
dry-goods stores," and finally to have to go disgustedly home 
without the article. This happens to everybody, not once but 
many times, and operates to make advertising inefficient. 


43. Counting Possible Buyers. — Before taking up the 
question of advertising mediums it is necessary to discover, as 
nearly as may be, how many people there are in the countr\- who 
might be interested in the product, and where they are living. 
There are three questions to be asked and answered: How 


many people can use the product; how many people who can 
use it can afford to buy it; and how many who can use it and 
can afford to buy it live where they can be reached by the 
advertising and the product ? 

44. Analysis Narrows the Field. — This process of the 
analysis of the problem narrows the field, and sometimes takes 
away some of the enthusiasm of the manufacturer and adver- 
tiser. The maker of a new article is too prone to think that 
because he sees its usefulness every one else will. The enthu- 
siastic advertiser, too, is likely to believe that he has only 
to write catchy advertisements to get all the people who might 
use the article to buying it. No product can justify intensive 
advertising in all regions where people who could use it are to 
be found. The first thing to do is to reject those regions which, 
for one reason or another, seem to promise to be unprofitable, 
and narrow the initial field as much as possible. One way to 
do this is to dissect census figures of population. 

45. Families Accessible to Advertising. — There may 
be 100,000,000 people in the United States. If the article to be 
advertised is a family necessity, the potential buyers can be no 
more than the niimber of families, say 20,000,000. Probably 
there are certain races that must be eliminated, as the colored 
race, taking out 2,000,000 families. Perhaps the foreign- born 
families would have to be deducted, taking out possibly 
3,000,000 more families. Other classes might have to be 
dropped. When this analysis of bulk population is finished, it 
may be found that in the total population of the country not a 
fourth are good advertising prospects, as to nativity and con- 
dition. Then there comes up the question of the location of 
these prospects, and whether commercial or industrial condi- 
tions make it necessary to eliminate many of them. Accessi- 
bility through advertising mediums must be another means of 
cutting out more. The question of financial ability to buy has 
to be thought of, and a study of incomes of families made. Half 
of the males in the country over 16 were a few years ago esti- 
mated to be earning less than $626 a year. The family income 
might be more than this, as it is estimated that 1.82 persons 

I L T 102C— 24 


are wage earners for each family. But it was also figured 
that seven-eighths of American families had incomes under 
$1,200, while of the men working barely one-twelfth were 
earning as much as $1,000. 

46. Reckoning all these things, a recent computation found 
that not more than 4,600,000 families having incomes equal 
to $1,000 were accessible to advertising — less than one-fourth 
of the families in the country-. This includes many families 
that would have to be deducted from the total that could be 
considered for any specific article. It is not to be thought that 
this exact method of figuring can be adopted for any particular 
product. It merely suggests how the advertiser must ply the 
pruning knife on any expectations he may be tempted to 
indulge in. 

47. Conditions an Advertising Manager Must Meet. 

Having made a thorough study of methods in relation to the 
goods to bcf advertised, the advertising manager has to con- 
sider the mediums he can use. He is limited to a certain sum of 
money. He must tr^^ to cover as much territory' as he can cover 
thoroughly, and no more. His selection of mediums is to be 
made in view of that fact, and the other even more important 
consideration of the mediums reaching the class of people who 
must be looked to for the consumer demand. This is a difficult 
and delicate task. The manager will be besieged by an army 
of advertising solicitors, most of whom will merely insist that 
their mediums be "given their share," as though there was 
some law assigning to every publication a certain percentage of 
whatever advertising there might be "going out." Some 
solicitors will be very helpful to the manager, and they will be 
reasonable. Some of them will even admit that their periodi- 
cals cannot be used for certain advertisements. 

48. The Art of Clioosing Advertising Mediums. 

It is an art to be able to select mediimis for a general adver- 
tising campaign. There are no set rules to lay down. One 
good judge of medivuns merely sat do\Am and read the publi- 
cation presented to him for some of liis advertising — read it 


from cover to cover, advertisements as well as text — -and then 
decided by the impression made on him. Rates have to be 
studied, and this is a baffling matter. The advertising manager 
can be greatly helped by the experience of a good agency in 
this. Rates are so curiously made that the manager who can 
get the most for his money must be an expert. The space 
must be studied with particular reference to each publication 
and the duration of the contract. It will be found that in 
some periodicals the time must be extended beyond the planned 
duration in order to get a rate that makes the average low. 
In others the space must be adjusted to the idiosyncracies of 
the rate cards in order to reduce the average. Rates and 
conditions are so eccentric and so varied, that to understand 
them requires all of the brain capacity of a very able man. 

49. Cliaracter and Standing of Publications. — As a 

general proposition, advertising mediums should be selected 
because of their character and standing with their readers, 
rather than solely on the basis of size of circulations. And 
after they have been selected the publications must be studied 
by the advertising manager to determine just what treatment 
should be given to each. The custom of making electrotypes 
of one advertisement and distributing them to all mediums is 
being abandoned. It is necessary to write many different 
advertisements to be used in a national campaign. It is a good 
idea for the advertising manager to select his mediums as far 
in advance as possible, and give himself time to study them 
carefully. He may know all about the magazines he proposes 
to use, in a general way, but he should make an intensive study 
of them with the idea of his particular advertising in mind. He 
should become acquainted with as many of the editors and 
business staffs as possible, and through his agency get all the 
information about them he can. Nothing about them is of little 
consequence to him. Having his advertising problem well in 
hand, and being full of its special flavor and character, he needs 
to supplement this with the same sort of knowledge of adver- 
tising mediums. 



50. Advertising Concerned With All Features of 
Business. — Among the matters that must be very carefully 
thought about when the advertising campaign is planned are 
several that are not usually considered as advertising, but 
belonging to other departments of the business. Advertising 
is concerned with every branch of the business. There is 
nothing done in a retail store which is not in some way con- 
nected with the model advertising policy. There is no part of 
manufacturing, no department of jobbing or wholesale business, 
which may not be turned to advertising advantage. Some of 
these matters will now be mentioned. 


51. Advertising Value of Letters. — Advertising letters 
are fully covered in another Section. Letters that make good 
are essential to the success of any advertising campaign. The 
art of letter-writing is one of the essentials of the good adver- 
tising man, as a keen advertising sense is essential for the good 
corres])ondent. The fate of many an order is decided by the 
tone and phraseology of a letter. To so write a business letter 
as to make the recipient wish for the goods in question is an art 
that requires a volume to treat properly. But the essentials 
are not so numerous. The good business letter must be clear 
in its statements, explicit as to terms and conditions, full of 
human-interest appeal, written in good English, properly 
punctuated, not too long nor too short, neatly typed (or printed 
if circumstances demand a form letter), signed with a pen by 
the person who dictates it in most cases, addressed, if jjossible, 
to an individual, made as personal, intimate, friendly, lucid, 
and agreeable as possible. The day of the cold, formal, 
impersonal, dictatorial l3usiness letter is past in the offices of 
progressive business men. 

52. It is not putting it too strongly to say that in many 
cases the correspondence is a greater factor than the advertising. 


If the advertising manager cannot attend to this department, 
there should be a chief correspondent who is as able in his 
line as the advertising manager is in his ; and where the work is 
heavy this chief correspondent should be provided with com- 
petent assistants. First-class correspondents are not easy to 
find. They should be especially trained for the special business 
they are to handle, by a course of experience in all departments, 
from the factory to selHng, and especially the latter. It is a 
great mistake for an advertising manager to neglect his letter- 
writing work, or to imagine that it can be attended to in the 
last half hour before he leaves his office for the day. His chief 
assistant should be his correspondence clerk. A letter, or even 
one phrase in a letter, may make or spoil a campaign. The 
appearance of a letter, and this includes the stationery, is as 
important as the appearance of a salesman. The letter is a 
salesman, but without the chann of voice and manner. Those 
qualities of personal salesmanship must be made up in the letter 
by its form, its wording, and its general printed appearance. 

53. Printed Matter.— The advertising manager should 
be particular about the printed matter he uses, especially all 
that is intended for the eyes of clients and possible customers. 
In fact, there is nothing in the line of printed matter that does 
not have some advertising value, and that should not be care- 
fully written, designed and printed. Even the office blarJcs, 
never seen by customers, are helps. They are constantly 
handled by employes, and it is profitable to advertise the 
business to employes. The office boy who has to use well 
written and handsomely printed address labels, order blanks, 
reports, and the like, gets ideas and an atmosphere of the 
business that will help much to make him a better salesman 
when he gets to that stage of his development. Good printed 
matter raises the general tone of an office. It helps to sell 
the product, whatever it is. There is a large field here for the 
shrewd advertising manager. Not one-fourth of the printed 
matter sent out for advertising purposes is as attractive as it 
might be, without additional cost. The advertising manager 
should get in touch with a good printing expert, and study the 


matter in connection with every campaign he makes. It is 
good business, and will help to produce sales. Probably every 
new campaign should have its own special and distinctive 
stationery to help drive home its advertising motive. 


54. Consider the Buyer. — The advertising manager who 
is shaping up a new campaign should remember the man on the 
other side of the trade table — the buyer. Buying has become 
as much of a science as have selling and advertising. The 
advertising manager will realize this, if he thinks of his own 
methods of buying space in the mediums he uses. He would 
not think of merely asking rates and making out orders. He 
makes a very careful study of the commodity offered him, and 
arrives at his decisions by methods totally different from those 
employed by the men who try to sell him the space. All big 
stores have expert buyers who are very competent, and who 
have special lines of operation, often not at all related to the 
methods of the salesmen. Individual buyers are beginning to 
ignore the processes of sellers. Housewives begin to apply 
their own methods to their purchases. They must be showTi 
that an advertised product fits into their scheme of household 
economy or they cannot be interested. If it is a staple, they 
must be shown wherein it excels, either intrinsically or economi- 
cally. It must be better or it must be less in price. 

55. Habit and Suggestion. — Therefore, it is of great 
importance that the so-called himian-nature element be very 
carefully considered, not only that the buyer be given good 
reasons for responding to the advertising, but that the little 
things called habits be taken^account of. People are bound to 
follow one another, like sheep. What one does another does. 
It is for the advertiser to get the habit started. Advertising 
mu£t_createJthejinpressiQn that the goods are already popular. 
"Everybody's going to the 6ig Store""is, in itself, a gross 
exaggeration, but it suggests to those who see it that there is a 
crowd of people visiting a certain store, and that they find good 


bargains there. Not one ]:)erson in a thousand among those 
who see this sign thinks about it at all. It merely plants a dim 
or sharp impulse in their minds to do what "everybody" is 
doing. The sales manager who was introducing a new gtmi gave 
a dollar box to dealers on condition that they should sell it in 
the usual way, but from each box he took two packages, so that 
it would appear that at least two persons had already bought. 
He had found that if there were two boxes of gum on a counter, 
from one of which some packages had been sold, the impulse 
of buvers was to select their packages from the box from which 
the others had bought. While this impulse can be utilized by 
the advertiser, it sometimes interferes with the sale of other 
goods of the same class, so that many dealers, knowing this 
habit, thwart it by keeping all candies, gum, etc. in full piles or 
boxes, replacing every sale with a fresh package. The subway 
stands of the Union News Company do this and so do all chain 
drug stores that are operated by systems fixed by the efficiency 
experts at central offices. Well-conducted news stands follow 
the same method. If a magazine is sold off a pile, another is 
at once placed on it, so that no particular magazine will appear 
to be selling faster than any other, 

56. Jobbers and All Sellers Must Be Studied. — This 
study of human-nature elements in the selling and advertising 
problem must not be confined to the possible customers. It 
must take in the jobbers, the wholesalers, the retailers, the 
advertising-medium managers, and all people who have any- 
thing to do with the matter, including the employes of the 
manufacturing company, the printers who turn out the direct- 
advertising matter, the mailing companies that address the 
envelopes for the circulars — everybody in any degree connected 
with any concern that touches the product or any of its adver- 
tising. The jobbers who handle the product must especially 
be cultivated, as they are an element handling a great variety 
of goods, and are likely to look on it as so much merchandise 
that they keep subject to the orders of customers. It is the 
business of the advertising manager to make them specialize on 
his goods, or there will be a stoppage in distribution at the very 


headwaters of the stream. It can be done, if he combines special 
selUng methods with plenty of personal study and attention. 

57. Inducements Slioiild Be Offered. — Jobbers are 
jobbers. It is their business to sell goods, but not to sell any 
special lines of goods — unless they get some special advantage. 
This can be provided for through getting a large demand 
coming from the consumers to the jobbers. But that does not 
change the status of the jobbers. They can create a large 
demand if they choose. It is a part, and a very important 
part, of the business of the advertising and sales managers to 
get the jobber to look upon their goods with more than his 
usual or average favor. To do this implies that he must have 
some way of realizing a better profit than on his other lines. 
The way to his heart is through his pocketbook. He can be 
offered a larger commission at the start, or he can be offered a 
progressively larger discount, growing larger as his sales increase. 
But it is for the advertiser to establish friendly relations with 
the jobbers and study them as individuals. Then he will be 
able to suggest methods for interesting them in the goods, and 
help the sales manager work out an effective plan. 

58. Tlie Unsuspected Element. — When all of these 
elements that have been mentioned, and many more that cannot 
be specified here, are marshalled in the mind of the manager 
of the general campaign, he may feel quite competent to pro- 
ceed with his work on a big and broad scale. But there is still 
something very important to think of — the unexpected in all 
advertising. It is certain that advertising is such a human 
matter that it cannot be foretold. It must be studied in almost 
all cases, and experimented with. A campaign that has been 
]jlanned with the greatest care and deliberation may be wrecked 
by some small matter that has escaped attention, and that 
could not by any possibility have been reckoned in advance. 
It is therefore better, at least in the case of a new product, to 
put on an exi:)erimental campaign first. 

59. Value of an Exiierlmental Campaign . — The maker 
of a new clock made all his plans for a country -wide campaign 


and finally selected a small area in New England, in which there 
were two or three second-class cities, some mill towns, and an 
area of farming country, and tried his plans there for 6 months. 
He was surprised to discover that the feature of his clock that 
he thought would be the chief advertising point of interest did 
not attract much attention, but that a feature he had thought 
of little importance proved to be really his best selling point. 
The clock was different in principle from others, and this 
difference affected its time-keeping qualities. This did not 
sell the clocks, but the cases did. They were handsome and 
unique, and the advertisements that pictured them had much 
more effect than those which described the time-keeping qual- 
ities of the clock. This manufacturer changed his general 
advertising plans materially, reserving the advertisements 
dealing with the real distinctive feature of the clock for the 
trade and technical journals, and making the handsome cases 
more prominent in the advertising to consumers. If he had 
gone ahead on his first plan, the new clock would have fallen 
flat on the market, and it would have taken years to have put it 
where it was put in 6 months, after the advertisements had 
been tried in the small campaign. 


60. Convincing the Directors. — ^The advertising man- 
ager, first of all, must convince the board of directors of his 
company, or the proprietor of the business, of the advisability 
of the campaign he recommends. Probably this is one of the 
hardest jobs he will ever have. Often he has to defend and 
explain the basic idea of advertising to the directors. There 
is almost always at least one man on the board who sees nothing 
but the figures of expense. He cannot see the utility of spend- 
ing thousands of dollars for something that cannot be included 
in an inventory. He argues around in a circle, that if the 
advertising campaign is not voted, the money will not have to 
be paid out, and the concern will be so much better off. He pins 
the advertising manager down to answer specifically questions 
to which there is no answer but faith. He believes in putting 


the product on the market in the time-honored way his grand- 
father practiced when he was the leading ship chandler in New 
Bedford, or the miller in Poughkeepsie. He himself has never 
advertised the hardware business his father left him, and he 
says if it were not for the mail-order houses he would be doing 
as much business now as ever his father did. Several of the 
directors secretly sympathize with this view. They do not 
understand advertising, but they do not like to admit it in the 
presence of the keen fellow they have employed as advertising 
manager. That young man sets forth his estimate of business 
that will result from the plans he has made, and tries to make 
the men of the board understand it and see it as he does. 

61. Common Delusions to Be Met. — One man persists 
in the view that if $100,000 spent for advertising is likely to 
bring a business that will show a profit within a year, it would 
be a good policy to spend only $50,000 and be content for the 
first year with a smaller margin of profit, or even with none. 
He cannot see that the whole $100,000 is needed to get the 
stream of business flowing to the company, and that it is the 
second $50,000 that enables the advertising to make the impres- 
sion. It is only when the president, perhaps, puts his foot down 
and decides that the campaign shall go on as planned that the 
directors are cowed into agreement. They grumble and find 
fault all the year, and when the wisdom of the president and 
advertising manager is finally proved, by the reports at the end 
of the year, some of them cling still to the delusion that at least 
half of the advertising appropriation might have been saved. If 
there is not a big president, who can see the advertising argu- 
ment, it is sometimes impossible to get directors to approve an 
advertising appropriation large enough to try out the propo- 
sition properly ; and then there results one of the total or partial 
failures which tend to discredit advertising. 

62. Profits of Plan Must Be Demonstrated. — The 

shrewd advertising manager will recognize the importance of 
satisfying his employers in regard to the value of his plan. 
He will know that advertising in its present form is such a 
recent i^rofession, and has come into business under such 


auspices, that it has not yet been accepted by business men as a 
profession, much less as a science. He will understand that 
in America a large proportion of business success has been 
won rather through the possession and application of "horse 
sense" than through the recognition and application of any 
kind of scientific method. Business men who have made 
successes are inclined to think that the credit is due them as 
exceptionally sharp and able managers. They have to be 
shown about their proposed advertising campaigns, and in 
terms of definite profit. 

63. Balance-sheet Arguments. — The advertising man- 
ager must therefore assume some extremely probable and 
plausible basis for his argument, and build on it a structure of 
demonstration and argiiment that has no weak spots and is all 
the way through comprehensive to the man who usually argues 
from data supplied by his balance sheets. It is possible to get 
a hard-headed business man, or a skeptical board of directors, 
to accept one hypothetical suggestion such as this: If proper 
information about goods can be given to a million people who 
need them, there is probable cause to expect that a certain 
proportion of them will buy ; and if a certain quantity of goods 
can be sold, at an added expense equal to the advertising 
appropriation asked for, there will be a certain amount of net 
profit, to add to the profits that have been made, making the 
total net profit of the business so much greater than it has been 

64. Basis for Arguments. — The difficulty is to get the 
basis for the argument accepted. It must be reasonable and 
plausible. It must appeal to the directors as in the nature of 
a new field for their product. An advertising manager said 
recently: "I am not able to interest our directors in the 
question of advertising, directly. They cannot see that it is 
certain to develop new trade. When I want to put over an 
advertising campaign I go at it as though there was another 
state in which we had to develop a trade for our goods. They 
are always ready to listen to plans for opening up new territory, 
and will spend any amount of money to do it. I try to get them 


thinking in that way — that here is a territory that ought to 
yield us so many hundreds of thousands of dollars annually, and 
I find, them inclined to listen and discuss. Then it is strictly 
up to me, and I put up a carefully-worked-out plan, showing 
all along the possible increased trade, and finally I wind up with 
a statement showing how so much more business will affect 
the net annual profits, and consequently the dividends to be 
paid, and the inevitable rise in the selling value of the stock." 

65. The Manager's Difficult Problem. — If advertising 
is psychology, as some contend, it is proved in the contact 
between the advertising managers and the managers of busi- 
nesses. The manager has no other problem so difficult for 
him to solve, and that is so important, as the problem of getting 
his plans accepted by his employer. 


(PART 3) 


1. It is to be understood at the start that there is no such 
thing as a ready-made advertising campaign. Conditions are 
not the same with any two products, manufacturers, or classes 
of buyers. No article should be advertised in two campaigns 
in the same way. People change; times change. The experi- 
ence gained in one campaign should show the advertising man- 
ager how to modify and change his plans for the next campaign. 
Therefore, the campaigns outlined here are to be taken as 
strictly typical. They show what has been done by the adver- 
tisers quoted, and the rates, costs, results, etc. mentioned are 
strictly correct. If the advertising manager is able to take 
this fact in, he may use these campaigns to guide him in shaping 
his own campaigns. But he must know how to modify and 
change them. 

2. With one exception the examples of campaigns given in 
this Section are outlined from real tried-out campaigns, but of 
course it would take volumes to give them in all their details. 

Leaving out some details and compressing the campaign 
stories into the necessary space necessitates summarizing and 
condensing, and even the introduction of some elements not 
included in the original campaigns. The effort has been to 
retain the practical helpful character of the plans without 
cumbering the work with tedious details. 





3. Jumping All Middlemen. — In the Trade Chart on 
page 17 of Part 1 there is a straight line running from a to k, 
from Manufacturer to Consumer, representing the trade route 
of goods that are sold direct by the manufacturer to the con- 
svimer, avoiding the jobber, commission man, broker, sales 
agent, importer or exporter, retailer, mail-order house, or any 
other intermediate step or steps, that might add cost to the 
article, delay its transit to the consumer, or subject it to any 
of the risks of warehousing, the deterioration of time, or the 
profits of anybody except the manufacturer or originator. 
This is possible only with a certain class of product, like the 
product of the land. It is an ideal proposition. There are so 
many obstacles in the way of practical operation that, while 
it is the favorite subject for the aspirations of altruists and 
economists, it has been found to work well in but few cases. 

4. Self- Interest Necessary. — It has been found that a 
strong self-interest is necessary to make any business move a 
success. Cooperation has never been a conspicuous success 
in America, because there is usually no one financially inter- 
ested in making those projects successful. The retail grocer 
knows that his own living depends on the success of his store. 
There is no such spur behind the management of a cooperative 
store. Theoretically, everybody indorses the principle of 
cooperation, and everybody favors plans for getting domestic 
supplies at lower prices — reducing the high cost of living. 
Advertisers have often studied the problem, but it remained for 
a great transportation company — Wells Fargo & Co. Express — 
to work out one of the most interesting and important schemes 
for supplying household supplies direct from the producers, 
eliminating the profits and delays of middlemen, and doing it 
for the sole purpose of increasing its transportation business. 

5. Making New Business. — After the express companies 
had had their rates regulated by the Interstate Commerce 
Commission, and it became apparent that new methods for 


originating business must be sought, this company devised a 
plan for supplying farm products to consumers, using direct 
advertising methods to attract buyers. Expert men were sent 
into all parts of the country to arrange with producers to fill 
orders for their goods upon the order of the express company. 
This was the study of the producing field — the manufacturing 
field, it may be called. 

The plan was simple. Housekeepers were invited to order 
certain goods through the express company. After making a 
study of sources of supply, the company began to issue a weekly 
sheet of quotations for butter, eggs, meats, vegetables, fruits, 
canned goods, and many other things, naming prices that held 
good for a week, and that included all charges — ^correspondence, 
postage, fee for the money order, and the expressage charge 
from producer to consumer. All the housekeeper was asked to 
do was to make out her order and give the express agent a check 
for the amount. 

6. This campaign is unique. It was necessary to make a 
careful survey of the producing field, and get positive con- 
tracts with growers of all kinds of foods, scattered all over the 
country. It was also necessary to get in touch with consimiers, 
so that when the company agreed to find a market for all the 
butter a group of creameries could produce, it could fulfil its 
part of the agreement. But to get housekeepers to use this 
new avenue for buying supplies was a greater problem. Women 
are, as a rule, unsystematic buyers. The trend of retail trade 
of late has encouraged them to order in small quantities, daily, 
from their local grocers. Not many modern houses are built 
with a view of storing foodstuffs. 

7. Developing the Products. — The plan itself is simple, 
and not especially new. The express companies have always 
executed buying orders. The new element in this plan is the 
interest the company takes in the development of the product. 
It virtually acts as the selling agent for the farmers, without 
pay. It does more than this : It advises and shows the farmers. 
It practically educates the farmers to produce the special goods 
it knows it can sell, and engineers the sales. For example, the 


company was instrumental in getting the famous Rock}" Ford 
canteloupe into the eastern market from Colorado. Realizing 
that an earlier crop would find a ready sale, it went into Texas, 
Arizona, and California to induce the farmers to raise the 
melons to be marketed before the Colorado crop matured. It 
furnished seed, taught the farmers how to plant and cultivate, 
and how to grade and pack. Its experts devised a plan to pro- 
tect the plants from the sand storms, etc. When the crop was 
ready to ship, the company took it to market and sold it. 

8. Producers Fix the Prices. — A real difference between 
this plan and others is the fact that the producers' fix their own 
prices, and presumably do so for their own benefit. They are 
not compelled to deliver their goods to commission men and 
take whatever those men see fit to pay them, minus whatever 
charges for spoilage or shortage might result from accidents on 
the way or rough handling by the railroad employes, or any 
other cause. The goods are delivered by the producers directly 
into the care of the express compan}^ fresh from the ground, 
the hennery, the orchard, or the slaughter house, in perfect con- 
dition. The express company has a different interest in this 
traffic than it has in ordinary traffic, and a special effort is made 
to fonvard the goods speedily and carefully to their destination, 
for there the company receives its only compensation, in the 
form of transportation charges, for all of its energy and initiative 
in promoting the business. It is therefore of great importance 
to the company that deliveries be made in good time and in 
prime condition. 

9. Direct Advertising-. — The company used direct adver- 
tising methods, utilizing its own organization through letters 
and circulars to its local agents, asking them to get in touch 
with dealers and the patrons of the company. The publicity 
given to the plan by the newspapers was very useful to the 
company, and brought thousands of inquiries and grders. 
The newspapers knew that anything affecting the economy of 
the household sui^ijlies would be eagerly read by their con- 
stituents, and they printed all the details they could persuade 
the officials of the company to give them. 


The direct advertising campaign was carefully planned and 
skilfully operated. Several attractive booklets were issued. 
The weekly bulletins were carefully prepared, and circulated 
through local agents and branch offices, and in response to mail 
requests. Any person could have his name placed on the mail- 
ing list of the company -and receive the quotations every week. 
The booklets were interestingly written, and handsomely 
printed. They gave much valuable information. Take thei 
one on California food products, for example. It gives forty- 
six items — combinations of fruits, etc. — that can be ordered for 
specified simis, and shipped direct from the growers to th& con- 
sumers — from a dozen oranges to as many units of canned, 
dried, or evaporated fruits and berries as might be desired; 
and the oranges are picked from the trees when fully ripe, and 
are therefore something of a novelty in the East. 

] 0. Interesting- the Consumer. — A leaflet called Fresh 
Farm Products for Your Table gives the details of the plan. 

"This department was organized to assist you in buying 
fresh produce direct from the country for less than city prices. 

"To enable the farmer or producer to get better prices for 
what he sells. 

"And to secure additional business for this company. 

"We find people in the country who have fresh produce to 
sell, and arrange to receive weekly quotations from them. 

"Every Monday we issue a bulletin in several cities, showing 
prices of seasonable fresh country produce. 

"These bulletins show cost both in the country and delivered 
to you, and are current during the week. 

"We send this bulletin to you each week upon request, free 
of charge. 

"Compare prices quoted with city prices. 

"If you wish to order direct from the producers, we will give 
you their addresses. 

"This 20th century marketing, followed consistently, will 
reduce the cost of your table supplies. Many householders are 
saving from 15 to 20 per cent, by its use. 

"Send a trial order." 

I L T 102C— 25 


11. IJuyins' Clubs. — The natural development of this 
plan resulted in the formation of bu\ing clubs, where several 
families clubbed together and bought in large quantities. In 
one small city there is a club of more than 300 families. A com- 
bined order is given the express agent ever}^ week, witli a check. 
One of the members, who happens to have a spare room for the 
purjJose, receives all the goods and deli\'ers them as thc\- are 
called for. In a big office building in a city there is a bu\-ing 
club of 700 members, and it is stated that each member saves 
from $7 to $10 a month. 

The express company encourages the forming of these clubs, 
and assists in doing it by furnishing its booklets, sending a man 
to explain the plan to the members, and advising and helping 
in all ways. 

12. Giving Valuable Service. — All of the work of the 
company in the way of bringing the producers and the con- 
sumers together — -sending the goods over the air-line route 
from seller to buyer — is advertising, and advertising of the best 
and most productive kind. There arc field agents traveling 
about all the time, looking for quantities of produce that are 
not moving to market freely or economically, and arranging 
to handle them through the new plan. It is doubtful if there 
can be found an instance of skilful ad\-crtising which has j^ro- 
duced more results, and produced them more promptly, than 
this plan, devised frankly to produce more business for a great 
transportation agency. The manager of the Food Products 
Department, as this branch of the business is called, relates 
many facts as to the voliime of business already created that 
are calculated to make the ordinary advertiser, who makes use 
of the usual mediums, sigh with envy^ His agents have shown 
many producers how to make money by handling their crops. 
They have built up large businesses for small dealers. They 
have taken big yields of apples, for example, that the growers 
were about to sell at 25 cents a barrel for cider-making, and sold 
them for a net of $2.50 a barrel, and at the same time made it 
possible for city dwellers to get sound, selected apples at $1 a 
bushel — -less than one-half of the ciuTcnt retail price. They 


have turned great crops of berries, which had become congested 
and threatened to become total losses, into profit. They have 
made it possible for people in the East to get the Pacific Slope 
specialties easily and economically. They have made a mar- 
ket for millions of dollars' worth of produce, at low prices to 
the consumers and good profits for the producers, by simply 
taking the orders and delivering the goods. 

13. Simple Advertising Methods Used. — This is an 
advertising campaign that was very happily conceived, very 
skillfully executed, and that has brought wonderful returns. 
The details that may be given about the ordinary campaign 
cannot be given about this. There was no specific appro- 
priation, there were no mediums selected, there was no con- 
sideration of advertising rates. The questions of agencies, 
number of insertions, repeated insertions, etc. did not have to 
be considered. The matter of copy for the several booklets 
was a simple one, but it was skilfully met. The chief matter 
to be considered was the vital one of bringing seller and buyer 
together in such a manner as to promote what the contract 
lawyers call "a consenting mind," an agreement of minds, upon 
which all business rests. This was greatly helped by the frank 
attitude of the company, that its object was to secure additional 
business. It made it plain that it proposed to exact no fee for 
acting for the buyers, and no commissions for acting for the 

14. Hmnan Interest Basis. — ^A careful study of this 
campaign shows that it was solidly based on what is recognized 
as the human interest basis of all advertising, the idea of doing 
for the potential buyer some sort of real service, ofTering him 
some real benefit, to come to him through response to the adver- 
tising appeal. If there is not this element in advertising, it is 
sure to be inefifective. The office of advertising is to bring 
buyers and sellers together. It may be through newspaper and 
magazine advertising, through outdoor and street-car advertis- 
ing, through direct advertising. However it is done, it is the 
result that counts. The object always is for the seller to get 
into favorable touch with the buyer. 


15. Great Business Created.— The results of this cam- 
paign of marketing are too general to admit of estimate. The 
express company has secured additional transportation business 
to the total extent of many thousands of carloads of produce, 
a large projDortion of which it hauls long distances — from Cali- 
fornia, Oregon, Arizona, Texas, the Middle West and the South, 
to the East. A large proportion of this business has been 
specially created to furnish this transportation business. Large 
regions of peach growing have come into existence. A great 
region in California has become immensely profitable to its 
farmers, a great lettuce industry has sprung up in Texas, etc. 
The produce raised in the older sections is handled more easily 
and profitably. Crops that were sacrificed at very low prices 
are now sold at market rates. A large region in the Middle 
West is growing rich making butter, ever}' pound of which is 
marketed through this company, at above market rates; so 
that the farmers get more for their cream, and know that every 
pint they can produce will be sold, for cash. 

16. Benefits for the Consumers. — The benefits to con- 
sumers are also ver}^ great. This is the chief point of interest 
in this plan. Consumers of foodstuffs get their supplies direct 
from the producers, and in many instances at practically whole- 
sale rates. Butter, for example, fresh from the chums of the 
creameries, is delivered into the houses of the consumers at 
prices well below the retail rates. So of eggs. These can be had 
from big poultry farms, and guaranteed to be not over 24 hours 
old when shipped. California fruits come direct from the trees 
to the consumers, the oranges finding their way to the breakfast 
tables of the East within about G to 8 days from the trees, 
in quality and quantity desired. 

17. Tlie Middlemen Lose. — The loss, if there can be said 
to be a truly economic loss, brought about by this plan of mar- 
keting, falls upon the middlemen — the commission dealers in 
farm produce, the jobbers and wholesalers. But the sums lost 
to these lines of business are converted into gains by the pro- 
ducers and consumers, being distributed more or less equitably 
to the farmers, the creameries, etc., and the consumers. That 


there is even this loss to middlemen may well be doubted if, 
indeed, taking a large view of the matter, the middlemen do 
not largely share in the benefits arising. The various branches 
of the business of distribution must eventually largely gain 
through the elements brought into the business by this method 
of marketing. 

18. The Comniiinity Gains. — These gains are in tne 
nature of actual economic gains for the communities at both 
ends of the trade route — the producer community and the 
consumer community. The producer community's gain is too 
evident to need specific mention. The regions that are aided 
in establishing profitable business get their gain in actual cash, 
and get the amounts of cash the producers themselves specify 
as desirable and adequate, in return for the activities they have 
undertaken at the instance of the express company. The 
buying community profits by getting sound and fresh produce 
at prices generally below the ruling local rates, and to some 
desirable extent in health and good living. 

19. Trade Interests Gain. — The trade interests between 
the producers and consumers — the various classes of middle- 
men and the retail dealers — get incidental benefits that may, 
in many cases, be of great value to them. The plan stimulates 
buying, and helps in the formation of habits that actually create 
new demands. If people begin to buy California fruits, for 
example, through this plan, they are forming a habit of fruit 
eating that will surely lead to larger sales for local fruits, handled 
by the commission men and retailers. The trade generally 
benefits by the better habits of grading and packing, and prompt 
shipment, that this plan is helping to make universal in business 
of this character. 

20. Liberal Policy an Advantage. — This company also 
confers a distinct benefit upon trade by its broad and generous 
policy with the producers. It does not bind any producer to 
ship by its cars, or to continue for any definite time to accept 
and fill orders originating through it, any more than it tries to 
bind consumers to order through any of its agents. Any 


consumer is at perfect liberty to order direct, and as a matter of 
fact the company encourages him to do so. There is nothing 
to restrain producers from seeking other avenues for the dis- 
tribution of their product, and probably many of them do so. 
It is evident that there must be a constant dropping out of 
the plan, by both producers and consumers, and a resort to per- 
sonal initiative with a consequent steady collateral benefit to 
trade in general. 

21. Power of Advertising Shown. — This marketing 
campaign illustrates the power of advertising with great clear- 
ness and force. The office of advertising is to bring buyer and 
seller together upon an economical basis of trade. It does so 
in this case, with profit to both parties, and to the advertiser, 
who acts strictly as the connecting link between producer and 


22. Nature of the Campaign. — The campaign just 
described was one based on direct benefit to seller and buyer, 
with an indirect, or collateral, benefit to the advertiser, utilized 
through indirect advertising methods. This next campaign is 
as interesting in its way, though more strictly an advertising 
campaign. It shows how a new article may be introduced 
into a field pretty well supplied alread}% through thorough 
study of all the conditions and a skilful appeal to people. It 
is an advertising campaign, pure and simple, related to show 
the student the methods used by careful advertisers, and to 
show the sureness of the advertising methods when they are 
used with wisdom and skill. 

23. Financial Arrangements. — One John Logan had 
bought the patent for a new clock, and had succeeded in raising 
the necessary capital to begin the business of making and selling 
the clocks— $375,000, one-third paid in in cash, $125,000 in 
stock paid for the patents, leaving $125,000 treasury stock to 
sell when more money was needed. There had l)ccn sjxMit for 
S])ecial machinery and organizati(jn expenses $ 10,000, and Logan 
figured that before he was ready to sell clocks llie amount 


spent would reach $25,000. This left $100,000 working cash 

24. Distinctive Points of tlie Clock. — The clock was a 
new thing in the market. It kept accurate time, was wound 
but once a month, and had novel and valuable features. The 
works were made by a concern that speciaHzed in stamping 
sheet-brass goods, and the cases were made by a cabinetmaking 
concern. The factory was for assembling and finishing the 
clocks, for designing cases, and for a horological laboratory. 
The cases were plain but well designed, calculated to blend 
with the general finish and furnishing of rooms where they 
would be placed — mahogany, oak, natural woods, brass, cop- 
per, oxidized metal, gun metal, marble, cement, etc. The 
clock sold for all prices from $2.50 up. It was guaranteed not 
to vary over 30 seconds a month in keeping time. This was to 
be its chief selling point. On it all the hopes for business were 
based. It had been tested by the best horologist in the country 
for a year, and he had reported that it had not varied 15 seconds 
during the whole year. This was the patent — a device that 
made it self-regulating. 

25. Salesman Turned Manager. — Logan had been a suc- 
cessful salesman and advertiser. He had made successes of 
several kinds of business, and was confident that he knew 
the principles upon which selling rests, and would be able to 
apply his skill to the new clock. He believed that the use of 
clocks might be doubled, trebled, or quadrupled — if a clock 
that would keep accurate time and at the same time be a deco- 
rative object could be produced. His study of the field showed 
him that there should be clocks in many public places, in all 
street cars, steam cars, staterooms on steamers, all rooms in 
office buildings, all hotel rooms, etc. In fact, he believed that 
the field for his clock was almost unlimited — 'if he could develop 
the right quality of selling power. He believed that advertising 
would open the way for his selling plans, and he therefore 
planned carefully to have the best possible advertising manager. 
He set apart $50,000 for the initial advertising campaign. It 
was half of his free capital, but he knew that it would not do 


to be timid in this matter. He planned to spend this $50,000 
during the first year of business, and the bulk of it during the 
first 6 months. He estimated that he would sell $500,000 worth 
of clocks the first year, making his advertising appropriation 
10 per cent, of his gross sales. He planned to sell $2,000,000 
worth of clocks the second year, and not less' than $5,000,000 
annually after the fifth year. After the second year he planned 
to make his advertising appropriation 2 per cent, of his gross 
business; but he meant never to let it fall below $100,000 after 
the first year. 

26. Fixing Volume of Sales. — Logan had the courage of 
his faith in salesmanship and advertising, and efficiency methods. 
He believed that sales could be brought up to a total fixed in 
advance, after a careful estimate of the field. He had studied 
the potential need of his clock in several cities. He had had 
an expert marketing agent at work for a year. He knew how 
many clocks it would take to furnish Boston with them, accord- 
ing to his plan, and three or four other cities. He knew what 
good advertising and expert salesmanship can do. He figured 
on getting something like 25 per cent, of the possible potential 
demand, and he made all of his plans on that basis. He reckoned 
this volume of business as his capital. He made definite plans 
to produce the clocks, to sell them, and to use the money their 
sale would bring in. He planned every detail of manufacture 
and cost. He knew to a fraction of a cent what they would 
cost. He did not allow for any increase. He expected a slight 
reduction. He instructed his superintendent that no increase 
in cost would be tolerated, but that a decrease would be 

27. Working- a Sample Section . — Logan decided to work 
a small section of the country by salesmen the first three months, 
to advertise this section intensively in the newspapers, and at 
the same time do a certain amount of general advertising in 
nationally circulating mediums. This would have to be mail- 
order advertising at first, to be turned into dealer advertising 
when distribution had been secured. He wanted to begin to 
inform the ])cople at large about his clock, and pave the way 


for the extension of his selling organization and campaign with 
dealers. He decided to work New England first, for several 
reasons. It was a small territory, easily covered, filled with 
intelligent people inclined to be conservative in spending their 
money. It has twenty-five or thirty cities, all of which arc 
enter]3rising and wealthy. He wanted his salesmen to work 
against odds, to harden and develop them. 

28. Organizing- the Territory. — ^The New England ter- 
ritory was divided into 50 districts, and a salesman assigned to 
each district. He was told how many clocks he must sell dur- 
ing three months, and was promised a good bonus for all he 
sold in excess of his quota. The general sales manager was put 
into the field to manage this preliminary campaign, and he 
understood that his future depended upon the record made. 
He was given all the facts and figures turned in by the market- 
ing investigator, and all the information Logan had collected. 
He was given a month in which to study the field personally. 
Each salesman was given a week in his field before he was to 
try to sell a clock. Each man was also given a list of people 
who would probably buy, to give him a good start. 

29. Drilling the Salesmen. — Before these salesmen were 
sent out they had spent a month in the factory, and in a daily 
school of salesmanship which Logan him.sclf had conducted. 
They had been shown every process of making the clock, told 
the actual cost of every step, and frankly shown what the 
expected profits were. Logan worked very hard to get them 
thoroughly informed, and enthused about the clock. He 
talked with each man about the district he was to canvass, 
telling him in detail about the industries, business, character 
of the people, their thrift, their home habits, etc. He had 
several New England men come in and talk to the salesmen 
about that section of the country. He sketched its history 
to them, and impressed them with the opportunities before 
them. He told them his own experiences in selling and adver- 
tising. He tried to show them the importance of working 
with the advertising. He went carefully into all the current 
theories about salesmanship, and showed them how to qualify 


themselves for their work. He told them about books on selling, 
and about business periodicals. He studied each man, and 
managed to establish cordial relations with them all. He gave 
each man individual treatment calculated to develop him as a 

30. Poinding the Advertising Manager. — For an adver- 
tising manager Logan selected a young man who had studied 
law, been admitted to the bar, and opened an office. During 
his student years he had had to find his own expenses, and had 
acted as advertising manager for the college paper. He had 
met Logan when Logan was manager of another business, and 
had been shaqj enough to get a contract out of him. Logan 
admired his way of going about it, and after he had bought the 
clock patents he went to the young man, w^hom we will call 
Jones, and offered him the position, guaranteeing a certain 
minimimi income for five years. As Jones did not like the law, 
and did like advertising, he finally accepted, and took up the 
study of the new clock wdth earnest enthusiasm. Logan put 
him through a drastic course of training, covering three months. 

31. Getting Ready for the Job. — Jones worked in the 
factory, in the drafting room, in the office. He studied the 
clock, from the growing of the trees that furnished the lumber 
for the cases to the science of horology. He spent several days 
in the Patent Office looking up clock patents. He got into the 
Government Observator>^ and learned how time was computed 
and distributed all ov^cr the country. He spent a month in New 
England. He talked with all the big dealers in clocks and 
watches in all the principal cities. 

Jones read all the books on salesmanship and advertising that 
Logan assured him were worth while. He read all the 
periodicals devoted to those professions. He attended all the 
sessions of the salesmanship school when not traveling. Logan 
devoted one or two hours each day talking advertising to him, 
and getting him filled full of the Logan clock. 

32. IJlocking Out the Campaign. — Jones made a study 
of all the newspapers in New England, and Logan told hir' 

«< .)•> 


their histon-. He finall>' blocked out a campaign which, with 
the booklets, letters, and other direct advertising, would give 
New England three months' instruction about' the Logan clock 
and use up $10,000 of the advertising ai)propriation. In each 
city he selected one business paper and one paper that was 
strong in the home. In the large towns he used the leading 
weekly, and he used several weekly editions of city papers that 
had large general circulations. He wrote or adapted copy for 
each paper, to appeal to its peculiar class of readers. While 
he adopted a style for his advertisements, he varied them to 
make them attractive in the paper in which they were pub- 
lished. If a paper used very black type, like the Boston Post, 
he had his advertisement set rather light and gave it much white 
space. In the Boston Transcript, on the other hand, he set 
the advertisement very solid and black, using a series of Gothic 
type, and then had it shaded just enough to get the O. K. of 
the newspaper advertising manager. For the country papers 
he designed a handsome advertisement, but plainly set in strong 
type, surrounded with a wide white space. 

33. Getting Newspaper Cooperation.— Jones made use 
of the doubtful "free notice" method for getting publicity, 
but he made all of the little articles he offered the newspapers 
interesting. He found out all he could about the Willard family 
of clock makers, about Seth Thomas, about the originators of 
the Waltham Watch Company, and other historic watch or 
clock makers of New England. This line of study made it pos- 
sible for him to put an intimate local touch into some of his 
advertisements, making the people feel almost as though the 
Logan Clock Company was a local concern. He dug out a 
lot of interesting stuff about some of the old church clocks, 
in the towns and cities— stuff that had for generations been 
available to the local newspapers, but had been neglected by 
them. He made catchy little articles, with almost no adver- 
tising suggestion in them. He would write, "The president of 
the new Logan Clock Company discovered an interesting fact 

about the town clock in C ," etc. Or, "One of the most 

popular styles of the new Logan clock is a faithful copy of one 


of the most celebrated clocks made by Simon Willard, whose 

little shop used to stand near ." Or, "It is related of the 

Willard brothers, who made those handsome old clocks that 

kept such good time for our great-grandfathers, that ," etc. 

Or he would find out what persons in a city made a specialty 
of collecting old clocks, and write a good story about them, 
getting in a mention of the Logan clock to show the advance 
made in the art of clock making. 

The papers would usually publish these articles, and they 
were about the best possible advertising for the Logan clock. 

34. Studying- the Field . — -This advertising manager spent 
much time in the field while this trial campaign was going on. 
He wanted to note how the advertising affected the readers 
of the newspapers. He visited the local and editorial rooms 
of the newspapers, and chummed with the advertising forces. 
He got the professional reaction from his advertising in this 
way. He haunted the jewelry stores where the clock was on 
sale, and he spent many evenings at country hotels with the 
salesmen, going over their experiences, and trying to help them 
with suggestion and good cheer. He got to know the field, and 
the impression his advertising was making. He demonstrated 
the clock every\\diere. Wherever he spent the night he got a 
handsome clock into some conspicuous position in the hotel 
lobby. He had store window cards made with a handsome 
three-color picture of the clock with just this on them : "Come 
in and see it!" He had a small booklet made, giving a sketchy 
history of clocks, a page about the importance of knowing the 
time accurately, including two pages describing the Logan clock, 
with a good picture of it as it sat on the mantel, also a detailed 
drawing of the works. These booklets bore the imprint of the 
local dealer, and were given to any one who asked questions, 
left at the hotels, and handed out by the dealers. 

35. Finding New Methods. — This resourceful adver- 
tising manager discovered in nearly every town some new 
method to advertise the clock and to attract the attention of the 
jiublic. The salesmen began to report sales, and more sales. 
Before the campaign was half over it became evident that the 


quota of sales assigned to the selling staflf in New England would 
be exceeded. When this was made very plain, after nearly 
two months' work, Logan called Jones out of the field, and bade 
him prepare for a similar campaign in a larger field, the Middle 
West, and told him that he was to spend twice as much money 
as was spent in New England, and make a campaign that might 
extend over a year — six months at all events ; and there were to 
be 100 salesmen put in the field, after a month had been spent 
choosing dealers to handle the clock. A different policy, how- 
ever, was to be pursued. All orders taken by the salesmen 
were to be turned in to the retailers, who were to get a small 
commission, to get them started in the big dealer campaign 
Logan had in view. 

36. Getting the Right Start. — The Logan clock had 
been started on its career of success. It had all the elements 
necessary for an advertising success. It was a good article, 
there was a field for it, and it was pushed wisely and vigorously. 
The advertising was directed to the people who were to buy 
the clock. The salesmen worked to bring to the people an 
article they had learned was useful and economical. The 
advertising had been shrewdly sold* to the selling force. The 
sales manager and the advertising manager worked in perfect 


37. Modern Marketing Methods. — During the past ten 
or more years there has been going on a great transformation 
in manufacturing. The era when the market was taken for 
granted, or left to chance, is rapidly passing, and in many 
manufacturing enterj^rises the marketing problem is being 
studied very carefully, not only to secure easy and natural dis- 
tribution of goods, but to stabilize the market, and secure for 

*In the advertisement and selling business in recent years, the word 
sell has come to be used in a technical sense meaning to impress favorably, 
by argument or demonstratiofi, so that a desired action is taken. For 
example, it is said "The advertising manager's most difficult task is to 
sell his plan to his board of directors"; or "The plan must be sold to the 
dealers," meaning that the board of directors or the dealers are to be 
iaduo^'d to a.-n.^rr>\rp of oM/i adopt certain plans. 


the manufacturers the value given a business by identified goods, 
or trade-marked j^roducts, and a market more closely controlled 
by themselves. 

38. Manulactvirers Belonged to the Jobbers. — Until 
about 5 years ago the Scott Paper Company had been making 
toilet paper for jobbers and putting on it whatever brand was 
desired. The company was not identified with its product. 
It was, as another manufacturer had expressed it, "owned by 
the jobbers that handled its product." It did not know, from 
year to year, what its product might be, where it would be sold, 
or what its volimie would be. The consumers knew nothing 
about the Scott Paper Company. If a jobber who had been 
having his special brand of toilet paper made by the Scott Com- 
pany found that he could save a few cents on a thousand pack- 
ages by having it made at another mill, he could change, and 
whatever good-will the Scott Company had earned was lost 
to it. The entire output of the Scott mills was sold on price 
and quality, and it was the dealers, instead of the consimiers, 
who were able to trace the quality and the price to the company. 

39. Changing the Business Policy. — Because of this 
policy, or lack of a policy, the company could neither standardize 
its goods, its selling and manufacturing policies, nor its profits. 
Its business was, as the saying is, "all up in the air." Its 
selling force had nothing to work on but price and alleged 
quality, and as it was not their customers who proved the 
quality, it Was not a very vital factor. This condition finally 
led the executives of the company to determine upon a dif- 
ferent policy, and the foundation of the new policy was to be 
a plan for marketing that should identify the product with the 
company, appeal to consumers to judge the quality, and fix 
prices to assure a known and stable scale of profits. 

40. Analyzing the Market. — The first step was to 
analyze the market for the purpose of discovering how many 
grades and varieties of toilet papers were demanded to supply 
100 per cent, of the trade, and what prices must be fixed to 
attract a large proportion of the trade. This work was not so 


great for this coinpan}' as it would have been for a company 
entering the business, as its records of sales, together with the 
experience and judgment of its selling staff, furnished about all 
the necessary data. So a careful analysis of the figures by the 
accounting department and the sales manager, with thorough 
reports from all traveling salesmen, and several convention 
meetings of all the executives, salesmen, sales manager, and 
advertising men, to which an advertising agent of wide experi- 
ence in this field was invited, settled the matter. 

41. Adapting- tlie Goods. — It was found that three 
brands of toilet paper would, theoretically, supply 100 per 
cent, of the demand for those goods — one 5-cent and two 
10-cent rolls. The 5-cent roll was called The Waldorf, the 
10-cent rolls were ScotTissue and SaniTissue, the latter being 
made by some process that gave it a sanitary value. The 
whole business was wrenched away from the old policy of selling 
on price and quality alone, and was placed squarely upon the 
trade-mark basis. The goods were still to be sold on quality, 
but chiefly on name and the reputation of the Scott Company. 
In some way, the buying public was to be educated to accept 
the name of the product and of the company as a sufficient 
guaranty of quality and price. The new line was the highest- 
priced line of toilet papers on the market, and there was no 
reason why retail dealers should stock them and try to influence 
consumers to buy them. That was the problem the company 
had to face, and solve. 

42. Obstacles to Be Overcome. — The first thing the 
company met, in the way of an obstacle, was the hostility of 
the jobbers who had been handling its product. The margin 
of profit for the jobber had been reduced, because the com- 
pany was to use the money to create a consumer demand. The 
next obstructive element was the retail dealer, whose margin 
of profit had also been reduced while the selling price to the 
consumer had been advanced. These conditions made it neces- 
sary to do two things — to adopt an advertising policy that 
would create a consimier demand which would ultimately 
force both jobbers and retailers to handle the goods and that 



would assure them adequate profits by reason of greater volume 
of trade, and to educate the salesmen to operate upon the theory 
that the advertising wpidd create this consumer demand which 
would in a short time compensate dealers for the reduced 
margins of profits for them. 

43. Getting Salesmen to Cooperate. — To get the intel- 
ligent cooperation of the salesmen, conventions were held, at 
which ever}' effort was made to sell the new policy to the sales- 
men. It was carefully explained to them, and special pains 
was taken to show them that the new policy would ultimately 
make their selling work much easier, and also that it would 
make the gross profits of the dealers much greater, as well as 
relieve the dealers of most of their work in selling. Adver- 
tising experts were brought to talk to the salesmen, efficiency 
experts came to explain how their work might be lessened, 
marketing experts told them of the newer theories about the 
distribution of goods of universal need, and members of the 
company figured for them what they could do in the way of 
increased business and income if they helped loyally in putting 
the new regiiTie into working order. 

44. Getting Dealers to Cooperate. — To get the cooper- 
ation of the dealers, a house organ was started. A new product 
was added to the list— a paper towel, called the ScotTissue 
towel, and its promotion offered a good opportunity to push 
the whole line of products. The house organ showed dealers 
how to display and advertise the lines, and told how certain 
dealers had succeeded. It printed some of the advertisements 
used, and told of the work of the company to interest con- 
sujners. It described all the goods, and how they were put up 
to appeal to all tastes and needs. The towel idea developed 
rapidly, and it was offered in various sizes and packages, and 
in combination with the toilet papers. A baby diaper was added 
to the line, and table cloths, etc., so that it was possible to make 
up combination trial packages selling at 50 cents and 75 cents 
that were very tempting. In addition to the house organ there 
were prepared attractive booklets — one telling all about the 
manufacture of the towels, from the tree to the household; 


one giving descriptions of all the articles produced; and one 
especially devoted to the economies and convenience of the 
towels and other articles in homes. 

45. Placing the Advertising. — The advertising that was 
planned to attract consumers was placed in a few mediimis 
that circulate largely in the homes. At first the list was small, 
and included The Ladies Home Journal, The Saturday Evening 
Post, The Woman's Home Companion, and Good House- 
keeping. Later there were added other magazines, such as 
Forecast and The Housewives' League Magazine. The copy 
in all these except The Saturday Evening Post was the standard 
magazine page. In the Post the copy was half and quarter 
pages, in one- and two-column foirn. The magazine page had 
a coupon offering a sample package of the goods for 50 cents. 
The copy for the advertisements was good, and dealt with the 
practical benefits of the paper products in the home. There 
were illustrations that showed how the articles were handled 
in homes and how the packages look. The advertisements 
were attractive, and interesting to every housewife, or house- 
man, who is interested in utility and economy in the home. 

46. Results of the Advertising.— This campaign has 
resulted in opening the jobbing and retail market to the Scott 
products, and getting the cordial cooperation of the jobber and 
retailer, because it developed a great consumer demand which 
hammered at the doors of the distributing dealers until they 
woke up to the opportunity the comi:»any was giving them to 
make quick and easy profits, by virtually guaranteeing them 
large sales and rapid turnover of their capital. It has sold the 
advertising to the salesmen, and given them a new conception 
of the power of advertising when it is appreciated and utilized 
by the selling force. It has created a great consumer demand, 
which is making money for every retailer who handles the goods. 
The advertising campaign is selling the product of the factories, 
first, so to speak, to the salesman of the company; second, to 
the jobbers who handle it in a large way ; third, to the retailers 
who sell it to the consumers; and fourth, and most important 
of all, to the people who use the products in their homes. In 

2fJ6C— 26 


fact, the advertising sells the product. The jobbers and the 
retailers are merely distributing agents. They do not have to 
sell the articles. The}^ already have been sold to the con- 
sumers by the advertising. The local grocers, or other stores 
handling the things, merely have to deliver the goods; and the 
jobbers have to keep the retailers supi)licd. 

47. All Eiieruelic Beffiniiing. There wore so few 
mediums used in this campaign, and they were so well known, 
that it will be an easy matter for one who desires to figure 
the costs for himself. Let him look up the rates, compute the 
costs, and arrange a schedule on his own responsibility. The 
first-mentioned meditmis were used quite generously, as there 
was an immediate necessity that called for a brave beginning. 
The attention of the consumers needed to be attracted at once, 
and in considerable volimie, if the jobbers and retailers were to 
be impressed and interested. It would not do to allow them to 
get fixed in aiTangements with other products, and to have 
the attention of consumers given to substitutes. vSo the blows 
were rapid and continued until the flow of goods through the 
usual channels had been resimied under the new conditions. 

48. Introduction of a New Article. — The company's 
plans were materially modified by conditions that developed 
while it was trying out the towel proposition. A paper towel 
was a novel idea. The popular idea of paper for such a purpose 

\ was that it would not work. But it did work, and after a while 
that fact began to be accepted. The paper towel was accepted 
as a great sanitary fact. Its use was not great in homes for a 
time, but it sprang into popular favor for factories, offices, 
hotels, schools, clubs, etc., places where fabric towels had been 
used. The idea was that paper was thought to be more sani- 
tary' than cloth, even if the cloth towels were carefully laun- 
dered after use. This line of development was largely worked 
out through personal salesmen, that method being found more 
effective. This trade is equivalent to a jobber trade, as all cus- 
tomers are large consumers and would be more inclined to buy 
direct from the manufacturer; and the salesman is not selling 
a case of towels, or a hundred cases, but llic continued use of 

A Big Kitchen Help 

As Well as a Towel 

— Absorbent 


MMEDIATELY you hang up a roll of Absorbent ScotTissue in your kitchen 
0^;^^°" u° ""'.y P''°^'<^e yourself with an individual towel that saves your linen 
and washing bills, but you also provide yourself with a time and labor saver of 
inhnite value in your home work. 

Know how to use them— "like a blotter"— and what to use them for. 

uses lor ScoiT.ssue here; only a Inal m your home will convince you of its endless usefulness. 



Junior Roll. :0c. Sundard Roll, •25c. Large Roll, *35c 

Made by Scott Paper Company, also makers of Quality Toilet Papers 

^r?t i ^^^ ^ ^'^^ ^"'^^' ^°''' ="°*5' **"'« absorbent 
lOiletraper paper. SoW in large, tight wound rolls, 

jott u old lined "^'^ P^' roll. 

Sani-Tissue The balsam treatment makes the paper 
soft and medicinal. Always demanded 

^..Jrt ,1.1?''*'" **""^^*'" has once beenuseZfhKe 
^.A ..i doilJili. rolls in dust-proof carton, 25 

Abore goods sold (t all proiireuivo detltn. 

Read Big 50c Offer in Coupon 

721 Glen wood Avenuo 
Philadelphia. Pa. 

•Piiteii slightly high 

Phils., P.. 

Dear Sirs: 
Miclos^ SOc (75c In 
Cotioda). Please 
send me (prepaid) 1 Jr 
Roll ScotTissue towels 
Neat Fixture. I Pifre 
White ScotTissue Table 
over. I Package of 12 Scot- 
Tissue Dydeea. 1 Roll of Scot- 
Tissue Toilet Paper 1 Roll SanI 

Toilet Paper. And 1 other 

roll of high-grade Toilet Paper 
AllforSOc (75clo Canadal. 

Fig. 1 

c<^£::i^!^z^^[^:^r^^:^!^^^^ ^--'". ^^---'^ «-^ 



the towel in an establishment that may ultimately buy thou- 
sands of cases. The advertising of the towel was directed to 
its use in the homes, and for many purposes other than the 
ordinary uses of a towel, and was made to suggest buying the 
Seott products in the combination packages, thus can*}' ing along 
with it the toilet-paper proposition. 

49. The advertisement, Fig. 1, is a good example of the 
series used in this campaign. It was planned to appeal to the 
housewife, and, while it features the towel, it leads the mind of 
the reader to consider the whole product of the Scott mills, 
with reference to good housekeeping. 


50, Benefiting the Consumer First, — It is a remark- 
able fact that the more recent expansion of advertising as a 
major selling force has been along lines where the benefits 
coming to the advertiser were much less than those coming 
to the buyers and to the general ]niblic. It lias been shown 
how the great express comi>any linked up j^roducers and con- 
stmiers to an extent that has made fortunes for the one and con- 
siderable savings for the other, while it gained for itself merely 
a certain amount of new transportation business. There are 
many general advertising camjjaigns tliat do a vast amomit of 
good to parties that pay ucjne of thi' cost and liaw nothing to 
do with their ])lanning. 

51. Making si New Market for Powder. — Some years 
ago the E. I. Du Pont de Nemours Powder Company decided 
that it was wise for it to seek other than the ordinary trade 
outlets for its powder and dynamite. In making an examina- 
tion for possible sources of demand, it thought fanners might 
be greatly benefited by using high explosives in bringing into 
use the great deposits of plant food kno\vn to exist below the 
reach of ordinary- practicable plowing. Dynamite had been 
used to clear land from stumpage after timber cutting, and for 
blasting rocks, etc., but even for this purpose it was chiefly 
used by blasting experts, and not by the farmers themselves. 


52. Encouraging" Sj^ort to Increase Market. — ^At the 

same time, the company investigated the use of its smokeless 
i:)Owder in the sport of trap shooting, and thought that that 
sport might be greatly enlarged. Two campaigns were begun, 
one to persuade fanners that they could raise larger crops if they 
used d\'namite to turn up the plant food lying below the reach 
of their plows, to make excavations for setting trees, to dig 
their ditches, etc.; and one to promote trap shooting. This 
hitter campaign consisted chiefly in direct encouragement of 
the formation of shooting clubs, and suggestions as to their 
conduct and benefits. It was more or less an ordinary adver- 
tising enterprise, worked as many other campaigns had been 
worked. Consumption was encouraged, and the demand thus 
encouraged was directed toward the specialized product of the 
company through the usual methods. 

53. Dynamite and the Farmers. — To make dynamite 
popular with farmers and arrange for its distrilnition was an 
extremely difificult task, one of the hardest ever undertaken 
by an advertiser. The farmers were afraid of it, and their fear 
was justified by the extraordinar}^ precautions taken by national, 
state, city, and town authorities, with respect to its transporta- 
tion, storage, and handling. Knowing its dangerous character 
and its high cost, as well as the difficulties attending its pur- 
chase and delivery, fanners were not in a mood to consider its 
use seriously. Many of them were skeptical about its benefits. 
They had been asked to believe a great many things about the 
soil and its handling that were directly contrary to their train- 
ing and experience. They never were very enthusiastic about 
the new theories of agricidture put forth by the Government, 
the agricultural colleges, and the new experts. They did not 
know, either, that the manufacture of dynamite had been so 
improved as to make it practically, and comparatively, harm- 
less to handle, transport, and store. The material and its uses 
were surrounded by mystery and fear. The farmers did not 
relish the idea of risking their lives in trying the experiments 
presented to them. They had to be shown, and they required 
the most con^4ncing proofs. 


54. Original in«> Interest. — The general campaign was 
for the purpose of promoting among farmers a scientific fact 
that they did not know and were not interested in. About 
ten million pounds of dynamite had been used annually for 
clearing land of stumps, but it was handled chiefly by ])ro- 
fcssional blasters, and not by the fanners themselves. Prac- 
tically none was used for loosening the subsoil several feel below 
the surface. On some kinds of soil it is impossible for roots to 
penetrate below the plowing depth, about 6 or 8 inches. Here 
and there was a farmer who used what was called a subsoil 
plow, which turned up a few more inches of ground, at great 
expense for teams' to haul the plow through the stiflf soil. A 
few tree experts were advocating larger holes in which to plant 
trees. There were even a few who used d}'namite to blast out 
the holes, but even these used it as an aid in excavating, rather 
than as a power to loosen pennanently the deeper strata of 
soils, so that the tree could send its roots deep into the earth, 
below the line of drought and frost, to feed upon the elements 

55. Much Money Needetl. — The diflficulties were so great 
that no advertiser not possessed of ample capital, and unwilling 
to wait an indefinitely long time for adequate results, and to 
face the possibility of not then getting those results, could 
afford even to consider such a campaign. There was no assur- 
ance of ultimate success. Farmers are known to be ultra con- 
servative, and, as a class, not to have very large capital at their 
command. They have been found responsive to some lines of 
advertising, but this proposition involved much more than 
buying, for example, a new harvester, an automobile truck, or 
a supply of some new fertilizer. It meant a radical change of 
faith in the quality of the land below the reach of their plows, 
and in their hereditary understanding of the quality and virtues 
of the ordinary processes of agriculture. 

The farmer, however liberal may have been his youthful 
education, is all the time subject to very powerful influences 
that teach him to be conservative, to have patience, and to trust 
the manifest processes of nature. He always sees the earth 

^22 C.r.NI'.KAI. CAMI'AKiXS 61 

respoiul to the siinplcr processes of eulLivation. He lias Ijeen 
taught by the Bible that a large proportion of his seeding work 
will go for naught, and that it is to be expected that some seed 
will fall ajTiong tares and on rocky ground, and bring forth no 
crops. He becomes resigned to drought, to pestilence, to ruin 
by wind and rain and frost. He comes to feel that farming is 
regulated by Providence. So he does not have an o])en mind, 
is not inclined to initiative, looks askance upon innovation, 
and is not, usually, inclined to respond to suggestion. 

56. Difficulty in Collecting tlie Benefits of the 
Advertising. — -The company realized all these adverse ele- 
ments in its advertising problem, and made plans that con- 
templated a long and hard fight, the spending of much money, 
and a wait of many years for anything like an adequate return. 
It very well knew that it would be advertising powder, not 
altogether the Du Pont powder. It knew that its campaign, 
if successful, would proportionately benefit some competitors 
who would not share the expense. It also knew that if its 
analyses were correct it would put many hundreds of thousands 
of dollars into the pockets of the farmers in certain sections of 
the country, and add largely to the general prosperity that 
follows good farming everywhere. The gain would be widely 
distributed, among other powder makers, farmers, and the 
community in general, while the company could hope, at the 
best, to get but a relatively small proportion for itself. 

57. Using a New Name. — To overcome the prejudice 
against dynamite, so far as possible, a new name was given to 
the product — Farm Powder. This helped to reassure the farm- 
ers, as it gave them the idea that it was not the old familiar 
dynamite they were dealing with, but something devised 
especially for their benefit, as, in a sense, it was. 

58. Educative Advertising. — The company spent more 
than $600,000 to educate the farmers in the principles of what 
it called vertical farming — making the faims deeper and more 
productive. The advertising was educative. Farm papers 
were used, and the mo\'ies, also many store and fence signs. 

(ji: MANAGEMENT OF § 22 

Expert demonstrators were sent out. Many farmers did not 
themselves wish to undertake the work of blasting, so the com- 
pany undertook to refer them to professional blasters who 
could be employed. Finding that there were not enough of 
these professionals, the company undertook to find or train a 
corps of agricultural blasters as a new profession, and did create 
a list of a thousand men who are ready to res])ond to the 
demands of farmers. The company supplied these blasters with 
fence signs, circulars, envelope stiiffers, and stationery, and paid 
them for making free demonstrations. 

59. Difficult Di.strilnition. — The distribution problem, 
upon which the advertising campaign must rest, was extremely 
difficult. In man\^ localities laws prevented the keeping of 
dynamite for sale in storehouses convenient of access to the 
farmers, and its transportation from the manufacturers or 
dealers to tlie farmers was slow and difficult. In some localities 
there was a high license fee for the dealer, and dealers who 
kept it in stock were liable to charge very high prices for it. 
The Du Pont Company advertised a farmers' price list, and 
offered to furnish the dynamite direct if fanners had difficulty 
in getting it. Many agents were appointed who did not carry 
stocks, but ordered for the farmers. Farmers were warned to 
order their supplies 4 weeks ahead of their need. The company 
made every effort to make it easy for the farmer to get the 
explosive, and to show him how it could be used with profit 
to himself. 

60. Free Publicity. — A great amount of news publicity 
was obtained. Demonstrations were advertised in local news- 
papers, which sent reporters and imnted news stories. These 
stories aroused the editors of Sunday editions of the city papers, 
and they printed sensational accounts of the "new agriculture." 
Farm papers began to print stories, with illustrations, and finally 
the magazines treated the matter in their usual interesting and 
instructive manner. The company sent data to agricultural 
colleges, experiment stations, and to the Department of Agri- 
culture at Washington; and also erhployed a soil expert to 
cooperate with and advise the fanners. The knowledge of the 


■new process spread rapidly; and as much of the publicity was 
of a news character, it may have impressed the farmers more 
readily than it would if it had all been advertising that was 
manifestly paid for by the powder company. Nearly all farmers 
who do any reading are now well informed about the virtue«i 
of d>mamite in agriculture, and about all of the information 
they have had has come, directly or indirectly, from the powder 

Gl. Direct Advertising Used. — As stated, the Du Pont 
Company spent $600,000 in this initial campaign, using a large 
number of mediums, and supporting the work of the papers with 
many devices of direct advertising, and an elaborate and costly 
system of personal education and help for the farmers. The 
advertising copy that was prepared for use in the farm papers 
was 8 inches double column the first year, 6 to 8 inches single 
column the second year, and 6 inches double the third year. 
The cost per inquiry was least the first year, but as the cost 
per inquiry rose the ratio of sales per inquiiy rose also. At 
first there were many curiosity inquiries, and as these fell off 
there was a greater proportion of orders. The Du Pont Com- 
pany did not get all the benefit of the advertising, but it figured 
that of the new business it created it got a fair share; and it 
created a demand that will continue indefinitely, until finally 
its profits are expected to reduce the advertising cost to an 
almost negligible amount. 

62. Selecting the Mediums.— The method of selecting 
mediimis for the Farm Powder advertising, after the first year, 
was based on the inquiry returns received in the course of the 
initial year, though it proved that some of the papers that pro- 
duced the greatest number of inquiries were not the most pro- 
ductive of actual business. The largest volume of replies came 
from periodicals that apparently have the bulk of their circula- 
tion among city people, suburban residents, and people who 
have the "back-to-the-land" fever, but who are not at present 
farmers, such as The Country Gentleman and Illustrated Sunday 
Magazine. As this is one of the best planned general campaigns 
for farmers' trade, and as it has been so successful, it is useful 




to know just what mediums were selected, and the Hst is as 
tollows : 

American Agriculturist 

American Forestry 

American Nut Journal 

Better Fruit 

Breeders' Gazette 

Country Gentleman 

Connecticut Farmer 

Dakota Farmer 

Farm Engineering 

Farm, Stock, and Home 

Farmers' Review 

Fniit Grower and Farmer 

Fruit Man and Gardener 


Farmer and Breeder 

Farming Business 

Florida Grower 

Green's Fruit Grower 

Garden and Farm Almanac 

Hoard's Dairyman 

Idaho Farmer 

Illinois Farmer and Farmers' Call 

Illustrated Sunday Magazine 

Kimball's Dairy Farmer 

King's Fruit Tree Bulletin 

Manufacturers' Record 

Michigan Farmer 

National Stockman and Farmer 

National Sunday Magazine 

Oregon Farmer 

Pennsylvania Farmer 

Poultry Success 

Practical Farmer 

Progressive Farmer 


Rural Life 

Rural New Yorker 

Southern Agriculturist 

Southern Cultivator 

Southern Farming 

Southern Fruit Grower 

Southern Planter 

Southern Ruralist 

Successful Farming 

The Nut Grower 

The Ranch 

Twentieth Century Farmer 

Up-to-Date Farming 

Vegetable Grower 

Washington Farmer 

Wallace's Farmer 

Western Farmer 

Wisconsin Agriculturist 

Western Farm Life 

63. Results of the Campaign. — ^The results of the cam- 
paign show that dynamite is now used for the following pur- 
poses for which it was not used to any great extent prior to 
1911: Stimip blasting in the East, vSouth, and vSoutheast, 
blasting boulders, preparing ground for planting fruit trees, 
excavating farm ditches, blasting impervious subsoils, exca- 
vating cellars, draining swamps and ponds, straightening creeks, 
rejuvenating old orchards, road building; making holes for 
fence and telegraph poles, digging and restoring wells, as a 
substitute for tile draining and excessive fertilization. 

The results to the company were very remarkable, showing 
that it pays to plan a general campaign upon broad and unselfish 
lines, as well as in accordance with the established principles 
of advertising. After having worked in this campaign for only 
4 years the company is able to report that its sales have increased 
in this farming field to an extent that enables it to conclude that 
the advertising expenditures for this campaign had been entirely 



absorbed b>- increased profits due to the advertising', leaving' it 
a permanent asset in the shape of many new distributors anr^ 
many new customers. The farmers who have l^een sliown how 
to use this ])owdcr will, prcsuTnabl^^ continue to use it, and their 
subsequent i)urchases will not be chargeable with the advcr- 



Fig. 2 

Reduced from 6-inch double-column advertisement in a farm paper 

tising expense of this campaign. It is not likcl>' that the com- 
pany will stop advertising, but it will not advertise to the 
customers who have already been won, nor will it charge adver- 
tising expense to income from them. Moreover, these famicrs 
bv recommending it to others, will act as selling agents for the 




powder that they have found profitable to use themselves. 
There will, in fact, be a continuously increasing return from 
this advertising campaign which will, within a few years, so 


Vertical Farming Proved 


By Effects of 
Orchard Blasting With 


Red Cross 


These cuts are 
made from photos 
showing compara- 
tive growth of pear 
trees from spring 
of 1913 to August, 
1914, Bellemont 
Orchards, Inc., 
Norfolk, Va. 


. ..Vijli:; I- f. •*•■'»■' 


Al! proj^rcssive farmers and orchardists know that trees planted 
in blasted ground grow much faster than those planted in the old 
wa\-, and hear fruit earlier. This proves the truth of the principles 
of X'ertical Farming, which aims to cultivate downward as well as 
to till the lop soil. 

Three years ago tree planting in blasted holes was experi- 
mental—now millions of trees are set out by the Vertical Farming 
method every Spring and P'all. 

In like manner, blasting the subsoil to increase general crop yields, 
now regarded as experimental, will in a few years be common. 

To learn how and why Vertical F"arming may double the \ields 
of your farm, get the I'rce Reading Cr)urse in Vertical Farming by 
Or. G. K. Bailey— one of the best works on soils and soil culture 
i\cr published. Sent free with every request for our Farmer's 
Handbook No. 41-F. Write now. 

Du Pont Powder Co., Wilmington, Del. 

Established 1802 

Fig. 3 
Reduced from one-fourth-page advertisement 

nearly extinguish its cost as to leave the percentage per dollar 
of business so small as to be difficult jf exjiression by fractions 
of a cent. 




64. Figurins^ the Future. — T 

reflects that as there are 878,798,325 
the United States, 1 pound of Farm 
Powder per acre, at 10 cents a 
pound, with the other necessary 
blasting supplies, would yield more 
than a hundred million dollars of 
business a year. It does not expect 
this much business, but as it takes 
50 pounds of powder to subsoil an 
acre, and from 100 to 300 pounds 
to clear a cut-over acre, the com- 
pany assumes that there is a great 
Ijusiness to be worked up through 
tt-aching the fanners how to get 
more out of the land they have, and 
how. to clear more land pro]>erly. 

(i5. The Copy. — ^The adver- 
tising copy for this campaign was 
written to bring mail orders or to 
refer the readers to dealers. It was 
straight talk to farmers, telling them 
how they could increase their crops 
without cultivating more land or 
using more fertilizers. The illustra- 
tions and display were calculated to 
attract instant attention. The ex- 
amples given in Figs. 2 to 5 are good 
samples of the series. 

he Du Pont Company 
acres of farming land in 


G6. Marketing a Staple 
Article. — The test of advertising 
comes when the general campaign 
is planned to market a staple article of 
organized competition, and as a part 

THE ground occupied by the aver- 
age stump and lis ruota will grow 
25 to 30 cent, worth ol food c lopi 
each year. One hundred stumps to the 
acre mean a yearly loss of many dollars. 
Why leave the stumps in the ground 
when they can be quickly and cheaply 
temoved with 



— the explosive especially mftde for 
blasting stumps, boulders, ditches, tree- 
holes, hardpan, etc. 

Millions ol pounds ol Du Pont Et- 
plosives are used by latmers every year. 
Improve your farm, increase its produc* 
lion and add to your bank account. 


tells how to safely handle Red Cross 
Farm Pov^deis for clearing land for 
higger and belter crops. Write today 
lor Farmers' Handbook ol Explosives 

Du Pont Powder Co. 

E.l.bli.ked 1802 

530 Du Pont Bldg. 


Fig. 4 

Reduced from 7-inch single-column 

advertisement in a high-class 

farm paper. 

merchandise, opposed by 
of the regular marketing 




policy. It is comparatively easy to advertise a specialty, pro- 
tected perhaps by patent or copyright laws. Such a propo- 
sition has the advantage of the s})ecial occasion, the special 


HKRE are two j)i(tun'.s. 'J'lic one at tlie Icfl 
shows the tree set in blasted soil; at the right 
in spaded soil. Wliy tlic expanded root sys- 
tem, vigorous growth and assured earlier fruiting of 
the larger tree? Both arealikein name, nature and 
nursery cultivation. The deejier root penetration, 
greater spread and consequent larger feeding area is 


where the tree was planted. The compact, shallow , cramped root- 
bed of the tree in the spaded soil accoiint,>j 

V ^x'i":'?^ bed of the tree in the spaded soil accounts 

^f^'Z/'i'^j.^^ f""" 'he slow (growth, backward devcl- 

A.^ity-J "^^N 'K? opment and frequent first-year lo». 

Endorsed by 
Leading Orchardists 

Blasting tree holes is the 6. 
plan endorsed by Hale, »V/' 
"the ptach king," 
riarrison Bros. Nurseries, "^ 
Stark Bros. Nurseries and 
Orchards Co.. Louisiana, Mo. — 
the two largest in the country — 
and many other well-known, suc- 
cessful fruit growers. They have set 
thousands of trees in blast- 
ed soil. Kcw trees 
have died. WHY.' 
The mellowing and 


shattenng caused by blast-\ 
ing conserves moisture, 
permits a wider, deeper, bet- 
ter root growth and furnishes 
growing tree with an abundance 
of plant fr>od and moisture so needful the first year 
after transplanting. 

Plant Your Trees Right 

by following the plans of these experts, l-earn their ways 
It pays. Don't plant a tree this Spring without first 
reading our Tree Planting booklet No. 4^4-1". It's FREE. 


Established 1802 WILMINGTON. DFL.\W.\RE 

Fig. 5 
Reduced from 5-inch double-column advertisement 

need, the special article, and the special qualities. But if the 
article is one of ordinary wear, of which there arc hundreds of 
different makes, sold at prices varying from the very low to the 
very high, the problem is different and iiiore difficult. 

i<i*L' GENl'.KAL CAAll'AKiNS (;<> 

67. Continuous C'anipaigii.^ — When Julius Kayser & 
Company had i)crfected a silk jj;love for women which was 
thought to be j^ood enouj:;h to justif\' it, that com]jany formu- 
lated a sellin*^ polic)- which was to include an advertisinj^; cam- 
paign that should V)e continuous, and that should have as its 
goal the making of the name Kayser synonymous with silk 
gloves — that would cause the larger proportion of women who 
wear silk gloves to think of thcnn as Kayser gloves. 

The company took tlie ground that advertising is staling, 
and that an advertising campaign to be successful must take 
its place along with selling and distribution as one of the three 
chief elements in a real selling scheme. The advertising of the 
Kayser glove was planned to attract the attention of women 
at a time when they are most in the mood to bu}^ silk gloves. 
The principal appeal was to be to the woman's sense of value — 
the secondary' appeal, to her sense of style and dress. Every 
advertisement must tell the woman something of value and 
interest about the Kayser gloves in comparison with other gloves. 

68. Advertising to Sell. — In this plan it was insisted 
at the start that advertising merely as advertising was not to 
be considered at all. Advertising as advertising, this com- 
pany believed, is only of interest to advertising men. In look- 
ing over the field of advertising the company thought it detected 
a tehdency in advertising to appeal to professional advertisers, 
with too little consideration for the needs and dispositions of 
people who were to be the buyers. Therefore, it was decided 
that all the advertising done for the Kayser gloves must be 
in line with and supplementary to the definite sales policy that 
was to control the whole marketing work. 

This meant something of a departure from the generalh' 
accepted policy of other merchandising plans, and necessitated 
original plans and original men to work them. The adver- 
tising work was put into the hands of a man selected from the 
selling force. It was thought that he woiild find it easier to 
acquire a knowledge of the practical working of advertising 
than it would be for a professional advertising man to accom- 
modate himself to the Kayser sales policies. 


69. Employment of an Advertising Agency. — To pro- 
vide the proper distribution of the advertising, and the knowl- 
edge of the field and of methods necessan,' for the production 
of efficient advertising, it was decided to employ an agency to 
supplement the work of the advertising manager of the com- 
pany. The agency would supply all the strictly professional 
advertising knowledge necessar>', while the advertising manager 
would dovetail the advertising with the sales policies. 

The agency was employed not only to place the advertising 
produced by the advertising manager, but to suggest and write 
copy, to advise as to mediums and space and frequency of 
insertion, and to assist the selling department by making such 
in\'estigations in the field as can be better made by a modern 
service-agency organization. For example: The agency made 
an investigation in the field, after the advertising and sales work 
had had time to make its appeal known, which showed that 
in fifty principal cities over 80 jjer cent, of women who asked 
for silk gloves had been brought to ask for Kaysers, by name. 

70. Satisfaction to the liuyers.^ — ^The Kayser glove was 
developed with the idea that it should give complete satisfac- 
tion to the wearer. The whole selling plan is based on this 
principle. The buyer must be satisfied. Retailers are author- 
ized to use their discretion in dealing with all cases of apparent 
dissatisfaction, and whatever they find it advisable to do is 
indorsed by the Kayser Company, and the retailer is not only 
upheld but all of his losses on this account are made good by 
the company. 

The gloves are made with special care, to resist wear and to 
fit the hands and arms of the wearers. They are made to justify 
the advertising and the selling arguments, and the company 
assimies all risks of divergence from this fundamental policy. 
It holds the buyer blameless, and it holds the retailers blaine- 
less also, for any defects that are found in the gloves. It goe? 
further than this, and accepts the attitude and tastes of the 
buyers to the extent that they are made the final judges. It 
does not matter why a buyer is not satisfied. Her decision is 
sufficient and final. 


71. Advertising to the Consumer. — The advertising is 
planned to create consumer demand, and it is created and 
handled in close cooperation with the retailers. It is jilaced in 
a certain number of the standard women's publications, such 
as The Ladies Home Journal, The Pictoral Review, Vogue, The 
Delineator, and the quarterly fashion i^apers. These mediums 
are used to form a background for the selling plan and the more 
concrete newspaper advertising, and not necessarily for direct 
sales. They assist greatly in standardizing the name of Kayser, 
and in creating a general sentiment for and knowledge of the 
gloves throughout the country. 

From March to July the newspaper advertising is run in 
175 cities, and it is planned, written, and placed to produce 
definite results, through the retailers. This advertising tells 
the women something of the quality value in the Kayser gloves, 
and makes a direct appeal to their sense of style and dress. 
These two .motives control all the advertising, and they are 
alternated in the leading positions in the advertisements — -one 
advertisement may emphasize the wearing value of the gloves, 
but carry some distinct allusion to their style and beauty, while 
the next advertisement used in the same medium will put 
beauty and style at the top and give some small but attractive 
space to utilit}'. 

72. Covering- a City. — When a city is to be covered by 
advertising, a series of advertisements is prepared with special 
reference to that city, consisting of one full page and a series of 
smaller ones ranging from 10| inches across four columns to 
4 inches double colimm. Some time before these advertise- 
ments are used they are sent to all the retailers in the city, in 
a neat portfolio, with a number of proofs of electrotyped 
advertisements suitable for use with the advertising of the 
local merchants, and some proofs of cuts that are furnished free. 

With this portfolio goes a schedtde of the advertising to be 
done in that city, giving the names of the papers to be used, 
the number and dates of the insertions. The dealers are asked 
to cooperate with the company in whatever way they think 
best, and the company offers to cooperate with them. It offers 

206C— 27 

Be well. gloved for Easter 

Twelve thousand dealers and millions of women prefer 
Kayser Silk Gloves, not merely because they are the 
best known gloves in Europe and America, but because 
they have found out from actual experience that 
Kayser Silk Gloves wear better and fit better. 

Buy them now for Easter. See for yourself wliy more 
women wear them than all other silk gloves combined. 

Kayser Silk Gloves cost no more than the ordinary 
kind; two clasp gloves ar$ always 50c, 75c, $1.00, 
$1.25 and up; twelve and sixteen button lengths 
are always 75c, $1.00, %\.'&, $1.50 and up. The name 
"Kayser" is in the hem and with each pair is a guar- 
antee ticket that the tips will outwear the gloves. 

^ More .-lold all other ?ilk gloves combined 

Fig. 6 

This advertisement is practically perfect, in form and substance, as well as 
in its artistic elements. It is properly proportioned, harmonious in typography, 
correctly balanced. It is attractive as a picture, and has so little copy that it 
can be read almost while turning a leaf, or a page. The original was 10 inches 
long, H columns wide. 





them window-dressing service in the shape of designs and 
fixtures, cards, etc. Its salesmen make a thorough canvass of 
the territor}' contributory to the city, and act in conjunction 
with the retailers in everv wav. 

73. All Good Papers ITset!. — All of the good papers in a 
city are used for the 
campaign there. One 
paper gets the page ad- 
vertisement' the first 
day, and a 4-inch 
double-column adver- 
tisement the next day. 
Then it gets a large 
advertisement, perha])s 
the lO^-inch four- 
column advertisement. 
It gets a st\'le-and- 
beauty advertisement 
one day and a utility 
advertisement the next 
day . E ach of the papers 
has distinctive adver- 
tising. If a woman has 
all the papers published 
in the city where she 
lives, she will see a dif- 
ferent Kayser ad^^er- 
'tisement in each of 
them, each advertise- 
ment making its argu- 
ment in a different man- 
ner and in behalf of a 
different quality of the 
gloves. She will be told about the wearing quality of the double 
tip, the fit of the glove on the hand and arm, the quality of the 
silk used, that the name on the binding means a guarantee to 
her, how to wash them, etc. 

What we do to have your gloves 
absolutely perfect 

One girl, the first Kayser inspector, is paid % cent 
should she find a blemish in our silk fabric when it 
is cut ready to seam. 

The second is paid 1 cent a pair should she find a 
flaw after the glove is seamed. 

The next inspector gets 1 % cents a pair if she detects 
an imperfection. 

The fourth and final — the supervisor — receives 
2 cents a pair if she discovers the slightest defect. 

This is the care w'e take to have your silk gloves 
absolutely perfect. This is why we can guarantee 
every one of the millions of Kayser Silk Gloves 
which American women wear each season. 

Rerluced from 
in a newspaper. 

Fig. 7 
nch double-column advertisement 


74. Advertisoiiients Arc Attractive.^ — The Kayser 
advertisements are unusually attractive, and, also, they are 
laid out in strict conformity with the rules that have been made 
b\' the men who have studied advertising as an art and a science. 
The copy is brief, modest, clear, and convincing. It is so brief 
that it takes no more than 2 minutes to read the full-page 
advertisement. In it the company asserts that its goods are 
genuine, and that it is always ready to make its guaranty good; 
that it not only replaces gloves that are not satisfactory, and 

returns * purchase 
money if asked to do 
so, but that it tries in 
e\'ery way to make 
tlie gloves satisfac- 
tory. This fact is all 
the time brought into 
its advertising, and 
helps to make it 

iDash a pair of "cut pric<?"silk qlovo./". -\ 

then a pair of Kaijsoi 's . Tlie difference-^ 

ill tlu'ir appearance after one uiasliinc) lUilI 

shoii) i|ou u7lii| tliere ai-e more lVdl|se^^ 

qlo\'es uioni llian all other sillc gloves 



Use oiili| cold u)uler c>ndanif pure soop. Rinse 
iHell and iDrii^qoiit ina toiOel but Jo not uriist. 
Pull Iciiijlliu'ise, turn Inside out and lai| flat 
to dri). Do not liontj up ond iie\et kl .1 Kil 
iron toiicli thcni 

Fig. S 

Reduced from 4-inch double-column newspapc 
.< Ivertisement. One of the small advertiscmenls alter- 
nating with larger ones. The hand-lettering did not 
reproduce well in all newspapers. 

< .). Tlio Sales- 
men and tlie Adver- 

tisins'. — The Kayser 
com])any has 42 sales- 
men, and they are all 
advertising men. They 
work all the time in 
perfect harmony witli 
the advertising department, and second everv^ effort that is made , 
to arouse interest through advertising. All of the advertising is 
first "sold" to the selling force before it is used, and this is one 
of the chief functions of the adverti.sing manager. Complete 
harmony is maintained between the advertising and the selling. 

7G. (ietting the Dealer.s Interested. — The salesmen in 
their turn are expected to sell the advertising to the dealers. 
It is as much a part of their duties to sell the advertising to the 
retailers who handle the gloves as it is to sell them the gloves. 
The>' sell the services of the eom])any also. Tlie compan\' does 



not consider that its selling policy reaches no further than the 
sales to the retailers. It is as much concerned with the selling 
of the gloves by the retailers to the women as with selling tliem 
in bulk to the dealers. 

Therefore, it endca\'- 
ors to gain the good- 
will of the dealers to 
the end that the deal- 
ers will allow it to help 
them to sell to their 

77. Advertise- 
ments Copyrighted . 

The Kayser adver- 
tisements are cop}'- 
righted, but the name 
has not been pro- 
tected as a trade mark. 
The name is, however, 
one of the best trade 
marks in the countr>% 
and is as effectually 
protected in common 
law as it coiild be by 
the Patent Office ; and 
the Patent Office 
would not protect a 
mere proper name as 
a trade mark. It is 
yet an open question 
whether the design of 
an advertisement can 
be protected by copy- 
right entry. It has not been tested in the courts. It is inferred 
by some advertisers that copyright protection extends to adver- 
tisements, but the government has as yet given no assurance 
to that effect. However, it adds a bit of guarant\^-quality to 

Fig. 9 

Reduced from magazine advertisement 4JX7i inches 
in size. This is one of the advertisements that mav be 
used by the company in its advertising or by retailors 
as part of their own large advertisements. It is cleverly 
designed to have the appearance of a stereopticon 
picture, the white cut being thrown strongly out by 
the shaded background. The text very sharply brings 
out the value of the trade mark to the buyer. 


the advertisement to have it copyrighted, and does no harm 
at all. In reality the copyright notice printed on any ]>iece 
of literar\' or artistic propert\' is merely a notice to all inter- 
ested persons that the right of ownership will be defended 
against all attempts at larceny. 

78. .V Ciooil Campaign to Study. — This campaign is a 
good one to study. It is based on well-proved fundamentals. 
The goods are good, the methods are honest, the plans are 
scientific, and the results are ample. The advertising cam- 
paign is ver>^ firmly welded to the selling plans. The marketing 
plan includes advertising and selling, as well as manufacturing, 
and the general conduct of the business. 

The Ka3'ser people first visualized the American woman, 
and her needs in the way of silk gloves. Then they keyed all 
their operations to that conception. 

The sample advertisements, Figs. G, 7, 8, and 9, given in 
connection with this general campaign of ad\'ertising are worth 
careful stud\' and anah'sis. 


70. IJenioving- Error From the Piil)lie Mind. — A gen- 
eral ad\'ertising campaign is often undertaken to remove from 
the public mind some wrong ideas about certain goods. These 
wrong ideas may have ari.sen through prejudice, lack of full 
knowledge, or because the goods have been racHcalh- impro\-e(l 
since the opinion was formed. A fad is often taken up by the 
public, and allowed to influence trade to a \Try great extent. 
iVmericans have not yet freed themselves from the notion that 
goods imported from European countries are either better or 
more fashionable than American-made goods, though this con- 
dition largely cea.sed to exist a long time ago. American manu- 
facturers have tried various expedients to correct this impres- 
sion, without great success. Many of them have catered to it 
and fostered it by using labels to imitate foreign labels, or b}- 
actually shipping goods to foreign countries and then importing 


them. Foreign jobbers of certain lines of goods have had them 
manufactured in America, shipped to them and exported by 
them back to Anierica under their marks and labels. A few 
American manufacturers have had the courage and wisdom to 
challenge foreign-made goods on the basis of merit. 

80. Test or Quality as a Basis for Campaign. — Late 
in the fall of 1913 the perfumery and soap manufacturing con- 
cern of Colgate & Company decided to adopt a novel adver- 
tising plan, the basis for which was a test to-establish the relative 
quality of its perfumes used by women, as compared with some 
of the more popular iDrands of French perfumes. It had found 
it almost iinpossible to convince American society women that 
American perfumes were equal to those made in France. Their 
quality had been established in many ways, but still the French 
preparations were, and still are, sold in great quantities. This 
advertising campaign Vv^as planned as a part of the firm's regular 
policy of advertising, which is to advertise to promote, as a 
regular incident of the business, any sales campaign that may 
be decided upon. The company makes no specific advertising 
appropriation, nor does it figure to expend for advertising any 
fixed percentage of its gross business. It advertises its soaps 
and toilet preparations constantly and consistently, taking 
advantage of seasonable and trade conditions. 

81 . Women Make the Decision. — The test ])ro|X)sed was 
arranged to get the opinions of a group of women as to their 
liking for six selected perfumes, three made by the Colgate Com- 
pany and three i^opular French perfumes. Two prominent 
publisliers scrv^ed as judges in the tests. They bought at a 
popular store the six perfumes, made a record of their names 
and gave each a nimiber, then removed the labels. Only the 
judges knew which numbers applied to named perfumes. The 
six perfumes were compared by 103 women, representing busi- 
ness women, the stage, college women, editors of women's 
magazines, and others. Each was asked to compare all six 
perftimes and to express her preference by ntmiber, merely 
recording which scent she liked the best. 


The result of this test was strongly in favor of the Colgate 
perfumes. Though a large proportion of the women declared 
their preferences for foreign perfumes, and named those they 
habitually used, 61 per cent, of them chose Colgate perfumes 
as first. In fact, a majority of these women gave first, second, 
and third place to the domestic perfumes. 

82. Interesting- Test. — This test was interesting in more 
ways than one. It was, strictly, a psychological experiment. 
The women who made it had nearly all of them declared their 
preference for foreign perfumes, and yet when it came to the 
trial they showed that they could not distinguish the perfumes 
they had been buying and for which they had declared a prefer- 
ence. That perfimie which was most agreeable to their sense 
of smell was not the one they had bought and used. Why then 
had they bought the perfume they had used, and probably 
honestly thought they preferred? There is more than one 
possible explanation. Their mental predisposition may have 
actually made the foreign perfumes smell more agreeable to 
them. But the smell in that case must have been influenced 
by the sight. They saw the Fren'ch labels and imagined they 
preferred the scents the labels covered. The difl^erences between 
the senses are very subtle and hard to distinguish. Probably 
half of the sensations that we call taste are really senses of 
touch. It is almost impossible to distinguish between the 
senses of feeling and taste, in the matter of food that is taken into 
the mouth. So it may be assumed that the women who thought 
they preferred French perfumes reall}^ believed their judgment 
was based upon their sense of smell. But when the activit}' of 
the sense of sight was checked, by removing the labels from the 
bottles of perfume, the sense of smell had an opportunity to 
make a correct report as to the contents of the bottles. 

83. Science in Advertising. — This phase of this test 
suggests how valuable in advertising are some of the subtler 
uses of science. Probably the Colgate company could never 
have gained the ven' valuable indorsement of a group of women 
such as this if they had been asked to decide on the relati\'e 
merits of the perfumes knowing the identity of each sample. 

§22 GENERAL, CA-MrAlGNS 71) 

The utmost honest}^ of purpose would not have overcome the 
powerful suggestion of the foreign labels, coupled with their 
belief in the superior qualities of the foreign articles. People 
are made that way. Much of the satisfaction to be had from 
eating comes from the knowledge of what is being eaten. The 
strawberry from the grower's own garden is sweeter to him than 
to an outsider. The association of sense perceptions is something 
that shrewd advertisers must reckon with, and this Colgate test 
shows how profitable it is to take account of it in making plans 
for general advertising campaigns. 

84. Patient — ^This test was so thoroughly 
and carefully conducted that it took more than a year to get 
the results fully digested and rigidly verified, and the adver- 
tising campaign ready for the public. The copy for the first 
advertisement, giving the histor}- of the tests with an analysis 
of the results, was written and approved July 20, 1914, just a 
few days before the breaking out of the European war, which 
put a gloorii over all lines of business that depended in any 
degree upon commerce with the fighting European countries. 
Fortunately for itself, the Colgate company had but recently 
received very heavy shipments of essential oils for its perftmies, 
and did not allow the war to interrupt its interesting advertising 

The other lines of advertising, for dental cream, shaving 
soaps, toilet soaps, etc., which the concern normally did, were 
not suspended or interfered with. There was no special attempt 
made to create a furore, nor to undertake to discredit the per- 
fumes made in P'rance and England. The plan was to quietly 
let the women of America know what this jury of 103 American 
women had certified to as to their preferences. 

85. Tlie Advertisements. — The first advertisement gave 
a carefully prepared history of the test, with the results. It 
occupied pages in the November nimibers of The Ladies Home 
Journal, Woman's Home Companion, Pictoral Review, Vanity 
Fair, and Life. The first three magazines named were used to 
reach the great body of consumers of perfumes who wish to have 
best available goods. The two last mentioned were used to test 

so - MAXAi;i".Mi-:x r of ^-22 

the class demand, us it nii<;lit be callcil — to ascertain if women 
who perhaps were more influenced b>' custom and i^restige 
would be swayed by a jjlea leased strictlx' upon qualit>'. These 
No\^ember ]iublications were intended to ayjijccd to the holiday 
trade, and thus at once >;jet some merchandising; mo\'ement to 
justif}' the advertising. 

There was no advertising of this feature of the Colgate business 
in the December or January periodicals, but in the February 
numbers of Vogue and The Ladies Home Jounial there were half 
pages. The March Metropolitan third cover was used, in 
color. In the April Vogue and Vanity Fair, half pages were used. 
The back cover of The Pictorial Reviezc was used in May. In 
June the back covers of Life and Vogue were used, in colors, 
and half pages in The Ladies Home Journal and Red Book. 

86. The Cost. — The cost of this special campaign, sand- 
wiched in with the general work of the advertising and sales 
department, was not specifically kept, so that it is not possible 
to give it in detail. The cost of the special advertising done 
in the magazines for 6 months can be readily figured by apply- 
ing the rates to the schedule given in the previous paragraph. 
That, however, will not be of very much utility, since the adver- 
tising had not been finished, and will doubtless go on, in con- 
nection with the other advertising of the company, indefinitely. 
Like all the ad\'erti.sing of the Colgate company, it is educative 
in its nature, and is calculated to benefit all American makers 
of high-class perfumes. 

87. Tlio Kf roc( of t lie ( ainpa ign . — The real efficiency of 

this unique advertising camjiaign is ihc i)robability that it may 
help to rid the minds of American women of the fallacy that 
foreign -made goods arc therefore more to be desired. In this 
sense, this camjjaign has benefited several other lines of Ameri- 
can goods, as well as all the makers of good perfumes. The 
chief benefit will accrue to the Colgate company, because in 
the minds of the great mass of consumers there will still linger 
fictions regarding the value of Scotch and P'rench fabrics, 
Austrian glassware, French china, German chemicals, Russian 
brushes, Italian olive oils, French wines, etc. The direct 


tendencies of this campaign will be to give the Colgate perfumes 
something more of a vogme with women who are brave enough 
to neglect the psychologic charm of the French names and 
French labels. The campaigii will fall far short of its purpose 
if It does not implant in the minds of American women the 
wholesome principle that it is the quality of the contents of the 
bottle, rather than the optical cliami of tlie Frencli labels, which 
they should seek. 

88. This campaign cannot be estimated with the defmite- 
ness that can be applied to other advertising campaigns. The 
European war turned much trade into American channels, 
and also influenced many Americans to consider American 
products more favorably. It is likely that the sale of Colgate 
perfumery would have been somewhat larger after the declara- 
tion of war, irrespective of this advertising campaign, though 
It IS to be doubted if much more strictly American perfumery 
would have been purchased by the class of women that pinned 
their faith to the French labels. The drift toward Colgate 
perfumes was distinctly observable very soon after the campaign 
was fairiy under way. The company is conservative in its 
estimating of advertising influence. It regards advertising as 
essential, and does not attempt to assign proportions of trade 
increase to this or that campaign or advertisement. 

But there w^as a certain well-defined increase in sales of the 
particular perfumes dealt with in this test campaign which 
proved its efficienc3^ The effect had but just begun to be felt at 
the time this information was obtained, and the company felt 
that it had been eminently successful. It had added per- 
manently to its sales a certain ina'case which was expected to 

89. The Plan a Daring One.— Tiie plan itself was a 
danng one. Not only did the company pin its faith to its 
knowledge of the quality of its product, and risk an adverse 
verdict from the jury of women, but it faced a failure of the 
whole plan. It is a very difhcult and delicate undertaking 
to get 103 women to express definite opinions on anv subject, 
and a much more difhcult matter to get them to record those 

YOUR oun prt-fcriiKf in the 2^ 

matter of pertiimes should pass % 

judgment — anJ will do so if tl 

uninfluenced— as to what yOu really H 

prefer. The test described below shows p 

you how to decide this very personal A 

question to your absolute satisfaction— m 

just as it showed those who made t| 
the original test.' 

This test was niadebyibj iep'rescnt,i(i\c 
women, comparing six perfumes without 
.seeing the labels or knowing the names. 

Three of the perfumes were the most popu- 
lar foreign scents and three were domestic ; 
(Florient. Splendor and Eclat i. made h> 
Colgate & Company. 

Over 3^ of the 103 women chose Colgate >; 
but what is more signilkant is that belori.' 
making the test 61 of the lo3 said Ihey 
preferred a foreign perfume, yet when the 
influence of a foreign label was removed 4i ol 
the 61, or 2 3 of them, chose Culgate s Inst. 

Since this experiment was made thousands 
of women liave made the same test \Mth 
interesting results 

You too can make the test 

Let us send vnu three Perfumer's Teslinx Snips 
mi,.i.ilure vi.ils of llic three Oil.ijale Perfumes .iiij .111 
exlr.i TeslMig Sitip so Ihat vnu nuvc.imp~ii- IheNe 
new ColKatescenIs with the perfume viu .ite ivn\ 
using. The TesI Material will be seiii mi rec^ipi "I 
your lelter enclosing a 2c stamp for mailing. 

You will discover (as many others h.ive)llul in deh- 
iacv, in refinement, in individuality, and above all in 
thai indetinable vwhW/i/h^ which governs a mallei ol 
eh' ■ice. Colgate I'ei fumes e.\pi ess vouncal preference. 


Perfume Coi.leM Depl. H. 199 Fullon Sired. New YoiU 

fcMjWisticd in AnKfifj iSnTi 

A*.iiJ(d (juiid Pci«, Pji.-. ■.•)i<n 

In ii'ia 



Fig. 10 

Re4ucerl from Houhlp-rnlumn magazine a 'vrr- 
tisement. MJ inches deep. 





opinions i\nd consent to have them used for a commercial pur- 
pose. If the plan failed, or if the conclusions of the women 
had been against the comj^any, there would have been an 

Nobody' Knew Which Was Which 

Tlvso MX numbei^d boitlfS contained SIX diffcTc-ni pc-iiumci — 3 poi'u- 
lar imponed sceitts and 3 domestic. Splendor, Floiieiit and tclat, 
made by Colgate & Co. The six were compared by 103 women, 
representing busuiess women, the stage, college women and others. 
Each was asked to compare all six perfumes and to express her 
preference by number — jud'j;ing merely by which scent she liked 
best — with no names or labels to influence her. 

This is the Way They Chose: 

1st ChuiCe of 28 

voniL-n a,'s Floiit-nt 

Ist choic 

; of 12 wu 



Ul cliuict^ of 26 \ 

vonun ColgJlf 's Splendor 

1st choic 

e of 10 « ., 

rien Foieyi 

1st choice of 18 \ 

omen Foreign Perfume No 4 

1st choic 

• of 9 wo 

.en Coli;riU 

•s £i.l;it 

This test— which was absolutely impartial— shows very clearly that the supposed superi- 
ority of imported perfumes is not actual. With the inlluence of a foreign label removed, 
and choices made from fragrance alone, ColiJUte's Perfumes were chosen by more than J s 
of the women— thous^h most of them had said Iv/uiv llu- that they preferred imported 


You Can Make the Test 

Let us send'you full instructions, with three Perfumer's Testing Strips and miniature vials 
of the Colgate Perfumes, Floricnt, Splendor and Eclat, so that you may compare them with 
the perfume you are now using. This Test Material will be sent promptly«m receipt of 
your letter enclosing a 2c stamp for mailing. We are confident that it will convince you, 
too, that in fragrance, refinement and delicacy— and above all in that indelinable miicthiiig 
which governs matters of choice— you will find your preference is for 

Fig. U 
Reduced from magazine advertisement, size 8 inches by 10 inches 

eml^arrassing situation. But as it did not fail, and as the ver- 
dict was in favor of the com])any's product, it must be counted 
as one of the interesting applications of advertising methods 


to uncover to the public quality in goods advertised, and to 
establish for advertising the claims made for it as an agent 
that may be emplo}'ed to clarify dealings between advertisers 
of goods and bviyers of goods. 

90. Facts Were Skilfully Used. — The facts developed 
by this test were skilfully used in the advertising, as may be 
seen by referring to the samples shown in Figs. 10 and 11. 
There was no attempt to make capital against the foreign per- 
fumes. The natural inference was quite the opposite — that 
American enterprise had at last overcome the obstacles nature 
and commerce had placed in its path and succeeded in pro- 
ducing perfumes that were equal to those coming from France, 
where the art of perfume making had been developed for genera- 
tions, and where nature itself had conferred certain advantages. 
Commercial conditions in this country have rendered it unprofit- 
able to raise sufficient quantities of the flowers necessary for 
perfume making, and to extract from them the essential oils 
required. The problem for American perfimiers is therefore 
to build their business on the basis of imported fundamental 
materials. In 1 \'ear Colgate & Company imported the oils 
from more llian 1,-100 tons of rose petals. 

91. Adverti.sing May Sway Opinion. — This campaign 
teaches that if the proper methods are used, advertising may be 
employed to change the temper of mind of masses of people, 
to prepare them to receive sales arguments in favor of specified 
products. People are alwaj^s open to conviction. They always 
want to be shown. This campaign showed them, and there- 
fore it w^s bound to be a commercial success. It was frank, 
honest, straightforward in its plan andmethods, and no exagger- 
ated importance was placed on the results of the test that was 
made to furnish for it a foundation. 

Thinking that develops original ideas like this, is what marks 
the difference between the high-salaried advertising man and 
the 'ndifferent one. vSuch ideas may seem to come in a flash, 
but nine times out of ten they are the result of keeping the 
mind everlastingly alert towards one's business. 



92. Advertising for Indirect Results. — Some of the 
more important and successful advertising campaigns are 
planned without expectation of direct results, in sales that can 
be traced and estimated. They are undertaken to give the 
business a background of good marketing policy, and to estab- 
lish the name and quality of goods in the minds of the people 
so fiiTnly that when such goods are needed no other name will 
come into the mind. The cost of campaigns of this nature is 
figured into the general selling expense, just as are the salaries 
or commissions of the salesmen. There are many concerns 
that use advertishig in this sense. They do not look for returns 
that can be computed. They regard the advertising as part 
of their legitimate expense, incurred in their general plans to 
get their goods into the markets, and to get -a consumer demand 
for them. The most successful advertisers in this class employ 
advertising managers who are merchandisers as well as adver- 
tising men. Some of the concerns that have pursued this 
policy for many years have advertising managers who have 
grown up with the business. The modern trend is toward the 
development of expert merchandising ability as well as adver- 
tising ability. Sometimes these men are officers in the cor- 
]joration they serv^e, or are managers of sales. Such men seek 
to create a state of mind among a large number of piu-chasing 
people, and to cultivate the favorable consideration of retailers 
and jobbers. 

A campaign conducted for the purpose just mentioned is 
that of the International Silver Company, a description of 
which follows. 

98. IIi.stor.y of the Company. — Some 17 or 18 years ago 
the men connected with the Meriden Britannia Company 
bought U]:) several other manufacturers, and formed the Inter- 
national Silver Company. The men in the purchased com- 
panies who had made good records were taken into the new 
eomT)any, so that the officers and executives were all practical 

86 MANAr.KMP.NT OF " § -J'J 

men. These men owned most of the stock of the International 
Silver Company, and- have continued to hold it. There are no 
speculators in it. It was the object of the company, and of 
all the stockholders, to manufacture and sell silverware. This 
policy made it necessary that an intelligent advertising policy 
sliould be adopted. The advertising manager was a man who 
had been with the Britannia company several years, and he 
became a stockholder in the new company. He is still the 
advertising manager, but the basis of all his work is the market- 
ing end of the business. 

94, Growth of'tlie Compaiiy'.s Advertising. — The 

International Silver ComjDany Ijegan its advertising by spending 
$75,000 during the first year of its corporate existence. It has 
increased the amount until it is now spending about a quarter 
of a million dollars annually. But it does not appropriate a 
fixed suin, nor does it insist that its advertising cx])enditure 
shall amount to a certain percentage of its gross business. Its 
officers believe that advertising should be used to ]:)roduce in 
the puljlic mind a certain sentiment toward itself and tlie goods 
that it jjroduces, and between dealers and itself. To accom- 
plish this, its advertisements now a])ijear in about 50 of the 
best general niediums, about 400 country jxipers, about 15 trade 
papers, and in several of the best dailies that are published 
within the spheres of its retail stores. 

95. Foundations of the Business. — Back in the middle 
years of the 19th century there were several manufacturers by 
the name of Rogers in Connecticut who made good silverware. 
Some of them established some of the companies that eventualh- 
became the International Silver Company, and iViany of the 
brands of goods established under the name Rogers are still 
made by the present company, though there is but one brand 
of tableware which bears the brand 18^7 Rogers Bros., or is 
directly referred to in connection with a later trade mark, The 
18Jf7 Girl. While the International Silver Company has taken 
shrewd advantage of the reputations established by its con- 
stituent companies, and keeps the sentiment connected with 
them alive in its advertising, it has, by its own sound Imsiness 


policy, and its careful and honest advertising, created for its 
own name a very substantial reputation. Its name is signed 
to all the advertising for all the factories, and is a guarantee 
that the old-time reputation of the original companies is con- 
tinued, and strengthened by all the newer knowledge and 
processes of manufacture. 

96. Utilizing Sentiment. — There is always a sentiment 
in the minds of many people in favor of old things, and things 
made by concerns that have long been established. In silver- 
plated ware there has been a good deal of sham. This was 
especially true some years ago, when tnuch of the so-called 
silver-plated ware was merely washed with a solution in which 
a small amount of silver had been dissolved. But this Rogers 
Brothers company made genuine goods all through the era of 
sham, and made a reputation for square dealing. Thus its name, 
which had been legally acquired by the International Silver 
Company, had a large value as an advertising shibboleth. The 
Rogers Brothers goods were of course continued, and the Rogers 
Brothers reputation for good goods and fair dealing was jealously 
guarded and grafted onto the more modem business of this 

97. The atmosphere of the times around 1847 was studied 
carefully, and transferred to the advertising of the 20th century, 
thus appealing to the popvdar belief that, in merchandising at 
all events, those times were better than these. Many of the 
people who buy largely of silverware are quite likely to be at 
or past middle life. Even the silver for "newlyweds" is often 
bought by the parents, or even by the grandparents. People 
at about middle life, or past, think much of the "Good old 
times." They are inclined to believe that the merchants who 
served their fathers were better, that the manufacturers of 
those days made better goods. 

This sentiment is well imderstood by good merchants and 
manufacturers. They do not try to combat it. They study 
it and turn it to account. This is why this company has woven 
into its advertising the 1847 motive so persistently and so 

I L T 102C— 28 


98. Capitalizing llie Past. — The advertising of this com- 
pany has played up the 1847 motive very shrewdly and inter- 
estingly. The advertising manager has delved in the records 
of old New England to very interesting purpose. He has 
brought to light a mass of delightfully interesting social and 
business information about that period, and has so adroitly 
utilized it as to have given his advertising a very distinct char- 
acter of its own. It has not simply declared the qualities of 
the International silver, but it has appealed to the literary 
and historical tastes of people who have seen it, and it has 
always had this extra-advertising quality of interest and charm. 

Out of this idea of hitching the modern concern up with the 
reputation of the ancient house has come a very charming 
1847 girl, who is as pervasive and bewitching as Phoebe Snow, 
of the Lackawamia railroad. She has manifestly nothing to 
do with the silverware made by this company, and that is one 
reason why she has proved to be so valuable as an element of 
the advertising. She has helped, by her dainty personality, 
to get the silver idea into the minds of a great many people 
whose interest would not have been attracted by an ordinary 
advertisement. She is as charming, in a different way, as the 
wholesome Dutch girl who is so patiently, and so smilingly, 
serving Baker's chocolate. It is hard to estimate the value of 
a touch of pure charm, such as these three advertising girls — 
Phoebe Snow, the Dutch chocolate girl, and the Rogers 1847 
girl — in an advertising campaign, but it is great. 

99. Living Up to the Advertising. — It is the policy of 
the International Silver Company to live up to its advertising. 
Therefore, its advertising is very carefully planned and used. 
It is difficult to prepare, because the constituent companies 
forming the International company retain their fundamental 
and original policies. They are managed very much as they 
were when they were independent. They make different goods, 
of different values. One may make solid silver, standard in 
design and quality. Another may make good or low-priced 
plated ware, while still another may make specialties for jobbers 
or otlier distributors, which get into the consumers' hands 


A New Pattern— OLD COLONY 

TKe Old Colony is tJie highest achievement attained in silver plated ware. The 
design possesses individuality without sacriBce of simplicity or purity of outline. The 
pierced handle deserves especial attention. Appropnate for any time and place, it 
IS pre-eminently filled for Colonial and Old E-nglish dining rooms. Like all 


"Silver Tlate that Wears" 

it U made in the heaviest grade of silver plate, and is backed by the largest makers in 
the world, with an unqualified guarantee made possible by the actual test of 65 years. 
Sold by all leadine dealers. Send for illustrated catalogue " 

(tnleni3Ui>n:il Silver Co.. Successor) 


Fig. 12 
Reduced from standard magazine page size 


with the maker's mark, or some special stamp of the dealer 
handling the line ; and the factory making the line is named in 
the advertising, as well as the International company. 

This condition makes it possible to individualize the goods 
of any factory, or of the International company itself. It 
also makes it difficult to preach comparative quality. The 
product of the factory- making solid wares must not be praised 
at the expense of the plated wares turned out by another fac- 
tor}-; nor must these latter goods be exalted at the expense of 
the lower-priced product of the factory making specialties for 
souvenirs or prizes. 

100. Restrained Policy. — To some of the vivid adver- 
tisers of today the modest and restrained policy of this com- 
pany doubtless seems tame, and possibly ineffective. The 
record does not sustain such a view. 

101. Since its organization the business of the International 
Silver Company has practically doubled. In some localities, 
and as regards certain lines of goods, it has more than doubled. 
And it is to be remembered that it was a large, prosperous, well- 
organized and shrewdly conducted business when the amalga- 
mation took place. The increase has all come as a result of the 
marketing policy of the company; and the advertising is, and 
always has been, one of the chief elements in this policy; not, 
let it be always remembered, the chief, or controlling, element. 
The advertising has never dominated the selling or the manu- 
facturing policy. 

102. Value of Beauty. — It will be seen, by reference to 
the advertisements reproduced. Figs. 12, 13, and 14, that the 
chief characteristics of the advertising of the International Silver 
Company are beauty of form and illustration, simplicity and 
brevity of the text, and individuality. There are no special 
novel effects, yet there is a very high degree of distinction. 
The Rogers 1847 girl is always in evidence, and there is often 
a bit of alluring interior sTiown. There is the attraction of this 
character of decorative illustration, leading to charming pic- 
tures of two or three i^ieces of silver; there is the brief and^ 

^0^i:k§ lEi^m 


Silver 9^iaie that Wears' 

ie duesls admire 
tlie beauty of xje^ur 
silverware the stamp 

1847 Rogers Bros. 

on spoons,ibrKs,Kiirves,ek 
assures ipii of its quality 

Evervf piece backed. I57 
ail Linqualified guarantee 
made possible bi^ the acl- 
Lial test of over 0^ years 

Sold hif laadmaT)eaUrs. Send /or illus6n{ed QaialoAu'. E-23" 


Sua:e,sa>- / :3^HajuucL, Go. 

ffull line exJU. 

'^fta'Hbrld's Lat^iTHahx- of Sierhrui Siher amlJ-'laie, 
exliibiixd, aifhnawa.-Jhci&i: ExposHioxi- 


Fig. 13 
Reduced from standard magazine page size 


explicit text, inviting in its substance and inferences, but not 
at all insistive in its nature. The period illustration attracts 
pleased attention, the object illustration suggests the goods, 
the text makes the argument — the three major elements in the 
efficient advertisement. 

103. Advertising- All the Time. — The policy behind the 
advertising is simple. It is to advertise all the time, and in 
a large nimiber of good mediums. The advertisements are 
usually full pages in the national mediums and trade papers, 
and they are given preferred position when possible — back 
pages in full color, inside pages if back pages are not available. 
Periodically $10,000 is paid for a fourth cover of one general 
medium, and Advertising Manager Snow says it is the best 
advertising he does. The copy is written for women rather than 
for men, even when the advertisement is placed in periodicals 
read chiefly by men. The trade papers are used to keep in 
close touch with the dealers. The country papers are used for 
general publicity purposes, and to spread the knowledge of the 
Rogers Brothers 1847 silverware widely. 

104. Cultivating tlie Dealers. — ^A great deal of atten- 
tion is given to the dealers, and the advertising is all very 
carefully exploited with them. Advertising for dealers' use is 
prepared and furnished to them in plate form, free. They are 
given a great variety of other advertising material, and are 
helped in their window dressing, etc. All progressive adver- 
tising manufacturers now help the dealers in many ways. This 
company is thinking of some new way often enough to keep 
the dealers feeling friendly toward it. 

The company keeps men in the field for the special purpose 
of visiting the dealers and helping them, if opportunity offers. 
These men do not sell goods. They give their whole time and 
talents to the dealers' interests. They do not insist upon work- 
ing for the International silver, through dealers. They are 
ready, and able, to advise upon any merchandising problem, 
and they do that all the time. They are able to map out a 
complete selling, buying, advertising, working policy for any 
merchant who needs such assistance. 

'Silver Plate That Wears 



The "Vintage" is one of the most popular 
patterns that ever bore the trade-mark 



This brand of silver-plate is the Rradual devclopnicut of nearly sixty years' 
experience— Rogers Kios. being estal.lislied in 1S47 , o .. . 

There are imitations of our patterns, as well as the trade mark See thai you 
procure the geinime.sold by lea. ling dealers Write us for catalogue •'S-28." 

M1;KII>I.N HIIITAVM a ««►.. Merldcn. cJiin. lliiurumiouol Silver Co. Succi:»«or>. 


Fig. U 
Rcdutcd from standard magazine page size 


105. Tlie Ideal Relations. — This campaign is notable 
as an example of the ideal relation of advertising to a broad 
and acute policy of marketing, where stability and natural 
growth are sought, rather than spectacular but insecure progress. 

106. Quality and Truth in Advertising. — The adver- 
tising value of quality has always been known to be great. 
That is what has led to much of the misleading advertising. 
The assertions in advertising which are not justified by the 
goods are what constitute fraudulent advertising, and it is 
against this misleading advertising that the great campaign 
for "Truth in Advertising" has been launched by the Asso- 
ciated Advertising Clubs of the World. But it is not the readers 
of advertising who are the most severel}^ damaged by mislead- 
ing advertising, after all. It is the advertisers themselves. 
They are waking up to this truth, and now it is the large and 
intelligent advertisers who are doing the most to lift adver- 
tising out of its early reputation and to establish it upon a 
reputable business basis. It pays better to tell the truth in 
advertising. So we find some of the more interesting and 
productive general advertising campaigns based upon this 
shibboleth of truth in advertising, and that the goods of the 
big advertising concerns are being brought up to the maximimi 
of the statements made in advertising. These advertising 
campaigns have a very great social and economic value, apart 
from their value in selling goods for the advertisers. 


107. As an example of another plan that might be employed 
to reach the general public, a campaign will be outlined based 
on the following assumed conditions of the Mexican-American 
Coflfee Company. 

108. Former Trade Cliaiuiel. — The company has for 
years been selling its coffees in bulk through commission men 
and jobbers, has never attempted to popularize any of its goods 
as a distinct brand. Selling in bulk at a low figure to the job- 
bers, the product has gone direct from the jobbers to large 


retailers and has been sold to the consumer merely as coffee 
of three grades — "cheap," "good," and "best." Being sold 
without special name, the coffee has established no permanent 
market for itself. Whenever the retailer could buy bulk coffee 
a little cheaper than the coffee of the Mexican-American Coffee 
Company, he bought it and sold to his regular customers with- 
out any difficulty. As the customers did not know what coffee 
they had been buying, unless the new coffee was decidedly 
inferior in taste, the change from one to the other was easy for 
the retailer. This made the trade of the Mexican-American 
Company uncertain — ^made the demand for its goods dependent 
entirely on the price they made the jobbers. They had no 
hold on the consumer; the consumer belonged to the retailer, 
the retailer to the jobber, and the producer of the coffee got 
what he could. 

109. Plans of the Company. — The company owns large 
coffee plantations in Mexico, which include some unusually 
high plateaus that produce coffee of a superior grade. An 
altitude of between 3,000 and 4,000 feet is necessary in order 
to produce the best flavor in coffee. The company decides 
to popularize this high-land grade, to give it the name of 
Imperial Coffee, and to sell it in air-tight tin cans holding 
1 pound each, the retail price to be 45 cents a pound. 

110. Selling Points and the Marketing Methods. 

There are many good selling points connected with the product 
and marketing methods of this company. Firms engaged in 
roasting coffee for the trade enter the open market each season 
to find among the importations of new crops something that 
matches as closely as possible the grades they marketed the 
preceding season. This matching, though not always impos- 
sible, is very difficult, as a buyer may secure a portion of a 
certain crop this season, while next season that crop may go 
elsewhere, and the best the buyer can do is to produce a blend 
that may come near the original but is not exactly the same in 

The Mexican-American Company, marketing the product 
grown on its own soil, is able to provide the consumer with 


the same grade of coffee year after year. Having its own labor 
on the coffee plantations, the company can pick the coffee 
berries at various intervals all through the bearing season and 
get them at just the stage of full ripeness, making the coffee 
more nearly uniform than it would be if the crop were picked 
only two or three times during the season and many green and 
overripe berries were gathered. 

111. The coffee bean is merely one kernel of a berry much 
like a cherry in size and color. There are two kernels to each 
berry, and the berries grow in clusters. As the berries are 
gathered by the native pickers daily on the Mexican-American 
plantations, they are brought in and soaked in water overnight 
to soften the pod. On the following day, they are run through 
a pulping machine, which removes the outer skin, or pod. Then 
they are placed in a fermenting vat, where they are acted on 
chemically for from 24 to 30 hours, so as to loosen the pulp. 
The berries are then run through an immense tank, where they 
are thoroughly cleansed by a washing process, still, however, 
leaving the coffee bean incased in the inside hull, or parchment, 
as it is called, though the outside pulp has been washed off. This 
parchment entirely encloses the bean and serves as a protection. 

A gravity process is employed, by means of which the coffee, 
after being pulped and washed, is carried by the flowing water 
through a cement channel, or trough. The perfect beans, 
which are heavier, go to the bottom, while the dead, or imper- 
fect ones, rise to the surface and are carried away. This leaves 
only the perfect product for marketing. The coffee is then 
spread on an immense cement floor in the open air, where it is 
partly dried in the sun. Next it is placed in steam dryers, and 
after being thoroughly dried and still in the parchment, it is 
sacked ready for shipment. All this work is done on the plan- 
tation, in a large coffee-curing establishment equipped with 
modern machinery. The result is that Imperial Coffee, from 
the gathering of the berries to the shipping of the beans, receives 
the most careful attention and treatment. 

To send the coffee incased in the hull, or parchment, to the 
roasting plant is expensive, but the result is a better coffee. 


Green coffee readily absorbs dampness, and unless it is handled 
carefully while in transit, keeping it apart from the rest of the 
cargo from which it could become contaminated by the absorp- 
tion of odors, its fine flavor will be destroyed. For this reason, 
Irjiperial Coffee is shipped in the parchment, and much care 
is exercised in securing its transportation in vessels that are 
sanitary and have good facilities for keeping the green coffee 

112. While these careful methods have been followed for 
years, the concerns that purchase and roast coffees for the trade 
have not been willing to pay the Mexican-American Company 
what it feels it should have for this high-grade product. The 
company has therefore built a roasting plant of its own near 
New York City, with a view to beginning an advertising cam- 
paign, and playing a leading part in the marketing of its coffee. 

When the crop is received at the roasting establishment, 
the hull, or parchment, is removed by special machinery manu- 
factured for that purpose. The green coffee is then spread 
upon clean floors and allowed to remain there until it is thor- 
oughly dried and aged sufficiently to be roasted. It is roasted 
in immense cylinders under the direct supervision of an expert, 
who examines it constantly, as it must be removed the moment 
that it reaches a certain shade of brown. These cylindrical 
roasters allow only a minimum amount of the aroma to escape. 
After being cooled, the roasted coffee goes into a packing room, 
where it is weighed and packed in cans ready to be boxed, or 
crated, for shipment to the trade. 

Roasted coffee easily loses its strength and aroma. To pre- 
vent this loss, Imperial Coffee is put up in tin cans that are care- 
fully sealed. These packages are air-tight and moist-proof, and 
are made square and with screw tops to secure distinctiveness. 

These facts are related, because they should be incorpo- 
rated in the literature of the company in detail and as inter- 
estingly as possible, and also because they have an important 
bearing on the selling plan. 

113. New Trade Channel. — As this company is one of 
large capital, it will not be forced to cover the United States 


by cities or by states, but it may begin with a campaign 
covering the entire country. 

While coffees are sold by some large general supply houses 
direct to the consumer, it is obvious that this company should 
continue to have its products go through the hands of the 
retailer. Instead of having a mere executive ofhce in New- 
York, however, it is planned to have a general office there, to 
cut out the broker, and to organize a sales force to deal direct 
with jobbers and retailers. While it would seem to be a shorter 
route to the consumer if the compam^ sold direct to the retailer, 
it must be remembered that grocers buy regularly from cer- 
tain jobbers or wholesalers and are predisposed toward buying 
from these concerns. Furthermore, the jobbers and whole- 
salers, with their varied lines of goods to sell, can afford to send 
salesmen into territory where the salesmen of a specialty can- 
not afford to go. Therefore, while the Mexican-American 
Company may have its own salesmen to cover the grocery 
trade in all cities and towns of fair size, it is thought best to 
have all orders supplied through jobbers— to have the Mexican- 
American Company salesmen, when an order is secured, turn 
the order over to the retailer's jobber. In this way, the com- 
pany, while paying a jobber's profit, will get the benefit of the 
jobber's cooperation and the assistance of his salesmen. 

114. Creating tlie Demand. — Assuming that the prod- 
uct will be ready for sale in attractive packages when adver- 
tising has made sales possible, and that a sales force will be 
ready for business, the important question is how to create a 
demand for Imperial Coffee. 

Both men and women drink coffee, one perhaps as much 
as the other, but the man's preference in the case of an article 
of the kind is often the deciding factor. Impress a man, and 
he will likely suggest to his wife, his mother, or his house- 
keeper that she try some of the coffee. Therefore, mediums 
reaching both men and women may be used to advantage, 
though the campaign should be directed more particularly to 
women, since they are the usual purchasers of such goods. As 
persons at the head of homes are more likely than others to 


select the kind of coffee they drink, publications of the "family- 
circle" kind are the best for the advertising. The coffee is not 
of the cheap variety, yet it is not too costly for the average 
family to buy ; hence magazines reaching the great middle class 
may be used. 

The following list is made up: Eight-inch advertisement in 
Good Housekeeping; 7-inch advertisements in The Delineator, 
Ladies Home Journal, Woman's Home Companion, Today's 
Magazine for Wmnen, American; 7-inch advertisements, twice 
a month, in Christian Herald, Collier's, and Literary Digest. 

Probably no two advertising men would make up the same 
list for a campaign of this kind. The truth is that many of 
the general magazines are read by much the same class of 
people, and unless the advertiser has money enough to adver- 
tise in all, which might give more duplication than would be 
desirable, he must merely make a selection, using those that 
he believes reach the largest number of possible consumers 
at the lowest rate. That a magazine is not in the list of mediums 
used does not always indicate that it would not be a good 
medium for the advertiser; he may not have appropriation 
enough to use all promising mediums. Some advertisers alter- 
nate; that is, use Mwtsey's one month, McClure's the next, 
then back again to Mtmsey's, and so on through many of the 
magazines, in this way reaching a more varied audience than 
they would otherwise. 

Using the rates in force at the time of the publication of this 
Section, the space in the foregoing list would cost approximately 
$4,500 per month, assuming that the advertising would be 
continued through the year, and that the advertising agency 
retained the full commission allowed by the publishers. 

115. Selling Plan. — Mere advertising would be a long 
time in creating a universal demand for Imperial coffee. People 
are using other brands with more or less satisfaction; they 
know nothing of the new brand by its name, and the adver- 
tiser will have to take the initiative, unless he is prepared to 
drive ahead with big advertisements and by sheer force compel 
retailers to buy. A way of taking the initiative would be to 


send the interested consiimer a sample quarter-pound can, and 
in order that the effect of this sampHng may not be lost, the 
sample can may be sent on condition that inquirers will give 
their grocer's name and address. This gives the advertiser 
opportunity to bring pressure to bear on the grocer. He may 
inform the grocer that one of his customers is interested in the 
coffee and agree, if the grocer will place a small order, to give 
inquirers, for a limited time, orders on him for a free pound 
can, the grocer to be reimbursed by the company for all cans 
thus given out. This idea is good, because a free small sample 
will make the advertising bring more inquirers, and the free 
pound cans will make many friends for the coffee. While this 
method costs the advertiser something, the price of Ij pounds 
of the coffee amounts to little if a regular purchaser is gained. 
The user of a pound will surely give the coffee a fair trial; the 
result depends only on the merits of the goods. 

If the trial of the coffee proves satisfactory, the inquirer 
is likely to specify Imperial when more coffee is needed, and 
a customer has thus been gained. If the customer asks for 
the Imperial Coffee and is satisfied with no other, the grocer 
has no option but to supply the demand or risk losing trade, 
and if the grocer asks his jobber to supply Imperial the jobber 
will lose no time in filling the order. 

116. Style of Copy. — A series of advertisements should 
be used for advertising Imperial Coffee. Fig. 15 shows a 
specimen of appropriate copy. This is one of a series of 8-inch 
magazine-column advertisements. Another advertisement 
could emphasize the feature of shipping in the hull, or parch- 
ment, and so on. A neat booklet, giving an interesting descrii)- 
tion of the company's coffee lands, particularly of its high 
plateaus where Imperial Coffee grows, the methods of gathering 
and preparing for shipment, the roasting plant and processes, 
etc., would supplement the magazine advertising strongly. 
A color cut could be used, showing a coffee tree well laden with 
the ripe coffee berries. This booklet should be sent to each 
inquirer. One or two coffee beans enclosed in the original 
hull, or parchment, would, if sent along with the booklet, i^vove 




Fit for 

a King 

The best/-. "HIGt^tANDJOFTEEJ 

coffee grows V' ""'<:«, A>,Ej.™corraCa 
on the pla- 
teaus of the 
coffee lands. 

Most coffees are from low-land trees 
and are of only medium grade. 
Hitherto, the high-land coffees have 
been held for special trade. The 
maturing of our extensive mountain 
crops enables us to offer Imperial 
Coffee, a high-grade, high-land coffee, 
at a price just a little higher than 
that of ordinary coffee. 


"Costs a Little More 
But It's Better" 

Makes rich, brown, fragrant, cofiFee lack- 
ing in bitterness and has a delicate flavor 
all its own. Goes farther than ordinary 
coffees. Economical in the end. Shipped 
from the plantations in the hull, so that 
no odors may be absorbed. Roasted in 
our own roasting plant, under expert 
supervision and by a process that keeps 
the aroma in the berry. Packed only in 
1-pound, air-tight, square, screw-top, tin 
cans. Price, 45 cents. Accept no. substitute. 

Sample Can Free 

We want you to try Imperial CofiFee. 
Send us your name, address, and the 
name and address of your grocer, and 
receive free sample can, interesting coffee 
booklet, and specimen bean in original hull 

Mexican-American Coffee Co. 

2018 Third Avenue, New York, N. Y. 

Fig. lo 
Reduced from 8 inches, single column 

educational, and increase 
interest in Imperial Cofifee. 
This history of Imperial, 
from the time it is gathered 
from the mountain coffee 
trees by the native pickers 
to the delivery to the con- 
sumer, can be made as in- 
teresting as a magazine 

117. It is not neces- 
sary that all the sales work 
among grocers be carried on 
by the company's special 
salesmen or by the jobber's 
salesmen. In addition to a 
sales force sufficient to cover 
the jobbers and the prin- 
cipal grocers of the larger 
towns and cities, and the 
regular salesmen of the job- 
bers, the sales of Imperial 
should be helped by a good 
correspondence department 
in charge of an expert corre- 
spondent . This depart- 
ment should follow up the 
advertising vigorously with 
form letters and special let- 
ters to grocers and jobbers, 
and make use of good fold- 
ers and cards. 
, Good window cards and 
store signs should be made 
up for the grocers. Some 
competent demonstrators 
should be engaged to go 

206B— 24 


from city to city, demonstrating Imperial; and arrangements 
should be made with large grocers of each city to give space 
for a day for the demonstrator to make and serve Imperial 
CoflEee free to his customers as they come in, all sales made by 
the demonstrator to be credited to the retailer, of course. A 
clever demonstrator can, without undue insisting, sell many 
pounds of coffee in a day. Reading notices in local newspapers 
help these demonstrations, reaching many persons that do not 
see the magazine advertisements. 

Such a plan as this would probably have to be changed in 
some of its details as it is put into effect. When the coffee 
is well established in a city, it would be well to stop giving away 
samples. In time, the trade of the advertiser might be such 
as to enable him to "eliminate the jobber" and to deal direct 
with the retailer by correspondence and through occasional 
visits of salesmen, for, when demand has been created, continued 
good advertising will keep up trade. 


Note. — In this volume, each Section is conii)lcte in itself and has a number. This 
number is printed at the top of every page of the Section in the headline opposite the 
paj-e numl)er, and to distinguish the Section number from the page number, the Section 
number is preceded by a section mark (§). In order to find a reference, glance along the 
inside edges of the headlines until the desired Section number is found, then along the 
page numbers of that Section until the desired page is found. Thus, to find the reference 
"Advertising appropriation, §22, p3," turn to the Section marked §22, then to page 3 of 
that Section. 

A Analysis, Application of, §22, pS . 

for determining appropriation, §22, p4 
narrows field, §22, p23 
of article, §21, p2 
Antique paper, §18, p46 
Appeal, Lifetime of, §16, p36 
Appropriation, Analysis for determining, 
§22, p4 
Bringing expenditures within, §16, p43 
Arguments, Basis for, §22, p33 
Art and typographical treatment, §16, p61 
Article, Influence of, on circular matter, 
§18, p5 
Name of, §21, p22 
Atlantic Monthly campaign through direct 

advertising, §20, p53 
Attention value, §16, p2 

Addressograph campaign through direct 

advertising, §20, p59 
Admonition, Place of, in circular matter, 

§19, p34 
Advertised gOods benefit the retailer, §21, 

Advertiser linked to seller, §22, pl5 

must prove advertising, §22, pl7 

should help jobber, §22, p7 
Advertising appropriation, §22, p3 

campaign. Methods of handling, §22, pi 

concerned with all features of business, 
§22, p26 

copy. Form of, §21, p8 

Direct, §22, pl3 

Families accessible to, §22, p23 

manager 'and employer, ^22, p31 

manager and the agency, §22, p2 

manager. Conditions to be met by, §22, 

manager of firm handling publicity, §22, 

manager's problem difficult, §22, p34 

matters. Miscellaneous, §22, p26 

Methods of, §22, pll 

Seasonable, §2?, p21 

special selling agencies, §22, p22 

through agencies. Placing, §22, pi 

to consumer. Advantage of, §21, pl8 

value of letters, §22, p26 
Agencies and managers, §22, pi 

Exclusive, §21, p22 

Functions of, §22, p2 

Placing advertising through, §22, pi 
Agency and advertising manager, §22, p2 

The exclusive, §22, p8 

I L T 102C— 29 


Balance-sheet arguments, §22, p33 

Banks, Use of direct advertising by, §20, 

Bindings of catalogs and booklets, §18, plO 

Blotters, Use of, in direct advertising, 
§20, pll 

Body matter, IIow to arrange, §18, p65 
pages. Borders for, §18, p62 
pages. Circular matter, §18, p5S 
pages. Headings for, §18, p63 
pages. Leading of, §18, p55 
pages. Margins for, §18, p59 
pages. Sizes of type for, §18, p55 
pages. Use of subheads on, §18, p64 

Bold-faced type. Use of, in circular mat- 
ter, §18, p69 

Booklets, Definition of, §18, p2 
Use of, in direct advertising, §20, pl8 



Borders for circular matter, §18, i>53 
Broadsides, Use of, in direct advertising, 

§20, p23 
Buyer to be considered, %22, p28 
Buyers, Counting possible, §22, p22 

Campaign, Beginning the, ^22, pi 

Methods of handling advertising, §22, pi 

Value of experimental, %22, p30 
Campaigns in direct advertising. Typical, 

§20, p51 
Catalog layouts, §19, pl2 

matter. Determining character and posi- 
tion of, §19, p31 
Catalogs, booklets, and folders. General 
])]an of, §19, 1)1 

Definition of, §18, p2 

of luxuries, §19, p31 
, of staple goods, §19, p29 

Use of, in direct advertising, §20, pl4 
Channels, Selling through two, ^22, p7 
Chart, Purpose of, §21, pl3 
Circular matter. Classification of, §18, p2 

matter influenced by method of selling, 
§18, p4 

matter, Number of pages for, §18, plO 

matter. Planning, §18, p3 

matter, Size of, §13, p7 
Circularizing dealers' customers, ^22, p20 
Circulars for hand distribution, §18, p6 

Use of, by retailers and jobbers, §18, p5 

Use of, in direct advertising, §20, pl4 
Circulation, Distribution of, §16, pl3 

statement of large daily newspaper, §16, 

statement of national weekly, §16, i)12 

Table of, for various publications, §16, p2() 
Classification of mediums, §16, pll 
Clock campaign, §22, p44 
Cloth covers, §18, p33 
Cold colors, §18, p24 
Colgate toilet-soap campaign. ^22, p76 
Color design, Ivffect of subject on, §18, pJ8 

harmony, §18, p20 

schemes for inside pages for circular mat- 
ter, §18, p84 
Colors, Balancing, §18, p27 

Cold, §18, p24 

Contrasting, §18. p26 

Harmonizing, §18, p25 

Methods of combining, §18, p25 

Related and contrasted, §18, p21 

Warm, §18, p24 
Competition, Inventory of competitive 
trailc marks. §21, p32 

Concentration, §16, p7 

Conditions an advertising manager must 

meet, §22, p24 
Confidence, Reader, §16, p4 
Consignment, Selling on, §22, p21 
Consumer, Advertising an advantage to, 
§21, pl8 

orders taken by salesmen, §22, p22 
Contracts, Usual forms of, §16, p81 
Contrasting colors, §18, p26 
Cooperating with dealers, %22, pl9 
Copy, Arranging circular-matter, for print- 
er, §19. p41 

for circular matter, amount required, 
§19, p21 

for circular matter. Essentials of. §19, p36 

for circular matter. Estimating, §19, p4 

for circular matter. Writing of, §19, p21 

suitability. §16. p47 
Correlation. Methods of securing, §16, p54 

Practical example of, §16, p57 
Cover designs, Advertising value of, §18, 

designs. Drawn, §18, p34 

designs. Illustrated, §18, p35 

designs. Instruction of artist for, §18, 

designs. Relation of subject to, §18, p34 

designs. Type, §18, p34 

paper. Antique-finish smooth, §18, pjl 

paper. Crash-finish. §18. i)31 

paper. Dull-coated. §18, p31 

paper, Enameled. §18. p30 

-pajier finishes. §18. p29 

paper. Hand-made finish, §18, p32 

paper. Imitation-leather, §18, p33 

paper. Linen-finish, §18, p32 

paper. Onyx, §18, p32 

paper, Plate-finish, §18, p32 

papers. §18, p29 

stock. Effect of, on colors, §18. p40 

stock. Printing and embossing on dark, 
§18. p41 

stock, "Tipping on" on dark. §18, p41 

stock. Use of tints on dark. §18. p41 
Covering of territory, Thoroughness of. 

§16. p3S 
Covers. §18, p28 

Cloth. §18, p33 

Two-color. §18, p40 
Crash-linish paper, §18, p47 
Customers, Circularizing dealer's. §22, p20 


Data. File of material for. §19, p25 

for circular matter. Methods of securing, 
§19. p21 



Dealer work. Direct advertising used for, 

§20, 1.34 
Dealers and salesmen, (letting interest of, 
§-'2. |.16 
Cooperating with, §22, pl9 
Incfuiries referred to, %22, ii20 
Need of interesting, §22, pl8 
Relations with, ^22, p6 
Service to, §22, pl9 
Dealers' aids, Imprinting, §20. p46 
Dealing direct with retailer, §22, p8 
Deckle-edged papers, §18, p49 
Delusions to be met, Common, %22, p32 
Denionstrations and sampling, §22, pl3 
Direct advertising, §22, pl3 
advertising, Advantages of, §20, pi 
advertising alone may produce actual 

business, §20, i)32 
advertising appeals, Channels for, §20, p3 
advertising applied to specific problems, 

§20. p30 
advertising. Banks' use of, §20, ])37 
advertising for dealer work, §20, p34 
advertising in general campaign. §20, p3 
advertising. Means of, §20, p4 
advertising. Mechanical details of, §20, 

advertising. Not all, by mail, §20, p2 
advertising paves the way for salesmen, 

§20. p31 
advertising. Purpose and methods of, §20, 

advertising, Retailer's use of, §20, p36 
advertising, Typical campaigns in, §20, 

advertising. Use of, by manufacturer, §20, 

advertising. Wholesaler's use of, §20, p35 
-mail advertising, §16, p21 
-mail circulars, Size of, §18, i)9 
-mail service, §16, p75 
Directories, registers, etc., §16, p22 
Directors, Convincing, §22, p31 
Discounts and special rates, §16, p84 
Display-material service, §16, p77 
Distribution, §21. pi 3 
General advertisers' methods of, §21, pl4 
Methods of, §21, pl8 
of goods. Methods of, §22, p6 
Drawn cover designs, §18, p34 
Dull-coated book paper, Use of, §18, p45 
Dummy, Making the, §19, plO 
Dynamite campaign, §22, p58 


Elasticity of mediums, §16, p34 
Electro service, §16, p77 

Kmbossing cover derigns. §18, p35 
Employers, Relation of advertising man- 
ager to, §22, p31 
ICnameled book paper, §18, p44 

cover i)apcr, §18, p30 
Envelope enclosures. Use of, in direct ad- 
vertising, §20, p25 
Estimating copy for circular matter, §19, p4 

copy for illustrated pages, §19, plO 
Expenditures for advertising, §16, p23 
in various mediums. Estimated, §16, 
pp24, 25 
Experimental campaign, §22, p30 
Extracts and indorsements, §18, p68 


Families accessible to advertising, §22, p23 
Field narrowed by analysis, §22, i>2i 

Study of, §21, p2 
Flexibility, §16, p35 

Folders and envelope slips in follow-up, §20, 

Definition of, §18, p2 

Extra colors for, §19, pl6 

General plan of, §19, pl4 

Sizes of. §19, pl4 

Use of, in direct advertising, §20, p20 

Use of, with follow-up letters, §18, p5 
Follow-up system, Exj.ense of, §20, plO 

-up system. Number of letters in a, §20, 

-up system. Planning a, §20, p9 

-up system, time between letters, §20, pll 
Form letters. Cost of, §20, p7 

letters, Use of, in direct advertising, §20, 
Functions of an advertising agency, §22, p2 

of mediums, §16, p7 

General advertiser, §21, pll 

campaigns, §21, pi 

campaigns. Preliminary considerations of, 
§21, p2 

campaigns. What is meant by, §21, pll 
Good faith, Importance of, §21, p7 
Goods, Method of distribution of, §22, p6 

sold on consignment, §22, p21 


Habit and suggestion, §22, p28 

Hand-made or ripple-finish paper, §18, p47 

House organs, Use of, in dirrct advertis- 
ing, §20. p29 
-to-house distribution of samples a form 
of direct advertising, §20, p38 

Hues, §18, p22 



Illustrations for circular matter, §18, pl3 
for folders, Special, §19, pl6 
for inside pages, §18, p74 
Imperial coffee campaign, §22, p9-4 
Impression, Continuity of, §16, p34 

Effectiveness of, §16, p33 
Imprint and address in circular matter, 

§18, p53 
Index and table of contents for circular 

matter, §18, p54 
Indexing and putting in page numbers, §19, 

Indirect advertising, §16, p73 
Inducements, Offering, §2J, p30 
Initials, Use of, in circular matter, §18, p69 
Inquiries to dealers. Referring, §22, p20 
Insertions, Frequency of, §16, p63 
Inside pages of catalogs, booklets, etc., §18, 
pages, Typograiihy of, §18, pSO 
Interest, Reader, §16, p3 
Interesting dealers and salesmen, §22, pl6 

dealers in plan, §22, pl8 
International Silver Company campaign, 

§22, p8S 
Investment required. Consideration of, §21, 

Japan-finish paper, §18, p48 
Jobber helped by advertiser, §22, p7 
is a detriment. Where, §21, p20 
Office of, §21, pl9 
Jobbers and sellers. Study of, §22, p29 
Partial use of, §21, p20 


Kayser Glove campaign, §22, p67 


Laying out the job, §19, plO 
Layouts for catalogs, §19, pl2 

for folders, §19, pl8 
Letters, Advertising value of, §22, p26 

Business, §22, p26 
Linen-finish paper, §18, p47 
Linking advertiser to seller, §22, pl5 
Luxuries, Catalogs of, §19, p31 


Magazines and periodicals, List of, §16, pl4 

Use of, §22, pl2 
Mailing cards, Use of, in direct advertising, 
§20, p23 
lists in direct advertising, §20, p39 
lists. Sources of, §20, p39 
lists, value of. How to determine, §20, 

Maintenance of price, §22, p9 
Managers and agencies, §22, pi 
Manufacturers, Retailing by, §21, p21 
Manufacturer's selling conditions, %22, p9 

service to retailers, §21, p6 

use of direct advertising, §20, p38 
Marketing and selling related to general 
campaigns, §21, pi 

I)lan, Review and test of, §21, p9 

plans. The, §21, p3 
Mechanical possibilities, §16, p35 • 

Mediums, Art of choosing, §22, p24 

Classification of, §16, pll 

Contract relationships with, §16, p81 

Definition of, §16, pi 

Determining" efficient units of use in, 
§16, p37 

Direct cooperation of, §16, p77 

Elimination of, §16, p43 

Essentials of, §16, p2 

Functions of, §16, p7 

primary. Utilization of, §16, p37 

Rating of possible, §16, p36 

Relative importance of, §16, p36 

secondary. Utilization of, §16, p40 

Selecting, §22, p22 

Supplemental use of, §16, p73 

Use of, §16, p47 
Metallic colors, §18, p2S 
Methods of advertising. Applications of, 

§22, pll 
Middle-man, The, §21, pl9 
Motion-picture advertising, §16, p22 

Name of article, Importance of suitable, 
§21, p22 
should suggest quality and utility, §21, 

Sound of, §21, p22 
Newspapers, Use of, §22, pl2 
Novelties, Direct-advertising, §20, p28 
specialties, premiums, etc., §16, p22 

Official proofs. Correction of, §19, p48 

Onyx paper, §18, p48 

Order blanks, §20, p46 

Orders taken by salesmen. Consumer, §22, 

Outdoor advertising, §16, p21 

advertising. Use of, §22, pl3 
Overrun pages. Cutting down, §19, p43 

Package, Advertising value of the, §21, p24 
influences dealer. Attractive, §21, p25 


Packages, Experiences with good and bad, 

§21. p24 
Page arrangement in circular matter, §18, 
layouts, Making, §19, pll 
Paper, book, Sizes and weights of, §18, p43 
finishes, §18, p43 

Use of tints and colors, §18, p45 
Patent office. Requirements of, §21, p33 
Paving way for salesmen by direct adver- 
tising, §20, p31 
People, Study of. §21, p3 
Placing advertising through agencies, §22, 

Plate-finish paper, §18, p47 
Portfolios, Use of, in direct advertising, 

§20, p29 
Position, §16. p63 

Postage for follow-up matter, §20, p33 
Postal information. §20, p46 
Poster stamps. Use of, §20, p29 
Price maintenance, §22, p9 
Prices, §22, p9 
Primary colors. §18, p21 

mediums, Utilization of, §16, p37 
Printed matter, Care in selecting, %22. p27 
Printer, Arranging circular-matter copy 

for, §19, p41 
Profits must be demonstrated. §22, p32 
Programs, time tables, etc., §16, p22 
Proof corrections on circular matter, §19, 

dummy, Making up, §19, p43 
Publications, Attitude of, §21, p9 

Character and standing of, §22, p25 


Quality of product must be maintained, §21, 
of product. Necessity of, §21. p4 


Rate cards, §16, p89 

Rates, Table of relative basic, for differ- 
ent kinds of publications, §16, p90 
Reader confidence, §16, p4 

interest, §16, p3 
Referring inquiries to dealers, §22, p20 
Registration of trade-marks. Importance of, 

§21, p35 
Restricted selling. §22, plO 
Results, Production of, §16, plO 
Retailer and trade-marked goods, §21, p29 
Direct dealing with, §22, p8 
Use of direct advertising by, §20, p36 
Retailing by manufacturers, §21, p21 

Return post cards. Use of, in direct ad- 
vertising, S20, p43 

Rubber-heel campaign carried on by direct 
advertising, §20, p51 

Sales letterheads. Use of, in direct adver- 
tising, §20, 1)25 I 
Salesmen and dealers, Getting interest of, 
§22, pl6 
to take consumer orders, ^22, p22 
Salesmen's-helps service, §16, p75 
Sampling and demonstration, §22, pl3 
and selling, ^22, pl4 
Clasfcs of goods adapted to, ^22, pl4 
in direct advertising, §20, p30 
Seasonable advertising, §22, p21 
Seasonableness, §16, p67 
Secondary color, §18, p22 

mediums. Utilization of, §16, p40 
Selecting mediums, %22, p22 
Selection of mediums, Analysis of require- 
ments in, §16, p31 
of mediums, Basic principles of, §16, p23 
of mediums, Methods employed in, §16, 
Seller linked to advertiser, §22, plS 
Sellers and jobbers. Study of, §22, p29 
Selling agencies. Advertising special, §22, 
and sampling, §22, pl4 
conditions, Modern manufacturers', §22, 

method, Influence of, on circular matter, 

§18, p4 
Restricted, §22, plO 
through two channels, %22, p7 
Service to dealers, §22, pl9 
Shades and dark colors, §18, p22 
Short rating, §16, p82 
Solid backgrounds. Use of, §18, p34 
Space, §16, p62 
Special pages. Use of, §18, p77 

rates and discounts, §16, p84 
Specialties, Selling of, §21, p21 
Specialty-oil direct-advertising campaign, 

§20, p63 
Staple goods. Catalogs of, §19, p29 
Street-car advertising, §16, p21 
Store and window displays, §16, p21 
Subheads for circular matter, §18, p52 
Subjects, Logical treatment of, §19, p29 
Suggestion and habit, §22, p28 
Supercalendered paper, §18, p43 
Supplemental publicity. Direct advertising 
used for, §20, p30 
use of mediums, §16, p73 


Technical descriptions, Procuring, §19, p28 

Testimonials, Use of, in circular matter, 
§19, p37 

Tests of mediums, §16, p27 

Timeliness, §16, p68 

Tints and light colors, §18, p23 

Title pages, §18, p50 
pages. Drawn, §18, p53 

Trade-channel chart, §21, pl6 
channels, §21, pl5 
channels and conditions, §22, p6 
channels, Choosing, §21, p21 
channels. Manufacturer to consumer, §21, 

-mark appeal to consumer, §21, p29 
-mark, Constructive and protective force 

of, §21, p32 
-mark. Creation of, §21, p30 
-mark. Forcing use of, not best, §21, p30 
-mark must be simple and individual, §21, 

-mark prevents substitution, §21, p28 
-mark service to public, §21, p32 
-mark should be utilized, §21, p31 
-rflark should be. Wha*. ihc, ■■21, p32 
-mark. The ideal, §21, p28 
-marked goods and retailer, §21, p29 
-marks, §21, i)26 

-marks. Advantages and use of, §21, p2f) 
-marks, Clean hands in connection with, 
• §21, p33 

Trade-marks, Experienced advice on, de- 
sirable, §21, p34 
■marks. Importance of registering, §21, 

-marks. Inventory of competitive. §21, p32 
-marks, 'Patent-Office requirements for, 

§21, p33 
-marks. Preparedness in connection with, 

§21, p35 
-marks should refer to goods, §21, ]^27 
Type cover designs, §18, p34 
Typographical treatment, §16. p61 
Typography for circular matter, §18, p50 


Unadvertised goods. Consideration of, §21, 

L'nsuspected elements, ^22, p30 

Vellum-finish paper, §18, p48 


Warm colors, §18, p24 

Warming-pad campaign through direct ad- 
vertising, §20, p57 

Waste, Avoidance of, §16. i)9 

Wells-Fargo and Company Express pro- 
ducer-to-consumer campaign, §22, p36 

Wholesaler. Use of direct advertising by, 
§20, p35 


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